3,309 results match your criteria prenatally exposed

Machine learning model on heart rate variability metrics identifies asymptomatic toddlers exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy.

Physiol Meas 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

GYNOB, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, Washington, UNITED STATES.

Objective Although the Zika virus (ZIKV) seems to be prominently neurotropic, there are some reports of involvement of other organs, particularly the heart. Of special concern are those children exposed prenatally to ZIKV and born without microcephaly or other congenital anomalies. Electrocardiogram (ECG) - derived heart rate variability (HRV) metrics represent an attractive, low-cost, widely deployable tool for early identification of developmental functional alterations in exposed children born without such overt clinical symptoms. Read More

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Biologics and small molecules in the management of psoriatic arthritis: Reproduction related issues in female and male patients.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2021 May 13:1-11. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Rheumatology, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway.

STRACT: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is the musculoskeletal manifestation of psoriatic disease, an inflammatory systemic disease with a high incidence in the reproductive years. Biologic and targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) as well as 'small molecules', are increasingly used to treat subtypes of PsA. Safety concerns exist in the field of fertility for PsA patients since the literature shows discordant results toward the influence of anti-psoriatic drugs. Read More

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Characterizing the role of early alcohol re-exposure in associations of prenatal alcohol exposure with adolescent alcohol outcomes.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Syracuse University, Department of Psychology, Syracuse, NY, USA.

Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure has been linked to a host of negative outcomes, although it remains largely unknown whether prenatal exposure leads to earlier age of alcohol use initiation and/or exacerbates early alcohol initiation. The current study examined whether adolescents exposed to heavy drinking during gestation began drinking earlier than their non-exposed peers and whether earlier age of alcohol re-exposure in adolescence exacerbated associations with alcohol outcomes.

Methods: Adolescents (17 years of age; 57% female; 96% White) from a longitudinal, population-based cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), reported on their age at first whole drink and alcohol behaviors. Read More

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Cleft Lip and/or Palate in Infants Prenatally Exposed to Opioids.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2021 May 7:10556656211013687. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and odds ratios for cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) among infants prenatally exposed to opioids with or without neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS).

Design: This study represents an exploratory, retrospective cohort study design of newborn medical health records from 2011 to 2016.

Setting: Records were drawn from a regional health system located in South Central Appalachia. Read More

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EDCs Reorganize Brain-Behavior Phenotypic Relationships in Rats.

J Endocr Soc 2021 May 18;5(5):bvab021. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Institute for Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712, USA.

All species, including humans, are exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Previous experiments have shown behavioral deficits caused by EDCs that have implications for social competence and sexual selection. The neuromolecular mechanisms for these behavioral changes induced by EDCs have not been thoroughly explored. Read More

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Maternal exposure to a high-magnitude earthquake during pregnancy influences pre-reading skills in early childhood.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9244. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile.

Exposure to an adverse prenatal environment can influence fetal development and result in long-lasting changes in the offspring. However, the association between maternal exposure to stressful events during pregnancy and the achievement of pre-reading skills in the offspring is unknown. Here we examined the association between prenatal exposure to the Chilean high-magnitude earthquake that occurred on February 27th, 2010 and the development of early reading precursors skills (listening comprehension, print knowledge, alphabet knowledge, vocabulary, and phonological awareness) in children at kindergarten age. Read More

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Double Jeopardy: Young adult mental and physical health outcomes following conception via genocidal rape during the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 15;278:113938. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Human Development Nursing Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 S. Damen Ave., MC 802, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA. Electronic address:

Rwandans conceived by rape during the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi have endured a violent beginning and a troubled childhood. Given compelling evidence of the influence of prenatal environments and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on future health, these individuals are at high risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes. The purpose of the study was to characterize mental and physical health outcomes in young adults who were exposed prenatally to maternal stress due to the genocide in general and those conceived by genocidal rape, and to determine whether ACEs compound these effects. Read More

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Neurocognitive outcomes following fetal exposure to chemotherapy for gestational breast cancer: A Canadian multi-center cohort study.

Breast 2021 Apr 15;58:34-41. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

CHES, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Limited knowledge exists on outcomes of children exposed prenatally to chemotherapy for breast cancer (BC). The purpose of this study was to compare long-term neurocognitive, behavioral, developmental, growth, and health outcomes of children exposed in-utero to chemotherapy for BC.

Methods: This is a multi-center matched cross-sectional cohort study involving seven cancer centers across the region of Southern Ontario (Canada), and the Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario). Read More

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Children prenatally exposed to alcohol and other drugs: what the literature tells us about child welfare information sources, policies, and practices to identify and care for children.

J Public Child Welf 2020 Oct;1(24)

James Bell Associates, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Many parents who interact with the child welfare system present with substance use issues, which means their children are at risk for prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs. Because child welfare agencies play an important role in identifying and providing services to mitigate negative impacts of prenatal exposures, we conducted a search for literature addressing child welfare information sources, policies, and practices related to this population. The search yielded 16 research/evaluation and 16 policy/practice papers, with most addressing exposures to both alcohol and other drugs. Read More

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October 2020

Unexpected Term Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Admissions and a Potential Role for Centralized Remote Fetal Monitoring.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Section of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's Service Line, Ochsner Health, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Objective:  Centralized remote fetal monitoring (CRFM) has been proposed as a method to improve the performance of intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring and perinatal outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether CRFM was associated with a reduction in unexpected term neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions.

Study Design:  A pre-post design was used to examine the effectiveness of CRFM which was implemented in stages across five hospitals. Read More

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Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome after prenatal exposure to maternal hematological malignancies with or without cytotoxic treatment.

Child Neuropsychol 2021 Apr 20:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Gynecologic Oncology Amsterdam, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Data on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children exposed to hematological maternal cancer with or without treatment during pregnancy are lacking. A total of 57 children, of whom 33 males and 24 females, prenatally exposed to hematological malignancies and its treatment, were invited for neuropsychological and physical examinations at 18 months, 36 months, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 years of age. Oncological, obstetrical, neonatal and follow-up data of these children were collected. Read More

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Language delay was associated with a smaller head circumference at birth in asymptomatic infants prenatally exposed to the Zika virus.

Acta Paediatr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Clinical Research, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Aim: Our aim was to analyse 12-month outcomes of children who were prenatally exposed to the Zika virus and asymptomatic at birth.

Methods: This was an observational, exploratory study of infants exposed to the Zika virus during gestation and born between March 2016 and April 2017 without congenital Zika syndrome. They were followed until the age of 22 months. Read More

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Prenatal exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A follow-up study in the Norwegian mother, father and child cohort.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

PharmacoEpidemiology and Drug Safety Research Group, Department of Pharmacy, and PharmaTox Strategic Initiative, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: To estimate the association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children in preschool and primary school, and prenatal exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by timing and duration.

Methods: This study was based on the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR) and the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). NSAID exposure was identified by maternal self-report in pregnancy. Read More

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Neurobehavioral, neurochemical and synaptic plasticity perturbations during postnatal life of rats exposed to chloroquine in-utero.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Apr 16;86:106982. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Biotranslational Research Group, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Malaria Research Laboratories, Institute for Advanced Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Despite reports that quinoline antimalarials including chloroquine (Chq) exhibit idiosyncratic neuropsychiatric effects even at low doses, the drug continues to be in widespread use during pregnancy. Surprisingly, very few studies have examined the potential neurotoxic action of Chq exposure at different points of gestation or how this phenomenon may affect neurophysiological well-being in later life. We therefore studied behavior, and the expression of specific genes and neurochemicals modulating crucial neural processes in offspring of rats exposed to prophylactic dose of Chq during different stages of gestation. Read More

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Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances through human milk in preterm infants.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138, Bologna, (BO), Italy.

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are environmental contaminants that have been shown to exert toxic effects, which are dependent upon concentration, in animals and humans. No specific data on the exposure of preterm infants to PFASs are available. We aimed to quantify the potential exposure of preterm infants to PFASs through human milk (HM), to be compared to the exposure data recently reported for infants by EFSA. Read More

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Parental Lead Exposure Promotes Neurobehavioral Disorders and Hepatic Dysfunction in Mouse Offspring.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, 6205, Bangladesh.

Lead (Pb) induces neurotoxicity in both children and adults. Children are more vulnerable to Pb toxicity than adults. Little is known about the effects of Pb on the mental health of the children who are prenatally exposed. Read More

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The effect of a natural disaster on handgrip strength in prepubertal Indian children exposed to a severe cyclone during the prenatal and early postnatal growth.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 2;11(1):7473. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Anthropology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.

Natural disasters (NDs) experienced by women and their children during prenatal and infant growth may have long-lasting effects on offspring's development. Handgrip strength (HGS) is one of the measures of muscular strength and an indicator of health status. This study compared HGS in children exposed to cyclone Aila in India during their prenatal and infant growth compared to a control group from a non-affected, adjacent area. Read More

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Alterations in Tau Protein Level and Phosphorylation State in the Brain of the Autistic-Like Rats Induced by Prenatal Exposure to Valproic Acid.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 22;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Cellular Signalling, Mossakowski Medical Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawińskiego 5, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficient social interaction and communication besides repetitive, stereotyped behaviours. A characteristic feature of ASD is altered dendritic spine density and morphology associated with synaptic plasticity disturbances. Since microtubules (MTs) regulate dendritic spine morphology and play an important role in spine development and plasticity the aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations in the content of neuronal α/β-tubulin and Tau protein level as well as phosphorylation state in the valproic acid (VPA)-induced rat model of autism. Read More

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Differential Disrupting Effects of Prolonged Low-Dose Exposure to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane on Androgen and Estrogen Production in Males.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 19;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Histology, Cytology, and Embryology, Federal State Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119435 Moscow, Russia.

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is the most widespread, persistent pollutant and endocrine disruptor on the planet. Although DDT has been found to block androgen receptors, the effects of its low-dose exposure in different periods of ontogeny on the male reproductive system remain unclear. We evaluate sex steroid hormone production in the pubertal period and after maturation in male Wistar rats exposed to low doses of o,p'-DDT, either during prenatal and postnatal development or postnatal development alone. Read More

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Preschool Language Development of Children Born to Women with an Opioid Use Disorder.

Children (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;8(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Health Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8041, New Zealand.

Increasing evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to opioids may affect brain development, but limited data exist on the effects of opioid-exposure on preschool language development. Our study aimed to characterize the nature and prevalence of language problems in children prenatally exposed to opioids, and the factors that support or hinder language acquisition. A sample of 100 children born to pregnant women in methadone maintenance treatment and 110 randomly identified non-exposed children were studied from birth to age 4. Read More

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Low-Dose Exposure to Endocrine Disruptor Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) Affects Transcriptional Regulation of Adrenal Zona Reticularis in Male Rats.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2021 Mar 31;170(5):682-685. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Research Institute of Human Morphology, Moscow, Russia.

The study examined transcriptional regulation of adrenal zona reticularis development in male Wistar rats exposed to low doses of endocrine disruptor dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) prenatally and postnatally. At pubertal age, zona reticularis demonstrated a retarded growth with a low proliferative activity of its cells. At this age, zona reticularis was characterized with overexpression of β-catenin by steroid-producing cells; a high percentage of cells with membrane and cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin, and reduced number of cells with nuclear β-catenin attesting to insufficient activation of Wnt signaling. Read More

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Potential influence of prenatal 2.45 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on Wistar albino rat testis.

Histol Histopathol 2021 Mar 25:18331. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Neurobiology of Biomedical Research Center of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice, the Slovak Republic.

An ever-increasing use of wireless devices over the last decades has forced scientists to clarify their impact on living systems. Since prenatal development is highly sensitive to numerous noxious agents, including radiation, we focused on the assessment of potential adverse effects of microwave radiation (MR) on testicular development. Pregnant Wistar albino rats (3 months old, weighing 282±8 g) were exposed to pulsed MR at a frequency of 2. Read More

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Scholastic achievement among children enrolled in the Seychelles Child Development Study.

Neurotoxicology 2020 12 14;81:347-352. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA.

The Seychelles Child Development Study is a longitudinal cohort study following a group of 779 children exposed prenatally to methyl mercury (MeHg) through a maternal diet high in fish. The cohort has been examined six times beginning in infancy with no consistent evidence of adverse effects. In fact, their performance resembles what would be expected from normal children of comparable ages growing up in western cultures. Read More

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December 2020

Brain and plasma amino acid concentration in infant rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 15;93(2):e20190861. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Centro de Investigaciones Cerebrales, Universidad Veracruzana, Médicos y Odontólogos, s/n, Col. Unidad del Bosque, 91010 Xalapa, Veracruz, México.

Autism spectrum disorder is associated with alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. Here, we aimed to determine the concentration of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, taurine, and glycine in brain tissue and plasma of rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA), a well-characterized experimental model of autism. Pregnant rats were injected with VPA (600mg/Kg) during the twelfth-embryonic-day. Read More

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Detection of prenatal alcohol exposure using machine learning classification of resting-state functional network connectivity data.

Alcohol 2021 Jun 11;93:25-34. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, United States; Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, United States.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), a wide range of physical and neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), is recognized as a significant public health concern. Advancements in the diagnosis of FASD have been hindered by a lack of consensus in diagnostic criteria and limited use of objective biomarkers. Previous research from our group utilized resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure functional network connectivity (FNC), which revealed several sex- and region-dependent alterations in FNC as a result of moderate PAE relative to controls. Read More

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Prenatal exposure to maternal depression is related to the functional connectivity organization underlying emotion perception in 8-10-month-old infants - Preliminary findings.

Infant Behav Dev 2021 Mar 10;63:101545. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Electronic address:

Emotion perception is critical for infant's social development. Mother's mood during pregnancy has been associated with infants' emotional developmental risks. Graphtheory analysis was applied on EEG data recorded from 35, 8-to-10-month-old-infants prenatally exposed to high or low depressed symptoms, while viewing happy and sad faces. Read More

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Placental DNA methylation profiles in opioid-exposed pregnancies and associations with the neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.

Genomics 2021 Mar 9;113(3):1127-1135. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI, USA.

Opioid abuse during pregnancy can result in Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome (NOWS). We investigated genome-wide methylation analyses of 96 placental tissue samples, including 32 prenatally opioid-exposed infants with NOWS who needed therapy (+Opioids/+NOWS), 32 prenatally opioid-exposed infants with NOWS who did not require treatment (+Opioids/-NOWS), and 32 prenatally unexposed controls (-Opioids/-NOWS, control). Statistics, bioinformatics, Artificial Intelligence (AI), including Deep Learning (DL), and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses (IPA) were performed. Read More

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Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and neurological impairment at 10 years of age among children born extremely preterm: a prospective cohort.

BJOG 2021 Mar 7. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Objective: To determine the association between prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and neurological impairment at 10 years of age among children born extremely preterm (<28 weeks of gestation).

Design: The Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn (ELGAN) Study, a prospective cohort.

Setting: Ten-year follow-up of extremely preterm infants born at 14 US hospitals between 2002 and 2004. Read More

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Association between Genetic Variants in and Genes with Congenital Zika Syndrome and Severe Microcephaly.

Viruses 2021 02 20;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular (PPGBM), Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 91501-970, Brazil.

Zika virus (ZIKV) causes Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) in individuals exposed prenatally. Here, we investigated polymorphisms in , and genes as risk factors to CZS. Forty children with CZS and forty-eight children who were in utero exposed to ZIKV infection, but born without congenital anomalies, were evaluated. Read More

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February 2021