4,233 results match your criteria precise definition

AI-based monitoring of retinal fluid in disease activity and under therapy.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2021 Jun 21:100972. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Ophthalmology Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 23, 1090, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Retinal fluid as the major biomarker in exudative macular disease is accurately visualized by high-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is used world-wide as a diagnostic gold standard largely replacing clinical examination. Artificial intelligence (AI) with its capability to objectively identify, localize and quantify fluid introduces fully automated tools into OCT imaging for personalized disease management. Deep learning performance has already proven superior to human experts, including physicians and certified readers, in terms of accuracy and speed. Read More

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Liver transplantation in acute liver failure: Dilemmas and challenges.

World J Transplant 2021 Jun;11(6):187-202

Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna 801507, Bihar, India.

Acute liver failure (ALF) refers to a state of severe hepatic injury that leads to altered coagulation and sensorium in the absence of pre-existing liver disease. ALF has different causes, but the clinical characteristics are strikingly similar. In clinical practice, however, inconsistency in the definition of ALF worldwide and confusion regarding the existence of pre-existing liver disease raise diagnostic dilemmas. Read More

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Acute-on-chronic liver failure: Where do we stand?

Liver Int 2021 06;41 Suppl 1:128-136

Hepatology & Liver Intensive Care Hospital Beaujon, Clichy, France.

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is defined by the rapid development of organ(s) failure(s) associated with high rates of early (28-day) mortality in patients with cirrhosis. ACLF has been categorized into three grades of increasing severity according to the nature and number of organ failures. In patients with grade 3 ACLF, 28-day mortality is >70%. Read More

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Precision medicine in transplantation and hemodialysis.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Jun;36(Supplement_2):31-36

Department of Medicine, VA Palo Alto HCS and Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

In kidney transplantation, precision medicine has already entered clinical practice. Donor and recipient human leucocyte antigen (HLA) regions are genotyped in two class 1 and usually three class 2 loci, and the individual degree of sensitization against alloimmune antigens is evaluated by the detection of anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies. Recently, the contribution of non-HLA mismatches to outcomes such as acute T- and B-cell-mediated rejection and even long-term graft survival was described. Read More

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Diameter-Based Volumetric Models May Inadequately Calculate Jugular Paraganglioma Volume Following Sub-Total Resection.

Otol Neurotol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center Department of Radiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Background: As gross total resection of jugular paragangliomas (JPs) may result in cranial nerve deficits, JPs are increasingly managed with subtotal resection (STR) with postoperative radiological monitoring. However, the validity of commonly used diameter-based models that calculate postoperative volume to determine residual tumor growth is dubious. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of these models compared to manual volumetric slice-by-slice segmentation. Read More

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Disproportionation of Pharmaceutical Salts: pH and Phase-Solubility/pH Variance.

Alex Avdeef

Mol Pharm 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

in-ADME Research, 1732 First Avenue #102, New York, New York 10128, United States.

A multiphasic mass action equilibrium model is used to show that the critical pH in the acid-base disproportionation of a solid salt into its corresponding solid free-base form in aqueous suspensions, widely known as "pH", is incompletely interpreted. It is shown that the traditional thermodynamic model does not predict the invariance of pH and solubility during the salt-to-free-base conversion process in an alkalimetric titration. Rather, the conversion entails a range of pH and solubility values, depending on the amount of added excess salt above that needed to form a saturated solution. Read More

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Validity of systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity score (SLE-DAS) for definition of lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS).

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Rheumatology & Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Introduction: SLE disease activity score (SLE-DAS) is a novel, rapid, continuous and comprehensive score that overcomes the drawbacks of SLEDAI-2 K. Low lupus disease activity state (LLDAS) has been targeted as an endpoint in many clinical trials and as a favourable outcome in clinical practice. Therefore, our objective in the current study is to evaluate the validity of SLE-DAS for defining LLDAS as an objective in the treat-to-target strategy. Read More

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Analysis of Monocyte Cell Fate by Adoptive Transfer in a Murine Model of TLR7-induced Systemic Inflammation.

Bio Protoc 2021 May 5;11(9):e4007. Epub 2021 May 5.

Vascular Medicine Research, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

Myeloid plasticity is a hallmark of the innate immune response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. Here, we provide a protocol for monocyte cell fate tracking by adoptive transfer in the context of systemic inflammation induced by TLR7 activation, the principal innate immune receptor sensing viral RNA in mice. Defined monocyte subsets are isolated from the bone marrow of donor mice by cell sorting and adoptively transferred into the systemic circulation of congenic hosts, with or without concurrent activation of TLR7 via the topical application of the small molecule agonist, imiquimod, in a cream formulation that induces a systemic inflammatory response. Read More

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Modified Carpal Tunnel Release: A New Approach to Minimizing Pillar Pain.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 Jun;86(6S Suppl 5):S503-S509

From the Prisma Health/University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia SC.

Introduction: Pillar pain is a frequent postoperative complication of carpal tunnel release (CTR). The precise definition of pillar pain is lacking, but most authors describe it as diffuse aching pain and tenderness in the thenar and hypothenar area. The etiology of pillar pain is unclear. Read More

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Mitochondrial Regulation Assessment by C-NMR Isotopomer Analysis.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2310:259-270

Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Mitochondria play a central role in metabolic reprograming that occurs in numerous disease conditions. A precise evaluation of the extent of mitochondrial involvement in the metabolic alterations is essential for a better definition of metabolically based therapeutic strategies. In this chapter, some simple protocols are presented, using carbon 13 tracers and nuclear magnetic resonance isotopomer analysis, for the evaluation of mitochondrial contributions to intermediary metabolism and the metabolic effects of the implementation of some mitochondrial regulatory mechanisms. Read More

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January 2021

Nearly 80 systematic reviews were published each day: Observational study on trends in epidemiology and reporting over the years 2000-2019.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Institute for Research in Operative Medicine, Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Witten/Herdecke University, Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Systematic reviews (SRs) are useful tools in synthesising the available evidence, but high numbers of overlapping SRs are also discussed in the context of research waste. Although it is often claimed that the number of SRs being published is increasing steadily, there are no precise data on that. We aimed to assess trends in the epidemiology and reporting of published SRs over the last 20 years. Read More

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Genetics of Asthma and Allergic Diseases.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Asthma genes have been identified through a range of approaches, from candidate gene association studies and family-based genome-wide linkage analyses to genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The first GWAS of asthma, reported in 2007, identified multiple markers on chromosome 17q21 as associates of the childhood-onset asthma. This remains the best replicated asthma locus to date. Read More

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Defining global health: findings from a systematic review and thematic analysis of the literature.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 06;6(6)

VM:PMI, University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA.

Introduction: Debate around a common definition of global health has seen extensive scholarly interest within the last two decades; however, consensus around a precise definition remains elusive. The objective of this study was to systematically review definitions of global health in the literature and offer grounded theoretical insights into what might be seen as relevant for establishing a common definition of global health.

Method: A systematic review was conducted with qualitative synthesis of findings using peer-reviewed literature from key databases. Read More

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Non-Obese MAFLD Is Associated with Colorectal Adenoma in Health Check Examinees: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 22;22(11). Epub 2021 May 22.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume 830-0011, Japan.

Colorectal adenoma is linked to metabolic dysfunction. Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has a precise definition and three subtypes, including non-obese MAFLD. We aimed to investigate the impact of MAFLD on the prevalence of colorectal adenoma by comparing it to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in health check-up examinees. Read More

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Accuracy of commercial intraoral scanners.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2021 May 24;8(3):035501. Epub 2021 May 24.

University of Basel, Biomaterials Science Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Allschwil, Switzerland.

In dental offices, there is a trend replacing conventional silicone impressions and plaster cast models by imaging data of intraoral scanners to map the denture and surrounding tissues. The aim of the study is the analysis of the accuracy of selected commercially available scanners. The accuracy is considered as the main drawback in comparison to the conventional approach. Read More

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Stress Induced Hyperglycemia in the Context of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Definitions, Interventions, and Underlying Mechanisms.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 12;8:676892. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Cardiology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease Prevention, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Elevation of glucose level in response to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been recognized as stress induced hyperglycemia (SIH). Plenty of clinical studies have documented that SIH occurs very common in patients hospitalized with ACS, even in those without previously known diabetes mellitus. The association between elevated blood glucose levels with adverse outcome in the ACS setting is well-established. Read More

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Delineating the Benefits of Arts Education for Children's Socioemotional Development.

Front Psychol 2021 13;12:624712. Epub 2021 May 13.

WolfBrown, Cambridge, MA, United States.

In this paper, we argue that in order for the study of arts education to continue to advance, we must delineate the effects of particular forms of arts education, offered in certain contexts, on specific domains of children's socioemotional development. We explain why formulating precise hypotheses about the effects of arts education on children's socioemotional development requires a differentiated definition of each arts education program or activity in question, as well as a consideration of both the immediate and broader contexts in which that program or activity occurs. We then offer the New Victory Theater's Schools with Performing Arts Reach Kids (SPARK) program as an illustrative example of how these considerations allow for the refinement of hypotheses about the impact of arts education on children's socioemotional development. Read More

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Posterior Wall Defect of Sacrum: An Anatomical Study of Sacral Spina Bifida.

Turk Neurosurg 2021 ;31(3):339-347

Dokuz Eylul University, School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Izmir, Turkey.

Aim: To investigate the incidence, types, morphological and morphometric properties of spina bifida on dry sacral bones.

Material And Methods: 110 dry adult sacrums gathered from the bone collections of the Laboratory of the Anatomy Department of Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine were examined. The parameters analysed were: 1) results of parameters related to the posterior sacral wall; 2) classification and rate of the closure defects; 3) classification of the top sacral vertebrae according to the shape of its superior surface; 4) presence of sacralisation and lumbalisation among sacrums with dorsal wall defects; 5) vertebral levels of apex of the sacral hiatus; and 6) vertebral levels of closure defects of the sacrums. Read More

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January 2021

Analysis of Delayed Surgical Treatment and Oncologic Outcomes in Clinical Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e2111613. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, Missouri.

Importance: The association between delayed surgical treatment and oncologic outcomes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is poorly understood given that prior studies have used imprecise definitions for the date of cancer diagnosis.

Objective: To use a uniform method to quantify surgical treatment delay and to examine its association with several oncologic outcomes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using a novel data set from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system. Read More

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Long COVID or post-COVID-19 syndrome: putative pathophysiology, risk factors, and treatments.

Shin Jie Yong

Infect Dis (Lond) 2021 May 22:1-18. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Subang Jaya, Malaysia.

Long COVID or post-COVID-19 syndrome first gained widespread recognition among social support groups and later in scientific and medical communities. This illness is poorly understood as it affects COVID-19 survivors at all levels of disease severity, even younger adults, children, and those not hospitalized. While the precise definition of long COVID may be lacking, the most common symptoms reported in many studies are fatigue and dyspnoea that last for months after acute COVID-19. Read More

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Transitioning from cerebrospinal fluid to blood tests to facilitate diagnosis and disease monitoring in Alzheimer's disease.

J Intern Med 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasingly prevalent worldwide, and disease-modifying treatments may soon be at hand; hence now, more than ever, there is a need to develop techniques that allow earlier and more secure diagnosis. Current biomarker-based guidelines for AD diagnosis, which have replaced the historical symptom-based guidelines, rely heavily on neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling. Whilst these have greatly improved the diagnostic accuracy of AD pathophysiology, they are less practical for application in primary care, population-based and epidemiological settings, or where resources are limited. Read More

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Predictive value of admission neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after stroke thrombolysis.

Neurol Sci 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Emergency Medicine,University of Health Sciences, Yüksek İhtisas Training and Research Hospital, Bursa, Turkey.

Background: Stroke is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. The need for additional objective parameters as well as the existing criteria continues for eligible patients. The objective of this study is to determine whether the baseline neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) predicts symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) due to intravenous thrombolytic therapy. Read More

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Are You Your Own Best Judge? On the Self-Evaluation of Singing.

J Voice 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Neuroscience Department, Max-Planck-Institute for Empirical Aesthetics, Frankfurt-am-Main Germany; Max-Planck-NYU, Center for Language, Music, and Emotion, New York, USA, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Psychology Department, New York University, New York, New York.

Objective: Singers are the first judges of their own performances. Although performers usually share a precise definition of pitch accuracy, do they correctly estimate their own ability to sing in tune? This study examines the accuracy of professional singers' self-evaluations and investigates the profiles of performers/judges.

Methods: Eighteen highly trained soprano singers were invited to evaluate the pitch accuracy of peers' performances, selected from an existing corpus, and their own previously recorded performances in a pairwise comparison paradigm. Read More

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Milan Stanojevic

Psychiatr Danub 2021 05;33(Suppl 3):S280-S291

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Medical School University of Zagreb, Clinical Hospital "Sveti Duh" Zagreb, Croatia; e-mail:

Aim is to show that the definition of the infants born at the limits of viability within the countries is dependent on the social and medical conditions in which the infant is born, and even in one country in which neonatal intensive care is available, it depends on the place of birth and organization of perinatal care. With decreasing gestational age mortality, short- and long-term morbidity of preterm infants are increasing while their survival to discharge is decreasing. It is questionable how to define viability and where the limit of viability can be set. Read More

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Cortical Thickness Estimation: A Comparison of FreeSurfer and Three Voxel-Based Methods in a Test-Retest Analysis and a Clinical Application.

Brain Topogr 2021 07 18;34(4):430-441. Epub 2021 May 18.

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Ciencias Aplicadas Y Tecnología, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Coyoacán, Mexico City, México.

The cortical thickness has been used as a biomarker to assess different cerebral conditions and to detect alterations in the cortical mantle. In this work, we compare methods from the FreeSurfer software, the Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12), a Laplacian approach and a new method here proposed, based on the Euclidean Distance Transform (EDT), and its corresponding computational phantom designed to validate the calculation algorithm. At region of interest (ROI) level, within- and inter-method comparisons were carried out with a test-retest analysis, in a subset comprising 21 healthy subjects taken from the Multi-Modal MRI Reproducibility Resource (MMRR) dataset. Read More

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Return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament injury: Panther Symposium ACL Injury Return to Sport Consensus Group.

J ISAKOS 2021 May 15;6(3):138-146. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objectives: A precise and consistent definition of return to sport (RTS) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is lacking, and there is controversy surrounding the process of returning patients to sports and their previous activity level. The aim of the Panther Symposium ACL Injury RTS Consensus Group was to provide a clear definition of RTS after ACL injury and description of the RTS continuum, as well as provide clinical guidance on RTS testing and decision-making.

Methods: An international, multidisciplinary group of ACL experts convened as part of a consensus meeting. Read More

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Critical Review and Consensus Statement for Neural Monitoring in Otolaryngologic Head, Neck, and Endocrine Surgery.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 May 18:1945998211011062. Epub 2021 May 18.

Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Enhancing patient outcomes in an array of surgical procedures in the head and neck requires the maintenance of complex regional functions through the protection of cranial nerve integrity. This review and consensus statement cover the scope of cranial nerve monitoring of all cranial nerves that are of practical importance in head, neck, and endocrine surgery except for cranial nerves VII and VIII within the temporal bone. Complete and applied understanding of neurophysiologic principles facilitates the surgeon's ability to monitor the at-risk nerve. Read More

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Management and outcomes for long-segment Hirschsprung disease: A systematic review from the APSA outcomes and evidence based practice committee.

J Pediatr Surg 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Children's Foundation Research Institute, Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Long-Segment Hirschsprung Disease (LSHD) differs clinically from short-segment disease. This review article critically appraises current literature on the definition, management, outcomes, and novel therapies for patients with LSHD.

Methods: Four questions regarding the definition, management, and outcomes of patients with LSHD were generated. Read More

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Photoactivation of Erythrosine in simulated body fluids.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Oct 27;259:119867. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR 87020-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a powerful technique for the treatment of cancer and non-cancerous diseases. The precise PDT treatment protocol definition must consider the performance difference between in vitroand in vivoapplications. This also occurs in other biological studies, and to partially overcome this difficulty, the simulated body fluids are generally applied as a prior understanding of the particularities of the different systems. Read More

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October 2021

Re-evaluating tumors of purported specialized prostatic stromal origin reveals molecular heterogeneity, including non-recurring gene fusions characteristic of uterine and soft tissue sarcoma subtypes.

Mod Pathol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Tumors of purported specialized prostatic stromal origin comprise prostatic stromal sarcomas (PSS) and stromal tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP). Prior studies have described their clinicopathologic characteristics, but the molecular features remain incompletely understood. Moreover, these neoplasms are morphologically heterogeneous and the lack of specific adjunctive markers of prostatic stromal lineage make precise definition more difficult, leading some to question whether they represent a specific tumor type. Read More

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