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No increased injury incidence in the German Bundesliga after the SARS-CoV-2 virus lockdown.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute of Sports and Preventive Medicine, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.

Introduction: The coronavirus lockdown in 2020 resulted in a worldwide suspension of professional sports. The first major professional football league to restart after the lockdown was the German Bundesliga. This study investigates whether the injury incidence increased after the restart of the season with only 9 days of regular preparation time and without any friendly matches in comparison to three control periods. Read More

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Corticosterone's roles in avian migration: Assessment of three hypotheses.

Horm Behav 2021 Jul 14;135:105033. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA; Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

While corticosterone (CORT) is often suggested to be an important hormone regulating processes necessary for avian migration, there has been no systematic assessment of CORT's role in migration. Prior to migration, birds increase fat stores and flight muscle size to prepare for the high energetic costs associated with long-distance flight. After attaining sufficient energetic stores, birds then make the actual decision to depart from their origin site. Read More

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Effects of Individual Changes in Training Distribution on Maximal Aerobic Capacity in Well-Trained Cross-Country Skiers: A Follow-Up Study.

Front Physiol 2021 28;12:675273. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Sports, Physical Education and Outdoor Studies, University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Norway.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate individual changes in training distribution and the subsequent effects on maximal oxygen uptake (VO). The participants were well-trained cross-country skiers who had performed a year with no substantial changes in training prior to this study. Six cross-country skiers, who were participants in a larger previous study, volunteered for a follow-up study. Read More

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Design and operation of a transportable Rb atomic fountain clock.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 May;92(5):054702

Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201811, China.

A transportable fountain clock with high reliability is important for high-precision time-frequency measurements. Because of its relatively small cold atoms' collision frequency shift and ease of attaining high quantum state preparation efficiency, the rubidium atomic fountain clock has an indicated higher stability and reliability. This paper reports the design and operation of a transportable rubidium atomic fountain clock developed by the Shanghai Institute of Optical and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science. Read More

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Characteristics of Prehospital Heat Illness Cases During the Annual Heat Wave Period in Telangana, India.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2021 Aug 9;36(4):385-392. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Objectives: Global warming and more intense heat wave periods impact health. Heat illness during heat waves has not been studied in the prehospital setting of a low- and middle-income country (LMIC). Early intervention in the community and in the prehospital setting can improve outcomes. Read More

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Study protocol: an open-label individually randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine prophylaxis for malaria among forest goers in Cambodia.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 7;11(7):e045900. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Introduction: In the Greater Mekong Subregion, adults are at highest risk for malaria. The most relevant disease vectors bite during daytime and outdoors which makes forest work a high-risk activity for malaria. The absence of effective vector control strategies and limited periods of exposure during forest visits suggest that chemoprophylaxis could be an appropriate strategy to protect forest goers against malaria. Read More

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[How to Resume Elective Orthopaedic Surgical Procedures during the COVID-19 Pandemic?]

Acta Med Port 2021 Mar 1;34(4):305-311. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Colégio de Ortopedia. Ordem dos Médicos. Lisboa. Serviço de Ortopedia e Traumatologia. Centro Hospitalar do Porto. Porto. Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar. Porto. Portugal.

This document was prepared by the College of Orthopedics of the Portuguese Medical Association with the aim of developing the guidelines on the resumption of elective surgical activity in Orthopedics during the COVID-19 pandemic. It sets the criteria that allow the prioritization of surgeries according to the severity of the clinical situation, based on existing and published classifications. Moreover, it provides an organizational model for patient preparation and describes the patient pathways in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative periods. Read More

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Fully Inkjet-Printed Biosensors Fabricated with a Highly Stable Ink Based on Carbon Nanotubes and Enzyme-Functionalized Nanoparticles.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jun 23;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193 Barcelona, Spain.

Enzyme inks can be inkjet printed to fabricate enzymatic biosensors. However, inks containing enzymes present a low shelf life because enzymes in suspension rapidly lose their catalytic activity. Other major problems of printing these inks are the non-specific adsorption of enzymes onto the chamber walls and stability loss during printing as a result of thermal and/or mechanical stress. Read More

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Non-invasive Assessment of Neurovascular Coupling After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Prospective Observational Trial Using Retinal Vessel Analysis.

Front Neurol 2021 14;12:690183. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a common complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and can lead to infarction and poor clinical outcome. The underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood, but animal models indicate that vasoactive metabolites and inflammatory cytokines produced within the subarachnoid space may progressively impair and partially invert neurovascular coupling (NVC) in the brain. Because cerebral and retinal microvasculature are governed by comparable regulatory mechanisms and may be connected by perivascular pathways, retinal vascular changes are increasingly recognized as a potential surrogate for altered NVC in the brain. Read More

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Dissociable theta networks underlie the switch and mixing costs during task switching.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Functional Neuroimaging Laboratory, School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

During task-switching paradigms, both event-related potentials and time-frequency analyses show switch and mixing effects at frontal and parietal sites. Switch and mixing effects are associated with increased power in broad frontoparietal networks, typically stronger in the theta band (~4-8 Hz). However, it is not yet known whether mixing and switch costs rely upon common or distinct networks. Read More

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Challenges in the design of electrochemical sensor for glyphosate-based on new materials and biological recognition.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 19;793:148496. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

LAQV-REQUIMTE/Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, R. Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, Porto 4050-313, Portugal. Electronic address:

Glyphosate (GLY) is the main ingredient in the weed killer Roundup and the most widely used pesticide in the world. Studies of the harmful effects of GLY on human health began to become more wide-ranging after 2015. GLY is listed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a carcinogenic hazard to humans. Read More

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Self-Administration of Drugs in Mouse Models of Feeding and Obesity.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jun 8(172). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego;

Preclinical studies in mice often rely on invasive protocols, such as injections or oral gavage, to deliver drugs. These stressful routes of administration have significant effects on important metabolic parameters including food intake and body weight. Although an attractive option to circumvent this is to compound the drug in rodent food or dissolve it in water, these approaches also have limitations as they are affected by drug stability at room temperature for extended periods of time, the drug's solubility in water, and that the dosing is highly dependent on timing of food or water intake. Read More

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[Bowel resections for Crohn's disease: developments over the last three decades].

Z Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Surgery, Universitätsklinikum Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Background: The present observational study demonstrates developments of surgery in Crohn's disease patients undergoing bowel resection at two tertiary referral centers during the recent 3 decades.

Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing intestinal resections were included. Exclusion criteria were: resection for malignancy, mere stoma formation and closure, bowel resections for other reasons than Crohn's disease, abdomino-perineal resections for anal fistula. Read More

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Fluorescence Assay for Tolyporphins Amidst Abundant Chlorophyll in Crude Cyanobacterial Extracts.

Photochem Photobiol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Tolyporphins are distinctive tetrapyrrole natural products found singularly in a filamentous cyanobacterial-microbial holobiont (termed HT-58-2) from Micronesia. The absorption and fluorescence features of tolyporphins resemble those of chlorophyll a, complicating direct analysis of culture samples. Treatment of the crude (unfractionated) organic extract (CH Cl /2-propanol, 1:1) of HT-58-2 cultures with NaBH in methanol causes reduction of the peripheral ketone auxochromes, whereupon tolyporphins (predominantly 7,17-dioxobacteriochlorins) exhibit a bathochromic shift (λ ~ 676 → ~ 700 nm) and chlorophyll a (a 13 -oxochlorin) exhibits a hypsochromic shift (λ 665 → 634 nm). Read More

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ODELAM: Rapid Sequence-independent Detection of Drug Resistance in Isolates.

Bio Protoc 2021 May 20;11(10):e4027. Epub 2021 May 20.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, USA.

Antimicrobial-resistant (Mtb) causes over 200,000 deaths globally each year. Current assays of antimicrobial resistance require knowledge of the mutations that confer drug resistance or long periods of culture time to test growth under drug pressure. We present ODELAM (One-cell Doubling Evaluation of Living Arrays of Mycobacterium), a time-lapse microscopy-based method that observes individual cells growing into microcolonies. Read More

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Utility of Porcine-Derived Xenograft as an Adjunct to Split-Thickness Skin Grafting in Lower-Extremity Wounds.

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2021 May;111(3)

Objective: Porcine-derived xenograft biological dressings (PXBDs) are occasionally used to prepare chronic wound beds for definitive closure before split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs). We sought to determine whether PXBD influences rate of STSG take in lower-extremity wounds.

Methods: Lower-extremity wounds treated with STSGs were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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Effect of root canal irrigant (sodium hypochlorite & saline) delivery at different temperatures and durations on pre-load and cyclic-loading surface-strain of anatomically different premolars.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 09 9;121:104640. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Unit of Endodontology, Division of Restorative Dental Science, UK.

Aim: To evaluate the effect of NaOCl (5%) and saline (control) irrigant delivery at different temperatures and durations on pre-load and cyclic-loading tooth-surface-strain (TSS) on anatomically different premolars.

Methodology: Single-rooted premolars (n = 36), root-canal-prepared in standard manner, were randomly allocated to six irrigation groups: (A1) NaOCl-21 °C; (A2) NaOCl-60 °C; (A3) saline-21 °C then NaOCl-21 °C; (A4) saline-60 °C then NaOCl-21 °C; (A5) saline-21 °C then NaOCl-60 °C; (A6) saline-60 °C then NaOCl-60 °C. A1-2 received nine 10-min irrigation periods (IP) with NaOCl; A3-6 received nine 10-min IP with saline, followed by 9 IP with NaOCl at different temperature combinations. Read More

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September 2021

Study on the Optimal Conditions for Long-term Storage of Melatonin Powder as an In-hospital Preparation.

Int J Pharm Compd 2021 May-Jun;25(3):258-262

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University, Tomita-cho, Koriyama, Fukushima, Japan.

Melatonin is often prescribed to children with epilepsy. It is supplied as an in-hospital preparation in Japan, but information on the storage conditions of such formulations is lacking. In this study, we used an analytical method to perform periodic measurements in order to establish expiration periods and storage conditions for compounded melatonin powder. Read More

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Young athletes: Preventing sudden death by adopting a modern screening approach? A critical review and the opening of a debate.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2021 Jun 28;34:100790. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes is a primary duty of sports cardiologists. Current recommendations for detecting high-risk cardiovascular conditions (hr-CVCs) are history and physical examination (H&P)-based. We discuss the effectiveness of H&P-based screening versus more-modern and accurate methods. Read More

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Estimating global burden of COVID-19 with disability-adjusted life years and value of statistical life metrics.

J Formos Med Assoc 2021 Jun 31;120 Suppl 1:S106-S117. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Global burden of COVID-19 has not been well studied, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and value of statistical life (VSL) metrics were therefore proposed to quantify its impacts on health and economic loss globally.

Methods: The life expectancy, cases, and death numbers of COVID-19 until 30th April 2021 were retrieved from open data to derive the epidemiological profiles and DALYs (including years of life lost (YLL) and years loss due to disability (YLD)) by four periods. The VSL estimates were estimated by using hedonic wage method (HWM) and contingent valuation method (CVM). Read More

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The latency of spontaneous eye blinks marks relevant visual and auditory information processing.

J Vis 2021 Jun;21(6)

Department of Psychology III, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Eye blinks are influenced by external sensory and internal cognitive factors, as mainly shown in the visual domain. In previous studies, these factors corresponded to the time period of task-relevant sensory information and were often linked to a motor response. Our aim was to dissociate the influence of overall sensory input duration, task-relevant information duration, and the motor response to further understand how the temporal modulation of blinks compares among sensory modalities. Read More

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Understanding the Factors Affecting Sustainable Energy Action Plan: A Case Study From the Covenant of Mayors Signatory Municipality in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:635980. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Logistics Management, İzmir University of Economics, İzmir, Turkey.

This study presents the case of a Metropolitan Municipality in the Aegean Region of Turkey, which undertook a series of initiatives to conduct projects on environmental protection and sustainability. This case study was conducted as two separate studies as a part of Horizon 2020-funded ECHOES project under Work Package 6, aiming to gain insight into the collective magnitudes of energy-related choices and behavior. The starting point of the process is marked, in 2015, by the municipality becoming a party to the Covenant of Mayors movement, joining around 8,000 signatories from over 50 countries. Read More

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Effectiveness of XP-Endo Finisher and passive ultrasonic irrigation on intracanal medicament removal from root canals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Oral Health 2021 06 9;21(1):294. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Hospital of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University, 56 Lingyuanxi Road, Guangzhou, 510055, China.

Background: XP-Endo Finisher (XPF) and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) are commonly used in intracanal medicament removal. The effectiveness of these two techniques needs to be compared, and evidence-based research should be conducted.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar up to December 20th, 2020. Read More

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Preparation of glutathione loaded nanoemulsions and testing of hepatoprotective activity on THLE-2 cells.

Turk J Chem 2021 28;45(2):436-451. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ege University, İzmir Turkey.

To improve bioavailability and stability of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds, nanoemulsions are good alternatives as delivery systems because of their nontoxic and nonirritant nature. Glutathione (GSH) suffers from low stability in water, where its encapsulation in nanoemulsions is a powerful strategy to its stability in aqueous systems. The aim of this study was to obtain nanoemulsions from the hydrophobic/hydrophilic contents of seed oil so as to improve GSH stability along with bioavailability of seed oil. Read More

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A comparison of motorcycle instructor candidate selection practices in the United States.

Authors:
Donald L Green

J Safety Res 2021 06 20;77:23-29. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Ed.D. Rider Choices, Motorcycle Rider Education Consulting, 60 Pewter Cir., Chester, NY 10918, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: An essential aspect of motorcycle rider education is how the instructor selection process impacts student learning, sometimes referred to as the human element, as it is a significant factor influencing curriculum success. Student and program achievements are partially contingent on instructors who understand the curriculum and facilitate student learning during instruction. Previous research on motorcycle rider education has emphasized a need for the examination of instructor selection and development, stating that quality education is reliant on instructors who are competent and qualified. Read More

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The effect of care transition pathway implementation on patients undergoing joint replacement during the COVID-19 pandemic: a quasi-experimental study from a tertiary care hospital orthopedic department in Beijing, China.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Jun 1;16(1):356. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Orthopedics, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had a massive impact on individuals globally. The Chinese government has formulated effective response measures, and medical personnel have been actively responding to challenges associated with the epidemic prevention and control strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the implementation of a care transition pathway on patients that underwent joint replacement during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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The Effect of Chlorhexidine Disinfectant Gels with Anti-Discoloration Systems on Color and Mechanical Properties of PMMA Resin for Dental Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 29;13(11). Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Prosthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-425 Wroclaw, Poland.

Chlorhexidine (CHX)-based dental hygiene products are widely used by dental patients. As these products may have long-term contact with denture poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) resin, anti-discoloration systems (ADSs) were included in them to prevent discoloration of the natural teeth and dental materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two newly designed CHX-containing gels with ADSs and two commercial products with ADSs (Curasept 0. Read More

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[Comparative analysis and research on composition of mulberry-sourced medicinal materials by fingerprint division total statistical moment method and information entropy].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 May;46(10):2547-2555

College of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine Changsha 410208, China Hunan Key Laboratory of Drug Gability and Preparation Modification of Traditional Chinese Medicine Changsha 410208, China Laboratory of Supramolecular Mechanism and Mathematic-Physics Characterization for Chinese Materia Medica,Hunan University of Chinese Medicine Changsha 410208, China.

The present work is to analyze the HPLC fingerprints of mulberry-sourced materials(Mori Ramulus, Mori Folium, Muri Cortex, Mori Fructus) using the fingerprint division total statistical moment method and information entropy, and to study the diffe-rences of the chemical components and the overall characteristics of the imprinting template in different parts of mulberry-sourced medicinal materials, so as to provide the basis for finding the effective substances in response to "homologous and different effect" of mulberry(Morus alba). The fingerprints of 24 batches of mulberry-related materials, such as Mori Ramulus, Mori Folium, Muri Cortex, Mori Fructus, were established, and the similarities and differences of the fingerprints were analyzed by calculating the division total statistical moment parameters and information entropy. The AUC_T, MCRT_T, VCRT_T and H values of 24 batches of mulberry-sourced materials were less than 0. Read More

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National immunisation campaigns with oral polio vaccine may reduce all-cause mortality: Analysis of 2004-2019 demographic surveillance data in rural Bangladesh.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Jun 24;36:100886. Epub 2021 May 24.

Health System and Population Studies Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Mohakhali, Dhaka, BD 1212, Bangladesh.

Background: West African studies have suggested that national immunisation campaigns with oral polio vaccine (C-OPV) may non-specifically reduce all-cause child mortality rate by 15-25%. We investigated whether C-OPVs had similar non-specific effects in rural Bangladesh from 2004 to 2019.

Methods: Chakaria, is a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in Southern Bangladesh. Read More

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Push-Out Bond Strength, Characterization, and Ion Release of Premixed and Powder-Liquid Bioceramic Sealers with or without Gutta-Percha.

Scanning 2021 6;2021:6617930. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Restorative Sciences, University of Costa Rica, Montes de Oca, San José 11502, Costa Rica.

Objective: To evaluate the push-out bond strength of premixed and powder-liquid bioceramic sealers with or without gutta-percha (GP) cone.

Materials And Methods: Radicular dentin samples were prepared from 80 single-rooted human teeth. After root canal preparation using ProTaper® and irrigation with NaOCl and EDTA, teeth were divided according to the root canal sealer ( = 20): AH Plus®, EndoSequence® BC Sealer™, ProRoot® Endo Sealer, and BioRoot™ RCS. Read More

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