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The Combination of Disease Duration to Age at Diagnosis and Hemoglobin A1c to Serum C-Peptide Reactivity Ratios Predicts Patient Response to Glucose-lowering Medication in Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study Across Japan (JDDM59).

J Diabetes Investig 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetology, Endocrinology, and Nephrology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.

Aims/introduction: Knowing the collective clinical factors that determine patient response to glucose-lowering medication would be beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to explore the combination of clinical factors involved in its therapeutic efficacy.

Materials And Methods: Results of cohort studies retrieved using the CoDiC database across Japan from January 2005 to July 2018 were analyzed based on criterion that using insulin therapy indicates severe type 2 diabetes. Read More

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Subjective experiences of bicyclists being passed by motor vehicles: The relationship to motor vehicle passing distance.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Apr 5;155:106102. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Transport Studies, Faculty of Engineering, Monash University, VIC, Australia; Amy Gillett Foundation, VIC, Australia.

Background: Feeling unsafe when riding a bicycle is a key barrier to cycling participation. To better understand the experiences of cycling on-road, this study aimed to explore the relationship between cyclists' subjective experiences and the lateral passing distance of motor vehicles.

Methods: An on-road observational study was conducted in Victoria, Australia. Read More

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Radiomics predicts risk of cachexia in advanced NSCLC patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Br J Cancer 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Cancer Physiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA.

Background: Approximately 50% of cancer patients eventually develop a syndrome of prolonged weight loss (cachexia), which may contribute to primary resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). This study utilised radiomics analysis of F-FDG-PET/CT images to predict risk of cachexia that can be subsequently associated with clinical outcomes among advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with ICI.

Methods: Baseline (pre-therapy) PET/CT images and clinical data were retrospectively curated from 210 ICI-treated NSCLC patients from two institutions. Read More

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Assessing probabilistic modelling for wind speed from numerical weather prediction model and observation in the Arctic.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 7;11(1):7613. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Technology and Safety, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9019, Tromsø, Norway.

Mapping Arctic renewable energy resources, particularly wind, is important to ensure the transition into renewable energy in this environmentally vulnerable region. The statistical characterisation of wind is critical for effectively assessing energy potential and planning wind park sites and is, therefore, an important input for wind power policymaking. In this article, different probability density functions are used to model wind speed for five wind parks in the Norwegian Arctic region. Read More

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Rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep rebounded and related factors during positive airway pressure therapy.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 7;11(1):7599. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710038, Shaanxi Province, China.

This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and predictors of increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep or slow wave sleep (SWS) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) following positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. The study retrospectively analyzed data from patients with OSA who underwent both diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) and pressure titration PSG at the Tangdu Hospital Sleep Medicine Center from 2011-2016. Paired diagnostic PSG and pressure titration studies from 501 patients were included. Read More

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Pulmonary infection after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in children: a risk estimation model in China.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Apr 7;16(1):71. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No.136, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yuzhong Dis, Chongqing, 400014, P.R. China.

Objectives: The occurrence of pulmonary infection after congenital heart disease (CHD) surgery can lead to significant increases in intensive care in cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) retention time, medical expenses, and risk of death risk. We hypothesized that patients with a high risk of pulmonary infection could be screened out as early after surgery. Hence, we developed and validated the first risk prediction model to verify our hypothesis. Read More

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CLASSIFICATION AND REGRESSION TREE ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTING PROGNOSIS IN WILDLIFE REHABILITATION: A CASE STUDY OF LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS ().

J Zoo Wildl Med 2021 Apr;52(1):38-48

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

The spirochete bacterium serovar Pomona is enzootic to California sea lions (CSL; ) and causes periodic epizootics. Leptospirosis in CSL is associated with a high fatality rate in rehabilitation. Evidence-based tools for estimating prognosis and guiding early euthanasia of animals with a low probability of survival are critical to reducing the severity and duration of animal suffering. Read More

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DeepDigest: Prediction of Protein Proteolytic Digestion with Deep Learning.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

CEMS, NCMIS, RCSDS, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P. R. China.

Proteolytic digestion of proteins by one or more proteases is a key step in shotgun proteomics, in which the proteolytic products, i.e., peptides, are taken as the surrogates of their parent proteins for further qualitative or quantitative analysis. Read More

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New Tmc1 deafness mutations impact mechanotransduction in auditory hair cells.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53706.

Transmembrane channel-like protein isoform 1 (TMC1) is a major component of the mechano-electrical transducer (MET) channel in cochlear hair cells and is subject to numerous mutations causing deafness. We report a new dominant human deafness mutation, p.T422K, and have characterized the homologous mouse mutant, p. Read More

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Machine-Learning Predictions of High Arsenic and High Manganese at Drinking Water Depths of the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern Continental United States.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

U.S. Geological Survey, 215 Limekiln Road, New Cumberland, Pennsylvania 17070, United States.

Globally, over 200 million people are chronically exposed to arsenic (As) and/or manganese (Mn) from drinking water. We used machine-learning (ML) boosted regression tree (BRT) models to predict high As (>10 μg/L) and Mn (>300 μg/L) in groundwater from the glacial aquifer system (GLAC), which spans 25 states in the northern United States and provides drinking water to 30 million people. Our BRT models' predictor variables (PVs) included recently developed three-dimensional estimates of a suite of groundwater age metrics, redox condition, and pH. Read More

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Establishment and validation of a nomogram model for predicting the survival probability of differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients: a comparison with the eighth edition AJCC cancer staging system.

Endocrine 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Purpose: This study aimed to develop a clinically predictive nomogram model to predict the survival probability of differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients and compare the value of this model with that of the eighth edition AJCC cancer staging system.

Methods: We selected 59,876 differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2015 from the SEER database and separated those patients into a training set (70%) and a validation set (30%) randomly. We used Cox regression analysis to build the nomogram model (model 1) and the eighth edition AJCC cancer staging model (model 2). Read More

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Risk estimation of sexual transmission of Zika virus-United States, 2016-2017.

J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA.

Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) can be transmitted sexually, but the risk of sexual transmission remains unknown. Most evidence of sexual transmission is from partners of infected travelers returning from areas with ZIKV circulation.

Methods: We used data from the U. Read More

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Experimental underwater quantum key distribution.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):8725-8736

In recent years, the feasibility of quantum key distribution (QKD) in a water channel has been verified by theory and experiment. Here, we present an experimental investigation of QKD and decoy-state QKD based on the BB84 protocol. The experiment was carried out in a 10 m water tank. Read More

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Conditioned pain modulation predicts persistent pain after knee replacement surgery.

Pain Rep 2021 Jan-Feb;6(1):e910. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: Persistent pain after total knee replacement is an underestimated outcome leading to significant health burden. Sensory testing has been explored to help surgeons in decision making and better patient selection. Patients with different chronic pain syndromes exhibit a poor descending pain inhibition that can be quantified through experimental paradigms (conditioned pain modulation). Read More

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Risk prediction model for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in adult cardiac allograft recipients.

World J Transplant 2021 Mar;11(3):54-69

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, United States.

Background: Heart transplant recipients are at higher risk of developing skin cancer than the general population due to the long-term immunosuppression treatment. Cancer has been reported as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality for patients after heart transplantation. Among different types of skin cancers, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common one, which requires timely screening and better management. Read More

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Application of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Characterize Time-dependent Metabolism of Voriconazole in Children and Support Dose Optimization.

Front Pharmacol 2021 17;12:636097. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Voriconazole is a potent antifungal drug with complex pharmacokinetics caused by time-dependent inhibition and polymorphisms of metabolizing enzymes. It also exhibits different pharmacokinetic characteristics between adults and children. An understanding of these alterations in pharmacokinetics is essential for pediatric dose optimization. Read More

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Development and Internal Validation of a Nomogram Used to Predict Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 26;13:2797-2804. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This study was designed to develop a nomogram for predicting neutropenia caused by chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.

Patients And Methods: Information was collected from 376 patients between November 2017 and November 2020. The endpoint was chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <2×10/L). Read More

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Cost Effectiveness of Interhospital Transfer for Mechanical Thrombectomy of Acute Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke: Role of Predicted Recanalization Rates.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 Apr 5:CIRCOUTCOMES120007444. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Neurologie, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Germany (L.S., M.E., C.H.N.).

Background: Emergency interhospital transfer of patients with stroke with large vessel occlusion to a comprehensive stroke center for mechanical thrombectomy is resource-intensive and can be logistically challenging. Imaging markers may identify patients in whom intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) alone is likely to result in thrombus resolution, potentially rendering interhospital transfers unnecessary. Here, we investigate how predicted probabilities to achieve IVT-mediated recanalization affect cost-effectiveness estimates of interhospital transfer. Read More

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Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations of Imipenem in burn Patients With and Without Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration in the Military Health System.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Experimental Therapeutics, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD, 20910, USA.

Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) is a life-sustaining procedure in patients with severe burns and acute kidney injury (AKI). Physiologic changes due to burn injury and use of CVVH may alter imipenem pharmacokinetics (PK). We aimed to compare imipenem clearance (CL) in burn patients with and without CVVH, determine the effect of burn on imipenem volume of distribution (Vd), and evaluate the adequacy of imipenem dosing in this population. Read More

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A retrospective cohort study assessing relative effectiveness of adjuvanted versus high-dose trivalent influenza vaccines among older adults in the United States during the 2018-19 influenza season.

Vaccine 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Seqirus Vaccines Ltd., Summit, NJ, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) against influenza-related hospitalizations/emergency room (ER) visits, influenza-related office visits, and cardio-respiratory disease (CRD)-related hospitalizations/ER visits and compare all-cause and influenza-related costs associated with two vaccines specifically indicated for older adults (≥65 years), adjuvanted (aTIV) and high-dose trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV-HD), for the 2018-19 influenza season.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of older adults was conducted using claims and hospital data in the United States. For clinical evaluations, adjusted analyses were conducted following inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to control for selection bias. Read More

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Reliability Prediction of Acrylonitrile O-Ring for Nuclear Power Applications Based on Shore Hardness Measurements.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid, Spain.

The degradation of polymeric components is of considerable interest to the nuclear industry and its regulatory bodies. The objective of this work was the development of a methodology to determine the useful life-based on the storage temperature-of acrylonitrile O-rings used as mechanical sealing elements to prevent leakages in nuclear equipment. To this aim, a reliability-based approach that allows prediction of the use-suitability of different storage scenarios (that involve different storage times and temperatures) considering the further required in-service performance, is presented. Read More

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Trophic Ecology of Endangered Gold-Spotted Pond Frog in Ecological Wetland Park and Rice Paddy Habitats.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Environmental Impact Assessment Team, National Institute of Ecology, Seochen 33657, Korea.

The gold-spotted pond frog () is an endangered amphibian species in South Korea. In order to obtain ecological information regarding the gold-spotted pond frog's habitat environment and biological interactions, we applied stable isotope analysis to quantify the ecological niche space (ENS) of frogs including black-spotted pond frogs () and bullfrogs () within the food web of two different habitats-an ecological wetland park and a rice paddy. The gold-spotted pond frog population exhibited a broader ENS in the ecological wetland park than in the rice paddy. Read More

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Factors Associated with Increased Risk of Early Severe Neonatal Morbidity in Late Preterm and Early Term Infants.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 23;10(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Mater Research Institute, University of Queensland, Level 3 Aubigny Place, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia.

Although the risk of neonatal mortality is generally low for late preterm and early term infants, they are still significantly predisposed to severe neonatal morbidity (SNM) despite being born at relatively advanced gestations. In this study, we investigated maternal and intrapartum risk factors for early SNM in late preterm and early term infants. This was a retrospective cohort study of non-anomalous, singleton infants (34-38 gestational weeks) born at the Mater Mother's Hospital in Brisbane, Australia from January 2015 to May 2020. Read More

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Population Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin in Non-Critically Ill Patients with Bacteremia Caused by Enterobacteriaceae.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla IBIS, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain.

This study analyzes the pharmacokinetic variability of piperacillin in non-critically ill patients with Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections (EBSI) and explores predicted clinical outcomes and piperacillin-related neurotoxicity under different renal conditions. Hospitalized, non-critically ill patients treated with piperacillin-tazobactam for EBSI were included. Four serum samples per patient were collected and analyzed. Read More

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Characteristic Features of Infrared Thermographic Imaging in Primary Raynaud's Phenomenon.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 20;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev Hospital, Borgmester Ib Juuls Vej 1, 2730 Herlev, Denmark.

Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterized by the episodic whitening of the fingers upon exposure to cold. Verification of the condition is crucial in vibration-exposed patients. The current verification method is outdated, but thermographic imaging seems promising as a diagnostic replacement. Read More

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A Mechanistic Weather-Driven Model for Infection and Disease Development in Chickpea.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 1;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Sustainable Crop Production (DI.PRO.VES.), Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via E. Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy.

Ascochyta blight caused by is an important disease of chickpea. By using systems analysis, we retrieved and analyzed the published information on to develop a mechanistic, weather-driven model for the prediction of Ascochyta blight epidemics. The ability of the model to predict primary infections was evaluated using published data obtained from trials conducted in Washington (USA) in 2004 and 2005, Israel in 1996 and 1998, and Spain from 1988 to 1992. Read More

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External Validation and Extension of a Clinical Score for the Discrimination of Type 2 Myocardial Infarction.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 18;10(6). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Cardiovascular Research Institute Basel (CRIB) and Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

Background: The early non-invasive discrimination of Type 2 versus Type 1 Myocardial Infarction (T2MI, T1MI) is a major unmet clinical need. We aimed to externally validate a recently derived clinical score (Neumann) combing female sex, no radiating chest pain, and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) concentration ≤40.8 ng/L. Read More

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Predicting Fraud Victimization Using Classical Machine Learning.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Mar 3;23(3). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Faculty of Management, Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC V9B 5Y2, Canada.

Protecting financial consumers from investment fraud has been a recurring problem in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to predict the demographic characteristics of investors who are likely to be victims of investment fraud. Data for this paper came from the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada's (IIROC) database between January of 2009 and December of 2019. Read More

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Intolerance of COVID-19-Related Uncertainty and Negative Emotions among Chinese Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Risk Perception, Social Exclusion and Perceived Efficacy.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 11;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing 100101, China.

The uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated negative emotions, especially among adolescents, who feel unable to tolerate the uncertainty of the epidemic. However, the mechanism by which the intolerance of COVID-19-related uncertainty (COVID-19 IU) affects negative emotions in adolescents remains unclear. This study explored the underlying mechanism from COVID-19 IU to negative emotions using a moderated mediation model in adolescents. Read More

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Estimating the global reduction in transmission and rise in detection capacity of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in early 2020.

Epidemics 2021 Feb 19;35:100445. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology (CIRB), Collège de France, CNRS, INSERM, PSL Research University, Paris, France; Infection Antimicrobials Modelling Evolution, UMR 1137, INSERM, Université de Paris, Paris, France. Electronic address:

To better control the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it is essential to quantify the impact of control measures and the fraction of infected individuals that are detected. To this end we developed a deterministic transmission model based on the renewal equation and fitted the model to daily case and death data in the first few months of 2020 in 79 countries and states, representing 4.2 billions individuals. Read More

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February 2021