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Characterization and prediction of viral loads of Hepatitis B serum samples by using surface-enhance Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jun 8:102386. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

PCR Laboratory, PINUM Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background: Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique to analyze the body fluids for the purpose of non-invasive disease diagnosis.

Objectives: To develop a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection from blood serum samples.

Methods: Clinically diagnosed hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected serum samples of patients of different levels of viral loads have been subjected for SERS analysis in comparison with the healthy ones by using silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) based SERS substrates. Read More

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External validation of a predictive model of adverse events following spine surgery.

Spine J 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Background Context: We lack models that reliably predict 30-day postoperative adverse events (AEs) following spine surgery.

Purpose: We externally validated a previously developed predictive model for common 30-day adverse events (AEs) after spine surgery.

Study Design/setting: This prospective cohort study utilizes inpatient and outpatient data from a tertiary academic medical center. Read More

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The CAGE-MiR-181b-5p-S1PR1 Axis Regulates Anticancer Drug Resistance and Autophagy in Gastric Cancer Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:666387. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea.

Cancer-associated gene (CAGE), a cancer/testis antigen, has been known to promote anticancer drug resistance. Since the underlying mechanisms of CAGE-promoted anticancer drug resistance are poorly understood, we established Anticancer drug-resistant gastric cancer cells (AGS ) to better elucidate possible mechanisms. AGS showed an increased expression level of CAGE and autophagic flux compared with anticancer drug-sensitive parental gastric cancer cells (AGS cells). Read More

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Associations between hedonic hunger and BMI during a two-year behavioural weight loss trial.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(6):e0252110. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Objective: Prospective studies on relationships between hedonic hunger and BMI (Body Mass Index) during weight management are lacking. This study examined if hedonic hunger reduced during a behavioural weight management programme, and if hedonic hunger predicted future BMI.

Methods: Participants were 594 community-dwelling, UK-based adults(396 female; age 56. Read More

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Impact of climate change on Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetnaus) and its autumn diet in the northern highlands of Pakistan.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Conservation Ecology Center, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, VA, 22630, USA.

Approximately 20-30% of plant and animal species are at risk of extinction by the end of the 21 century owing to climate change. Range shifts and range contractions in plant species will dramatically affect the distribution of animals relying on them for food and shelter. The negative impacts of climate change on forested landscapes of the northern highlands of Pakistan (NHP) could change the species composition and distribution. Read More

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Work Resumption Rate and Migrant Workers' Income During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Front Public Health 2021 21;9:678934. Epub 2021 May 21.

Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

The COVID-19 public health crisis has quickly led to an economic crisis, impacting many people and businesses in the world. This study examines how the pandemic affects workforces and workers' income. We quantify the impact of staggered resumption of work, after the coronavirus lockdowns, on the migrant workers' income. Read More

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Testing the Darwinian function of lateralization. Does separation of workload between brain hemispheres increase cognitive performance?

Neuropsychologia 2021 Jun 3:107884. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

University of Groningen, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, GELIFES - Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Brain lateralization is a fundamental aspect of the organization of brain and behavior in the animal kingdom, begging the question about its Darwinian function. We tested the possibility that lateralization enhances cognitive performance in single- and dual-tasks. Previous studies reported mixed results on this topic and only a handful of studies have measured functional brain lateralization and performance independently and simultaneously. Read More

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Chromium (VI) removal kinetics by magnetite-coated sand: Small-scale flow-through column experiments.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 18;415:125648. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Earth Sciences, Wills Memorial Building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Magnetite nanoparticles are promising materials for treating toxic Cr(VI), but safe handling is challenging due to their small size. We prepared flow-through columns containing 10% or 100% (v/v) magnetite-coated sand. Cr(VI) removal efficiency was determined for different Cr(VI) concentrations (0. Read More

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Support vector regression algorithm modeling to predict the parturition date of small - to medium-sized dogs using maternal weight and fetal biparietal diameter.

Vet World 2021 Apr 2;14(4):829-834. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Rajamangala University of Technology Tawan-OK, Chonburi, Thailand.

Background And Aim: Fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) is a feasible parameter to predict canine parturition date due to its inverted correlation with days before parturition (DBP). Although such a relationship is generally described using a simple linear regression (SLR) model, the imprecision of this model in predicting the parturition date in small- to medium-sized dogs is a common problem among veterinarian practitioners. Support vector regression (SVR) is a useful machine learning model for prediction. Read More

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Prognostic ability of STarT Back Screening Tool combined with work-related factors in patients with low back pain in primary care: a prospective study.

BMJ Open 2021 Jun 3;11(6):e046446. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Public Health and Nursing, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.

Objective: Primary care screening tools for patients with low back pain may improve outcome by identifying modifiable obstacles for recovery. The STarT Back Screening Tool (SBST) consists of nine biological and psychological items, with less focus on work-related factors. We aimed at testing the prognostic ability of SBST and the effect of adding items for future and present work ability. Read More

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Learning Molecular Representations for Thermochemistry Prediction of Cyclic Hydrocarbons and Oxygenates.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Laboratory for Chemical Technology, Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 125, 9052 Gent, Belgium.

Accurate thermochemistry estimation of polycyclic molecules is crucial for kinetic modeling of chemical processes that use renewable and alternative feedstocks. In kinetic model generators, molecular properties are estimated rapidly with group additivity, but this method is known to have limitations for polycyclic structures. This issue has been resolved in our work by combining a geometry-based molecular representation with a deep neural network trained on data. Read More

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Mechanism of Action of Nicotiflorin from in the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction: From Network Pharmacology to Experimental Pharmacology.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 24;15:2179-2191. Epub 2021 May 24.

Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a cardiovascular disease with a high fatality rate. In this study, we combined network pharmacology and experimental pharmacology and discovered the potential mechanism of action and the active ingredients of the lily, was discovered. The monomer compound with stronger activity was discovered through in vitro cell experiments. Read More

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The Contribution of Static and Dynamic Factors to Recidivism Prediction for Black and White Youth Offenders.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2021 Jun 2:306624X211022673. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.

Scholars have presented concerns about potential for racial bias in risk assessments as a result of the inclusion of static factors, such as criminal history in risk assessments. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which static factors add incremental validity to the dynamic factors in criminogenic risk assessments. This study examined the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) in a sample of 1,270 youth offenders from a medium-sized Midwestern county between June 2004 and November 2013. Read More

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Aqueous Blackcurrant Extract Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion and Modulates the Gut Microbiome in Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 10;10(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Bio-Convergence System, Hoseo University, Asan 31499, Korea.

This study was undertaken to determine whether aqueous blackcurrant extracts (BC) improve glucose metabolism and gut microbiomes in non-obese type 2 diabetic animals fed a high-fat diet and to identify the mechanism involved. Partially pancreatectomized male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a high-fat diet containing 0% (control), 0.2% (L-BC; low dosage), 0. Read More

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Prognostic Value of PCSK9 Levels in Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI).

Hellenic J Cardiol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Chest Hospital, No.261 Tai er zhuang Road, Jinnan District, Tianjin, 300222, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Background: The role of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9(PCSK9) in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients is still an open question and the PCSK9 concentration of clinical usefulness remains unknown in guiding treatment.

Methods And Results: 272 patients with NSTEMI were included in our prospective observational cohort study. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Read More

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Statistical literacy and scientific reasoning & argumentation in physicians.

GMS J Med Educ 2021 15;38(4):Doc77. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University Hospital, LMU Munich, Institute of Medical Education, Munich, Germany.

Statistical literacy (SL) of physicians, i.e. the ability to use and interpret statistical numbers in the context of science, is an essential prerequisite for risk estimation and communication. Read More

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Millimeter (MM) wave and microwave frequency radiation produce deeply penetrating effects: the biology and the physics.

Authors:
Martin L Pall

Rev Environ Health 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State University, Portland, OR97232-3312, USA.

Millimeter wave (MM-wave) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are predicted to not produce penetrating effects in the body. The electric but not magnetic part of MM-EMFs are almost completely absorbed within the outer 1 mm of the body. Rodents are reported to have penetrating MM-wave impacts on the brain, the myocardium, liver, kidney and bone marrow. Read More

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Physico-chemical dataset from an mesocosm experiment simulating extreme climate events in Lake Geneva (MESOLAC).

Data Brief 2021 Jun 14;36:107150. Epub 2021 May 14.

Université Savoie Mont Blanc, INRAE, CARRTEL, 74200 Thonon les Bains, France.

This dataset complement a previously published dataset [1] and corresponds to the physico-chemical parameters data series produced during the MESOLAC experimental project [2]. The presented dataset is composed of: 1. profiles (0-3m) of temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen (concentration and saturation). Read More

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Genetic interaction network has a very limited impact on the evolutionary trajectories in continuous culture-grown populations of yeast.

BMC Ecol Evol 2021 05 26;21(1):99. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Bioinformatics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: The impact of genetic interaction networks on evolution is a fundamental issue. Previous studies have demonstrated that the topology of the network is determined by the properties of the cellular machinery. Functionally related genes frequently interact with one another, and they establish modules, e. Read More

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Prediction of the effect of the osteoarthritic joint microenvironment on cartilage repair.

Tissue Eng Part A 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Radboudumc, 6034, Experimental Rheumatology, Nijmegen, Netherlands;

Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by progressive articular cartilage loss. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can be used for cartilage repair therapies based on their potential to differentiate into chondrocytes. However, the joint microenvironment is a major determinant of the success of MSC-based cartilage formation. Read More

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Importance of passive muscle, skin, and adipose tissue mechanical properties on head and neck response in rear impacts assessed with a finite element model.

Traffic Inj Prev 2021 26;22(5):407-412. Epub 2021 May 26.

Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: The objective of this study was to improve head-neck kinematic predictions of a contemporary finite element (FE) head-neck model, assessed in rear impact scenarios (3-10 g), by including an accurate representation of the skin, adipose tissue, and passive muscle mechanical properties. The soft tissues of the neck have a substantial contribution to kinematic response, with the contribution being inversely proportional to the impact severity. Thus accurate representation of these passive tissues is critical for the assessment of kinematic response and the potential for crash induced injuries. Read More

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Multimodal prognosis of negative symptom severity in individuals at increased risk of developing psychosis.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 24;11(1):312. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Psychiatry (UPK), University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Negative symptoms occur frequently in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis and contribute to functional impairments. The aim of this study was to predict negative symptom severity in CHR after 9 months. Predictive models either included baseline negative symptoms measured with the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS-N), whole-brain gyrification, or both to forecast negative symptoms of at least moderate severity in 94 CHR. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of inhaled extrafine beclomethasone dipropionate in adults with asthma: a randomized, parallel-group, dose-ranging study (BEAM).

J Asthma 2021 May 24:1-10. Epub 2021 May 24.

Global Clinical Development, Chiesi USA, Inc, Cary, NC, USA.

This manuscript describes a Phase II, dose-ranging, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, parallel-group study conducted to identify the appropriate dose of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) to be used in a single-inhaler extrafine formulation triple combination of BDP, formoterol fumarate and glycopyrronium. Patients aged 18-75 years with poorly-controlled asthma, receiving low/medium-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), and who had forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV) 50-85% predicted, were randomized to inhale BDP 50, 200 or 400 µg twice daily (BID; total daily doses of 100, 400 and 800 µg), placebo, or the active comparator QVAR® 160 µg BID, all via pressurized metered-dose inhalers for 8 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate superiority of BDP over placebo for change from baseline in pre-dose morning FEV at Week 8. Read More

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Supporting families to protect child health: Parenting quality and household needs during the COVID-19 pandemic.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(5):e0251720. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Psychology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Background: Supportive parenting is critical for promoting healthy child development in the face of stressors, such as those occurring during COVID-19. Here, we address a knowledge gap regarding specific household risk factors associated with parenting quality during the pandemic and incorporate first-person accounts of family challenges and needs.

Methods: Mixed methods were applied to data collected between April 14th - 28th, 2020 from the "Parenting During the Pandemic" survey. Read More

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Increased mRNA stability and expression level of lipase gene developed through molecular evolution process.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 19;31(6). Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743, Republic of Korea.

In order to use an enzyme industrially, it is necessary to increase the activity of the enzyme and optimize the reaction characteristics through molecular evolution techniques. We used the error-prone PCR method to improve the reaction characteristics of LipCA lipase discovered in Antarctic . Recombinant colonies showing large halo zones were selected in tributyrin-containing medium. Read More

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Design, expression, and purification of a multi-epitope vaccine against Helicobacter Pylori based on Melittin as an adjuvant.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 19;157:104970. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran. Electronic address:

Helicobacter Pylori, a Gram-negative bacterium in the human stomach, causes adenocarcinoma and MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma in addition to infection and gastric ulcer. With regard to Helicobacter Pylori prevalence rate and widespread, producing an effective vaccine against this bacterium appears reasonable and necessary. Today, vaccine design by immunoinformatics is a promising solution in vaccine field. Read More

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Refinement and extension of COSMO-RS-trained fragment contribution models for predicting the partition properties of C chlorinated paraffin congeners.

Authors:
Satoshi Endo

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Health and Environmental Risk Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Onogawa 16-2, 305-8506 Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

COSMO-RS-trained fragment contribution models (FCMs) to predict the partition properties of chlorinated paraffin (CP) congeners were refined and extended. The improvement includes (i) the use of an improved conformer generation method for COSMO-RS, (ii) extension of training and validation sets for FCMs up to C20 congeners covering short-chain (SCCPs), medium-chain (MCCPs) and long-chain CPs (LCCPs), and (iii) more realistic simulation of industrial CP mixture compositions by using a stochastic algorithm. Extension of the training set markedly improved the accuracy of model predictions for MCCPs and LCCPs, as compared to the previous study. Read More

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Prediction of population behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in food using machine learning and a microbial growth and survival database.

Sci Rep 2021 May 19;11(1):10613. Epub 2021 May 19.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-9, Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8589, Japan.

In predictive microbiology, statistical models are employed to predict bacterial population behavior in food using environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and water activity. As the amount and complexity of data increase, handling all data with high-dimensional variables becomes a difficult task. We propose a data mining approach to predict bacterial behavior using a database of microbial responses to food environments. Read More

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Dynamic metabolic modeling predicts efficient acetogen-gut bacterium cocultures for CO-to-butyrate conversion.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Institute for Applied Life Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA.

Aims: While gas-fermenting acetogens have been engineered to secrete non-native metabolites such as butyrate, acetate remains the most thermodynamically favorable product. An alternative to metabolic engineering is to exploit native capabilities for CO-to-acetate conversion by coculturing an acetogen with a second bacterium that provides efficient acetate-butyrate conversion.

Methods And Results: We used dynamic metabolic modeling to computationally evaluate the CO-to-butyrate conversion capabilities of candidate coculture systems by exploiting the diversity of human gut bacteria for anaerobic synthesis of butyrate from acetate and ethanol. Read More

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Influence of the Alternative Sigma Factor RpoN on Global Gene Expression and Carbon Catabolism in Enterococcus faecalis V583.

mBio 2021 May 18;12(3). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA

The alternative sigma factor σ has been shown to regulate the expression of a wide array of virulence-associated genes, as well as central metabolism, in bacterial pathogens. In Gram-positive organisms, the σ is commonly associated with carbon metabolism. In this study, we show that the alternative sigma factor σ (RpoN) and its cognate enhancer binding protein MptR are essential for mannose utilization and are primary contributors to glucose uptake through the Mpt phosphotransferase system. Read More

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