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Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation - Medications used in Swiss Obstetrics.

Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Obstetrics, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: In order to improve the safety of drugs in pregnancy and lactation, it is imperative that data on clinical practice be collected and validated.

Methods: Data on routinely used medications were requested from 9 Swiss perinatal centres (5 university hospitals for obstetrics and 4 non-university centres). Furthermore, recommendations and guidelines from scientific societies for the fields of application were sought. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy of a novel artificial intelligence system for adenoma detection in daily practice: a prospective non-randomized comparative study.

Endoscopy 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Gastroenterology and interventional Endoscopy, Krankenhaus Barmherzige Bruder Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Background And Aims: Adenoma detection rate (ADR) varies significantly between endoscopists with up to 26% adenoma miss rate (AMR). Artificial intelligence (AI) systems may improve endoscopic quality and reduce the rate of interval cancer. We evaluated the efficacy of an AI system in real time colonoscopy and its influence on the AMR and the ADR. Read More

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Patient understanding of and participation in infection-related care across surgical pathways: a scoping review.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Infectious Diseases & HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the existing evidence on patient understanding of and/or participation in infection-related care in surgical specialties.

Method: A scoping review of literature was conducted. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and grey literature sources were searched using predefined search criteria for policies, guidelines and studies in English. Read More

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Self-Care Experiences of Adolescents with Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci) 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Associate Professor, School of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, No. 261, Wenhua 1st Road, Guishan District, Taoyuan 33303, Taiwan (R.O.C.); Associate researcher, Department of Nursing, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Maijin Road, Keelung 222, Taiwan (R.O.C.). Electronic address:

Purpose: We examined the self-care experiences of adolescents with spinal muscle atrophy (SMA) and their perceptions of the interactions between their body and the environment.

Methods: We interviewed ten adolescents with SMA aged 13-18 years old regarding personal care practices. Purposive sampling was conducted in two medical centers in northern Taiwan. Read More

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Association of periodontal disease with breed size, breed, weight, and age in pure-bred client-owned dogs in the United States.

Vet J 2021 Jul 19:105717. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Waltham Petcare Science Institute, Freeby Lane, Waltham-on-the-Wolds, Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, LE14 4RT, UK.

Despite periodontal disease (PD) being amongst the most common diagnoses in primary-care practice, the disease is generally underdiagnosed. However, the millions of clinical records generated by pet hospitals each year provide unique opportunities to generate insights about disease risk across large numbers of dogs. The objective of this study was to undertake a retrospective analysis of medical records to ascertain which sizes and breeds of dog are most frequently diagnosed with PD. Read More

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The interactions between childhood adversities and recent stress were associated with early-adulthood depression among Chinese undergraduate students.

Depress Anxiety 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Mental Health Center and Psychiatric Laboratory, the State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: It is widely acknowledged that childhood adversities (CAs) and recent stress are potential risk factors for adult depression. However, the mechanism(s) by which interactions of CAs with recent stress affect adult depression remain unclear.

Aims: To investigate the predictive association of the interaction among CAs and recent stress with early-adult depression. Read More

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What are the effects of teaching Evidence-Based Health Care (EBHC) at different levels of health professions education? An updated overview of systematic reviews.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254191. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Centre for Evidence-based Health Care, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Global Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Evidence-based healthcare (EBHC) knowledge and skills are recognised as core competencies of healthcare professionals worldwide, and teaching EBHC has been widely recommended as an integral part of their training. The objective of this overview of systematic reviews (SR) was to update evidence and assess the effects of various approaches for teaching evidence-based health care (EBHC) at undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) medical education (ME) level on changes in knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour.

Methods And Findings: This is an update of an overview that was published in 2014. Read More

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Evaluating the Feasibility of Continuing Medical Education for Disseminating Emerging Science on the Breast Cancer and Environment Connection.

J Health Commun 2021 Jul 22:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Communication, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.

Developing continuing medical education (CME) training programs is a strategy for communicating emerging science to health practitioners. This research tests the feasibility of using CME modules for translating and disseminating research findings from the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program. Recent findings have identified certain windows of susceptibility, like during puberty, in which exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals can increase breast cancer risk later in life. Read More

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Investigating Endocrine Disrupting Properties of Chemicals in Fish and Amphibians: Opportunities to Apply the 3Rs.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Shell Health, Shell International B.V., Carel van Bylandtlaan 16, 2596 HR, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Many regulations are beginning to explicitly require investigation of a chemical's endocrine disrupting properties as a part of the safety assessment process, for substances already on or about to be placed on the market. Different jurisdictions are applying distinct approaches. However, all share a common theme requiring testing for endocrine activity and adverse effects, typically involving in vitro and in vivo assays on selected endocrine pathways. Read More

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Preserving nurses' professional dignity: Six evidence-based strategies.

Int Nurs Rev 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Nursing Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Aim: This study aimed to develop and refine strategies for preserving nurses' professional dignity.

Background: Professional dignity is a non-negotiable nursing professional value. It should at all times be respected because of the worthiness of nurses as professional human beings. Read More

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Direct and Indirect Costs of Influenza-Like Illness Treated with and Without Oseltamivir in 15 European Countries: A Descriptive Analysis Alongside the Randomised Controlled ALICE Trial.

Clin Drug Investig 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Centre for Health Economics Research and Modelling Infectious Diseases (CHERMID), Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610, Wilrijk, Belgium.

Background And Objective: Influenza-like illness (ILI) leads to a substantial disease burden every winter in Europe; however, oseltamivir is not frequently prescribed to ILI patients in the primary-care setting. An open-label, multi-country, multi-season, randomised controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of oseltamivir for treating ILI in 15 European countries. We aimed to evaluate whether patients presenting with ILI in primary care and being managed with the addition of oseltamivir to usual care had lower average direct and indirect costs compared to patients with usual care alone. Read More

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Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in nerve injury repair-a new era in therapeutic agents and regenerative treatments.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Physiology and Biophysics, Department of Basic Life Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, 35010-177, Governador Valadares-MG, Brazil.

Background: Traumatic nerve injuries may result in severe motor dysfunctions. Although the microenvironment of peripheral axons favors their regeneration, regenerative process is not always successful.

Purpose: We reviewed and discussed the main findings obtained with low-level laser therapy (LLLT), a therapeutic intervention that has been employed in order to achieve an optimized regeneration process in peripheral axons. Read More

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Interventions to Improve Trainers' Learning and Behaviors for Educating Health care Professionals Using Train-the-Trainer Method: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Contin Educ Health Prof 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Ms. Poitras: Professor, Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Saguenay, Canada. Ms. Bélanger: Candidate, Psychology Department Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada. Ms. T Vaillancourt: Research coordinator, Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Saguenay, Canada. Ms. Kienlin: PhD Student, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, University of Tromsø and The South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority, Department of Medicine and Healthcare, Tromsø, Norway. Ms. Körner: Professor, Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Ms. Godbout: Coordinator, Quebec SPOR Unit, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Canada. Ms. Bernard-Hamel: Registered Nurse, CIUSSS de l'Estrie, Sherbrooke, Canada. Ms. O'Connor: PhD Student, Department of Pharmacy, Université Laval, Québec, Canada. Ms. Blanchette: PhD Student, School of Nursing, Université de Sherbrooke, Saguenay, Canada. Ms. Khadhraoui: Biostatistician, Quebec SPOR Unit, Université Laval, Québec, Canada. Ms. Sawadogo: Student, Quebec SPOR Unit, Université Laval. Ms. Massougbodji: PhD Student, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Université Laval, Québec, Canada. Mr. Zomahoun: Scientific Coordonnator, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, Québec, Canada. Ms. Gallani: Professor, Nursing Faculty, Université Laval, Québec, Canada. Ms. Stacey: School of Nursing, University of Ottawa and Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. Dr. Légaré: Professor, Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.

Introduction: Train-the-trainer (TTT) programs are frequently used to facilitate knowledge dissemination. However, little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. Therefore, we sought to assess the impact of TTT programs on learning and behavior of trainers for educating health and social professionals (trainees). Read More

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Predicting Writing Styles of Web-Based Materials for Children's Health Education Using the Selection of Semantic Features: Machine Learning Approach.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 Jul 22;9(7):e30115. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Computer Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (Hong Kong).

Background: Medical writing styles can have an impact on the understandability of health educational resources. Amid current web-based health information research, there is a dearth of research-based evidence that demonstrates what constitutes the best practice of the development of web-based health resources on children's health promotion and education.

Objective: Using authoritative and highly influential web-based children's health educational resources from the Nemours Foundation, the largest not-for-profit organization promoting children's health and well-being, we aimed to develop machine learning algorithms to discriminate and predict the writing styles of health educational resources on children versus adult health promotion using a variety of health educational resources aimed at the general public. Read More

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Twenty-year trends in elementary teachers' beliefs about best practices for students with ADHD.

Sch Psychol 2021 Jul;36(4):203-213

Department of Psychology, Florida International University.

In an effort to understand teachers' perceptions of best practices for treatment of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and how those may have shifted over the past 20 years, general education elementary school teachers completed surveys regarding their opinions of evidence-based interventions in the classroom. Two independent and anonymous samples of general education, elementary school teachers were collected: One in 1999 (n = 598) and a second in 2019 (n = 661). Teachers responded to questions about their interactions with students with ADHD as well as their beliefs about best practices for these students. Read More

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Psychological distress prevalence and associated stressors and supports among urban-displaced Congolese adults in Kenya.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Health Sciences.

Background: There is limited understanding of the prevalence of psychological distress and associated stressors and supports among displaced adults in low- and middle-income first asylum countries.

Method: This article reports the findings of a cross-sectional study. We recruited 245 Congolese adults (18-80 years) residing in Nairobi, Kenya using snowball sampling. Read More

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Ethnoveterinary botanical survey of medicinal plants used in Pashto, Punjabi and Saraiki communities of Southwest Pakistan.

Vet Med Sci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Medicinal plants are highly used in the ethnoveterinary practice as considerable livestock resources in remote areas. The aim of the present study is to explore the ethnoveterinary medicinal practices in three different communities and discuss the cross-cultural consensus on the usage of medicinal plants for the treatment of animals. The field survey was conducted by the animal healers of the area during the different seasons of plant growth. Read More

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Realizing the vision of the Lancet Commission on Education of Health Professionals for the 21st Century: Transforming medical education through the Accelerating Change in Medical Education Consortium.

Med Teach 2021 Jul;43(sup2):S1-S6

School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

In the last two decades, prompted by the anticipated arrival of the 21st Century and on the centenary of the publication of the Flexner Report, many in medical education called for change to address the expanding chasm between the requirements of the health care system and the educational systems producing the health care workforce. Calls were uniform. Curricular content was missing. Read More

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The critical role of infrastructure and organizational culture in implementing competency-based education and individualized pathways in undergraduate medical education.

Med Teach 2021 Jul;43(sup2):S7-S16

School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, USA.

In 2010, several key works in medical education predicted the changes necessary to train modern physicians to meet current and future challenges in health care, including the standardization of learning outcomes paired with individualized learning processes. The reframing of a medical expert as a flexible, adaptive team member and change agent, effective within a larger system and responsive to the community's needs, requires a new approach to education: competency-based medical education (CBME). CBME is an outcomes-based developmental approach to ensuring each trainee's readiness to advance through stages of training and continue to grow in unsupervised practice. Read More

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Health systems science education: The new post-Flexner professionalism for the 21st century.

Med Teach 2021 Jul;43(sup2):S25-S31

Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

The foundations of medical education have drawn from the Flexner Report to prepare students for practice for over a century. These recommendations relied, however, upon a limited set of competencies and a relatively narrow view of the physician's role. There have been increasing calls and recommendations to expand those competencies and the professional identity of the physician to better meet the current and future needs of patients, health systems, and society. Read More

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Doll play prompts social thinking and social talking: Representations of internal state language in the brain.

Dev Sci 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Doll play provides opportunities for children to practice social skills by creating imaginary worlds, taking others' perspectives, and talking about others' internal states. Previous research using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) found a region over the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) was more active during solo doll play than solo tablet play, implying that doll play might present opportunities for rehearsing theory of mind and empathy skills, even when playing alone. In this research, we addressed this more directly by investigating 4-8-year-old children's (N = 33) use of internal state language (ISL; i. Read More

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Pancreas transplantation perceptions and practice: Results from a national U.S. survey.

Clin Transplant 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Medstar Georgetown Transplant Institute, Washington, DC, USA.

Due to a substantial decline in pancreas transplantation (PT) across the United States over the past 15 years, we sought to understand the perceptions and practices of US PT programs. Surveys were sent to members of the American Society of Transplantation Surgeons and the American Society of Transplantation by email and professional society postings between August 2019 to November 2019. One hundred twenty three responses were recorded from 56 unique programs. Read More

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Primary care-based models of care for osteoarthritis: a scoping review protocol.

HRB Open Res 2021 10;4:48. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Physiotherapy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, RCSI, University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland.

The burden of osteoarthritis (OA) to individuals and health systems is substantial and is expected to increase due to population ageing and rising prevalence of obesity and multimorbidity. Primary care-based models of care (MoCs) are being increasingly developed in response to this growing burden. However, these MoCs have yet to be formally reviewed. Read More

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Clinical and research priorities for children and young people with bronchiectasis: an international roadmap.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jul 19;7(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Pediatric Asthma and Cough Centre, Istituti Ospedalieri Bergamaschi, University and Research Hospitals, Ponte San Pietro, Bergamo, Italy.

The global burden of children and young people (CYP) with bronchiectasis is being recognised increasingly. They experience a poor quality of life and recurrent respiratory exacerbations requiring additional treatment, including hospitalisation. However, there are no published data on patient-driven clinical needs and/or research priorities for paediatric bronchiectasis. Read More

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Addressing Health Literacy in Schools in Germany: Concept Analysis of the Mandatory Digital and Media Literacy School Curriculum.

Front Public Health 2021 5;9:687389. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Faculty of Educational Science, Interdisciplinary Center for Health Literacy Research, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.

It is generally agreed upon that the development of health literacy should be addressed from an early age onwards in order to empower children to develop their full health potential. Schools can be seen as an ideal venue for strengthening health literacy because they reach almost all school-aged children throughout their school years. The development of health literacy at a young age is a catalyst for healthy development throughout across the life span. Read More

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Transfer of learning from simulated setting to the clinical setting: identifying instructional design features.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2021 14;35:90. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Transfer of learning (ToL) is the endpoint of simulation-based training (SBT). It is affected by numerous factors, which can be classified into 3 categories: learner characteristics, work environment, and training design. The first 2 have been identified to some extent in previous research. Read More

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A systematic review of clinical trials on Ginkgo () effectiveness on sexual function and its safety.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2021 Jul-Aug;11(4):324-331

Clinical Instructor Mpilo School of Midwifery Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Confederation of Midwives, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

Objective: During recent years, evidence-based practice as a way to support higher standards of care was emphasized by health care policymakers. Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a common problem that affects the quality of life in individuals. Today, the use of extract (GBE) for treating SD has been considered, so this study was performed to evaluate the current evidence for the efficacy and safety of ginkgo in treating SD. Read More

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November 2020

Dermatologic Manifestations of Tick-borne Diseases in Travelers.

Curr Trop Med Rep 2021 Jun 12;8(2):99-103. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma, OK, USA.

Purpose Of Review: International and domestic travelers may acquire a wide variety of infectious diseases transmitted by exposure to insects. Exposure to ticks may be associated with systemic infections clinically suspected through skin and soft tissue manifestations along with fever, myalgia, headache, and other related symptoms. Cutaneous lesions may include eschars at the site of initial contact, maculopapular rashes, or others as the result of systemic dissemination of viral, Rickettsial, parasitic, and protozoan infections acquired by exposure to different types of ticks. Read More

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Quality of life in ambulatory pulmonary arterial hypertension in connective tissue diseases and its relationship with risk stratification.

Pulm Circ 2021 Jul-Sep;11(3):20458940211029899. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Rheumatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Clinical Research Center for Dermatologic and Immunologic Diseases, Ministry of Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.

The Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Symptoms and Impact Questionnaire (PAH-SYMPACT) is a PAH-specific patient-reported outcome scale assessing patients' quality of life from four aspects: cardiopulmonary symptoms, cardiovascular symptoms, physical impacts and cognitive/emotional impacts. This study aimed to validate the Chinese version of PAH-SYMPACT and explore its relationship with risk stratification in patients with connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (CTD-PAH). In addition, 75 patients with CTD-PAH confirmed by right heart catheterization were invited to complete questionnaires including PAH-SYMPACT, the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Survey (SF-36) and EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D). Read More

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A Proposed Model of Core Competencies for Research Ethics Consultants.

Asian Bioeth Rev 2021 Sep 29;13(3):355-370. Epub 2021 May 29.

Clinical Research, Innovation and Education Center, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Japan.

Research ethics consultation services (RECS), which function as an advisory service to facilitate the resolution of complex ethical issues in clinical research, have been proliferating over the last decade. However, the qualification of an individual who provides RECS, or "a research ethics consultant," has not been thoroughly investigated, in contrast to healthcare ethics consultants, whose core competencies have been discussed and clarified to a great extent. In this study, we investigated core competencies necessary for research ethics consultants, referring to the core competency models of ethics consultants developed in the healthcare practice context, and propose a competency model for research ethics consultants. Read More

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September 2021