17 results match your criteria preflight assessments

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Characterization of Long-range Aeromedical Transport and Its Relationship to the Development of Traumatic Extremity Compartment Syndrome: A 7-year, Retrospective Study.

Mil Med 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Center for COMBAT Research, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Background: Military aeromedical transport evacuates critically injured patients are for definitive care, including patients with or at risk for developing traumatic compartment syndrome of the extremities (tCSoE). Compartment pressure changes of the extremities have not been determined to be associated with factors inherent to aeromedical transport in animal models, but the influence of aeromedical evacuation (AE) transport on the timing of tCSoE development has not been studied in humans. Using a registry-based methodology, this study sought to characterize the temporal features of lower extremity compartment syndrome relative to the timing of transcontinental AE. Read More

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January 2021

Assessment of Jugular Venous Blood Flow Stasis and Thrombosis During Spaceflight.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 11 1;2(11):e1915011. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.

Importance: Exposure to a weightless environment during spaceflight results in a chronic headward blood and tissue fluid shift compared with the upright posture on Earth, with unknown consequences to cerebral venous outflow.

Objectives: To assess internal jugular vein (IJV) flow and morphology during spaceflight and to investigate if lower body negative pressure is associated with reversing the headward fluid shift experienced during spaceflight.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study included 11 International Space Station crew members participating in long-duration spaceflight missions . Read More

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November 2019

Health needs of refugee children identified on arrival in reception countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2019 11;3(1):e000516. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Paediatrics, Emma Kinderziekenhuis AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The worldwide number of refugees has considerably increased due to ongoing wars, national instability, political persecution and food insecurity. In Europe, about one-third of all refugees are children, an increasing number of which are travelling alone. There are often no systematic medical health assessments for these refugee children on entry in reception countries despite the fact that they are recognised as an at-risk population due to increased burden of physical and mental health conditions. Read More

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September 2019

Preflight Risk Assessment for Improved Safety in Helicopter Emergency Medical Service Operations.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2019 Sep;90(9):792-799

Adverse weather and poor visual cues are common elements in night-time Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) operations contributing to spatial disorientation and fatal accidents. Pilots are required to make weather-related preflight risk assessments to accept or reject a flight. This study's aim was to develop predictive risk assessment tools based on historical accident data to assist the decision-making process. Read More

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September 2019

The NASA Twins Study: A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight.

Science 2019 04;364(6436)

Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

To understand the health impact of long-duration spaceflight, one identical twin astronaut was monitored before, during, and after a 1-year mission onboard the International Space Station; his twin served as a genetically matched ground control. Longitudinal assessments identified spaceflight-specific changes, including decreased body mass, telomere elongation, genome instability, carotid artery distension and increased intima-media thickness, altered ocular structure, transcriptional and metabolic changes, DNA methylation changes in immune and oxidative stress-related pathways, gastrointestinal microbiota alterations, and some cognitive decline postflight. Although average telomere length, global gene expression, and microbiome changes returned to near preflight levels within 6 months after return to Earth, increased numbers of short telomeres were observed and expression of some genes was still disrupted. Read More

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Spaceflight-Associated Brain White Matter Microstructural Changes and Intracranial Fluid Redistribution.

JAMA Neurol 2019 04;76(4):412-419

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, College of Health and Human Performance, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Importance: Spaceflight results in transient balance declines and brain morphologic changes; to our knowledge, the effect on brain white matter as measured by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), after correcting for extracellular fluid shifts, has not been examined.

Objective: To map spaceflight-induced intracranial extracellular free water (FW) shifts and to evaluate changes in brain white matter diffusion measures in astronauts.

Design, Setting And Participants: We performed retrospective, longitudinal analyses on dMRI data collected between 2010 and 2015. Read More

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NK cell function is impaired during long-duration spaceflight.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 04 1;126(4):842-853. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Arizona , Tucson, Arizona.

Maintaining astronaut health during space travel is paramount for further human exploration of the solar system beyond Earth's orbit. Of concern are potential dysregulations in immunity, which could increase the likelihood of cancer and latent viral reactivation. Natural killer (NK) cells are critical effectors of the innate immune system, and their function and phenotype are important to immunosurveillance of nascent tumors and latent viral infections. Read More

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Forecasting post-flight hip fracture probability using probabilistic modeling.

J Biomech Eng 2018 Aug 16. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

NASA John H. Glenn Research Center, Low-gravity Exploration Technology Branch, Cleveland, OH, 44135.

A probabilistic model predicts hip fracture probability for post-flight male astronauts during lateral fall scenarios from various heights. A biomechanical representation of the hip provides impact load. Correlations relate spaceflight bone mineral density (BMD) loss and post-flight BMD recovery to bone strength. Read More

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Escaping behavior in goitered gazelle.

D A Blank

Behav Processes 2018 Feb 21;147:38-47. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Research Center for Ecology and Environment of Central Asia, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan; Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresources in Arid Land, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, China. Electronic address:

Prey species modify their behaviors in response to predation risks to minimize their vulnerability and enhance their survival. When a predation risk arises, gregarious, open-habitat-dwelling ungulates usually increase their vigilance rate and enlarge their herd sizes, which are the two antipredator responses that are most often investigated. However, other reactive responses, as well as prey risk assessments and escape strategies depending on a predator's approach behavior, are less explored. Read More

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February 2018

Preflight, In-Flight, and Postflight Imaging of the Cervical and Lumbar Spine in Astronauts.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2018 Jan;89(1):32-40

Background: Back pain is a common complaint during spaceflight that is commonly attributed to intervertebral disc swelling in microgravity. Ultrasound (US) represents the only imaging modality on the International Space Station (ISS) to assess its etiology. The present study investigated: 1) The agreement and correlation of spinal US assessments as compared to results of pre- and postflight MRI studies; and 2) the trend in intervertebral disc characteristics over the course of spaceflight to ISS. Read More

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January 2018

Postflight reconditioning for European Astronauts - A case report of recovery after six months in space.

Musculoskelet Sci Pract 2017 01 14;27 Suppl 1:S23-S31. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Postflight reconditioning of astronauts is understudied. Despite a rigorous, daily inflight exercise countermeasures programme during six months in microgravity (μG) on-board the International Space Station (ISS), physiological impairments occur and postflight reconditioning is still required on return to Earth. Such postflight programmes are implemented by space agency reconditioning specialists. Read More

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January 2017

Decreases in thymopoiesis of astronauts returning from space flight.

JCI Insight 2016 08 4;1(12):e88787. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

Adult Stem Cell Transplant Program, University of Miami Sylvester Cancer Center, Miami, Florida, USA.

Following the advent of molecular assays that measure T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) present in recent thymic emigrants, it has been conclusively shown that thymopoiesis persists in most adults, but that functional output decreases with age, influencing the maintenance of a diverse and functional T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Space flight has been shown to result in a variety of phenotypic and functional changes in human T cells and in the reactivation of latent viruses. While space flight has been shown to influence thymic architecture in rodents, thymopoiesis has not previously been assessed in astronauts. Read More

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Carotid and Femoral Artery Intima-Media Thickness During 6 Months of Spaceflight.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2016 May;87(5):449-53

Introduction: The objective was to determine the effects of 6 mo of microgravity exposure on conduit artery diameter and wall thickness.

Methods: Diagnostic images of the common carotid artery (CC) and superficial femoral artery (FA) were obtained using echography which astronauts performed on themselves after receiving minimal training in the use of ultrasound imaging. Echographic video was recorded using a volume capture method directed by a trained sonographer on the ground through videoconferencing. Read More

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Personal exposure to JP-8 jet fuel vapors and exhaust at air force bases.

Environ Health Perspect 2000 Mar;108(3):183-92

National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

JP-8 jet fuel (similar to commercial/international jet A-1 fuel) is the standard military fuel for all types of vehicles, including the U.S. Air Force aircraft inventory. Read More

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Space and cognition: the measurement of behavioral functions during a 6-day space mission.

Aviat Space Environ Med 1993 May;64(5):376-9

Neurological Department, University Clinic, Innsbruck, Austria.

We measured nonspecific (attention, mental flexibility, psychomotor speed) and visuospatial cognitive processing in a single case study during a 6-d visit on the Russian orbital complex MIR, using computer-based psychometric tasks. Reaction times and accuracy scores showed only minor, nonsignificant changes between preflight, flight, and postflight assessments. These results suggest that several behavioral functions, among them complex visuospatial processing skills, remain essentially intact on short space visits, provided that the performing subject experiences no symptoms of space motion sickness or other physical impairments. Read More

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Ultrasound techniques in space medicine.

Aviat Space Environ Med 1987 Sep;58(9 Pt 2):A69-73

Institute for Biomedical Problems, Moscow, USSR.

Ultrasound examinations have been performed on 15 cosmonauts who have remained in orbit for flights ranging from 2.5 to 8 months in duration. Soviet researchers have combined hemodynamic assessments with parallel attempts to develop improved ultrasound techniques and equipment for use onboard space stations. Read More

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September 1987

Effect of Skylab missions on clinical and microbiologic aspects of oral health.

J Am Dent Assoc 1976 Aug;93(2):357-63

Clinical and microbiologic measures of oral health were assessed in all crew members of each Skylab mission. Clinical factors included preflight and postflight clinical services, provisions for in-flight emergency dental care, and the preflight and postflight monitoring of alterations in clinical indexes of oral health. Microbiologic measures included the preflight and postflight monitoring of changes in microbial populations at various intraoral sites. Read More

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