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Dual-Mode FEN1 Activity Detection Based on Nt.BstNBI-Induced Tandem Signal Amplification.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Jiangsu Engineering Laboratory of Smart Carbon-Rich Materials and Device, Jiangsu Province Hi-Tech Key Laboratory for Bio-medical Research, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China.

Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is a structure-specific nuclease that cleaves the 5' single-stranded protrusion (also known as 5' flap) during Okazaki fragment processing. It is overexpressed in various types of human cancer cells and has been considered as an important biomarker for cancer diagnosis. However, conventional methods for FEN1 assay usually suffer from complicated platform and laborious procedures with a limited sensitivity. Read More

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Acoustically induced transparency for synchrotron hard x-ray photons.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7930. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Quantum Studies and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-4242, USA.

The induced transparency of opaque medium for resonant electromagnetic radiation is a powerful tool for manipulating the field-matter interaction. Various techniques to make different physical systems transparent for radiation from microwaves to x-rays were implemented. Most of them are based on the modification of the quantum-optical properties of the medium under the action of an external coherent electromagnetic field. Read More

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Automated segmentation and description of the internal morphology of human permanent teeth by means of micro-CT.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Apr 12;21(1):185. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Restorative, Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

High-resolution micro-computed tomography is a powerful tool to analyze and visualize the internal morphology of human permanent teeth. It is increasingly used for investigation of epidemiological questions to provide the dentist with the necessary information required for successful endodontic treatment. The aim of the present paper was to propose an image processing method to automate parts of the work needed to fully describe the internal morphology of human permanent teeth. Read More

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Impacts of invasive quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) on reservoir water quality, as revealed by progressive-change BACIPS analysis.

Water Res 2021 Apr 2;197:117105. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK; BioRISC, St. Catharine's College, Cambridge, CB2 1RL, UK.

Invasive quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) are an emerging threat to the functioning and management of freshwater ecosystems. Quagga mussels were first recorded in the UK in 2014 and have subsequently established at high densities in a number of major reservoirs. Through implementing a Progressive-Change BACIPS (Before-After-Control-Impact Paired Series) analysis, we found that the following trends were observed following quagga mussel establishment: reduced diatom and cyanobacteria abundances; increased soluble reactive phosphorus and reactive silica concentrations; and reduced abundances of Aphanizomenon sp. Read More

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Correlation between Second Ionization Potential and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Bivalent Transition-Metal Complexes: A Quantum Chemical Study.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5280, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France.

Discovering new materials with excellent nonlinear optical responses has recently become a very interesting research topic in the different domains of materials science. Currently, density functional theory (DFT) has been shown to be a powerful tool in the explanation and prediction of the performance of novel nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. Quantum chemical calculations using DFT/TD-DFT with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional are reported to study the NLO properties of 26 bivalent transition-metal (TM) complexed by six acyclic hexadentate ligands providing pyridyl/pyrazine-amide-thioether/ether coordination and differing by the nature of the methylene dichalcogenate spacer between the rings. Read More

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Elemental mapping of labeled biological specimens at intermediate energy loss in an energy-filtered TEM acquired using a direct detection device.

J Microsc 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093.

The technique of color EM that was recently developed enabled localization of specific macromolecules/proteins of interest by the targeted deposition of diaminobenzidine (DAB) conjugated to lanthanide chelates. By acquiring lanthanide elemental maps by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and overlaying them in pseudocolor over the conventional greyscale TEM image, a color EM image is generated. This provides a powerful tool for visualizing subcellular component/s, by the ability to clearly distinguish them from the general staining of the endogenous cellular material. Read More

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Targeted urine metabolomics with a graphical reporting tool for rapid diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The current diagnostic work-up of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is rapidly moving towards integrative analytical approaches. We aimed to develop an innovative, targeted urine metabolomics (TUM) screening procedure to accelerate the diagnosis of patients with IEM. Urinary samples, spiked with 3 stable isotope-labelled internal standards, were analysed for 258 diagnostic metabolites with an UHPLC-QTOF-MS configuration run in positive and negative ESI modes. Read More

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Single Cell Label-Free Probing of Chromatin Dynamics During B Lymphocyte Maturation.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:646616. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.

Large-scale intracellular signaling during developmental growth or in response to environmental alterations are largely orchestrated by chromatin within the cell nuclei. Chemical and conformational modifications of the chromatin architecture are critical steps in the regulation of differential gene expression and ultimately cell fate determination. Therefore, establishing chemical properties of the nucleus could provide key markers for phenotypic characterization of cellular processes on a scale of individual cells. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas: A powerful tool for gene function study and crop improvement.

J Adv Res 2021 Mar 21;29:207-221. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA.

Background: It is a long-standing goal of scientists and breeders to precisely control a gene for studying its function as well as improving crop yield, quality, and tolerance to various environmental stresses. The discovery and modification of CRISPR/Cas system, a nature-occurred gene editing tool, opens an era for studying gene function and precision crop breeding.

Aim Of Review: In this review, we first introduce the brief history of CRISPR/Cas discovery followed the mechanism and application of CRISPR/Cas system on gene function study and crop improvement. Read More

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BPPV Simulation: A Powerful Tool to Understand and Optimize the Diagnostics and Treatment of all Possible Variants of BPPV.

Front Neurol 2021 26;12:632286. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

NeuroEquilibrium Diagnostics, Jaipur, India.

BPPV is a mechanical disorder caused by the displacement of otolith debris into the semicircular canals. The treatment involves different repositioning maneuvers to bring the debris back into the utricle. This study aims to show how dynamic simulation models based on fluid dynamics and MRI, can help to visualize and understand the movement of the debris within the canals during head movement in 3D as a function of time. Read More

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Extracting Phonetic Features From Natural Classes: A Mismatch Negativity Study of Mandarin Chinese Retroflex Consonants.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 24;15:609898. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Linguistics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

How speech sounds are represented in the brain is not fully understood. The mismatch negativity (MMN) has proven to be a powerful tool in this regard. The MMN event-related potential is elicited by a deviant stimulus embedded within a series of repeating standard stimuli. Read More

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PIRACY: An Optimized Pipeline for Functional Connectivity Analysis in the Rat Brain.

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:602170. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Animal Imaging and Technology, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is a widespread and powerful tool for investigating functional connectivity (FC) and brain disorders. However, FC analysis can be seriously affected by random and structured noise from non-neural sources, such as physiology. Thus, it is essential to first reduce thermal noise and then correctly identify and remove non-neural artifacts from rs-fMRI signals through optimized data processing methods. Read More

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Artificial intelligence applications in restorative dentistry: A systematic review.

J Prosthet Dent 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Assistant Professor, J. Mike Walker '66 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

Statement Of Problem: Artificial intelligence (AI) applications are increasing in restorative procedures. However, the current development and performance of AI in restorative dentistry applications has not yet been systematically documented and analyzed.

Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate the ability of AI models in restorative dentistry to diagnose dental caries and vertical tooth fracture, detect tooth preparation margins, and predict restoration failure. Read More

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Blood CD3-(CD56 or 16)+ natural killer cell distributions are heterogeneous in healthy adults and suppressed by azathioprine in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitides.

BMC Immunol 2021 Apr 12;22(1):26. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.

Background: Cytotoxic Natural Killer (NK) cells are increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to induce targeted cell death in cancer and autoimmune diseases. Still, basic blood NK cell parameters are poorly defined. The aims of this study were 1) to establish reference values of NK cell counts and percentages in healthy adults; 2) to describe these parameters in the prototype autoimmune disease group ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV); and 3) to investigate whether NK cell counts and percentages may be used as activity biomarkers in the care of AAV patients, as suggested by a preceding study. Read More

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Proteomics applications in biomarker discovery and pathogenesis for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

Expert Rev Proteomics 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Vascular Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, , Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

:Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common, complex, and life-threatening disease. Currently, the pathogenesis of AAA is not well understood. No biomarkers or specific drugs are available for AAA in clinical applications. Read More

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Neural Anatomy and Optical Microscopy (NAOMi) Simulation for evaluating calcium imaging methods.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Apr 8:109173. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 21218, Maryland, USA; Mathematical Institute for Data Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 21218, Maryland, USA; Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 21218, Maryland, USA; Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 21218, Maryland, USA.

Background: The past decade has seen a multitude of new in vivo functional imaging methodologies. However, the lack of ground-truth comparisons or evaluation metrics makes the large-scale, systematic validation vital to the continued development and use of optical microscopy impossible. New-method: We provide a new framework for evaluating two-photon microscopy methods via in silico Neural Anatomy and Optical Microscopy (NAOMi) simulation. Read More

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Luminescent nanohybrid of ZnO quantum dot and cellulose nanocrystal as anti-counterfeiting ink.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jun 26;262:117864. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Sensor Research Unit (SRU), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phaya Thai Road, Pathum Wan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand; Research Network NANOTEC-CU on Advanced Structural and Functional Nanomaterials, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand. Electronic address:

Luminescent quantum dot (QD) ink is currently a powerful tool for generating hidden information on paper substrates. Herein, we fabricated a nanohybrid ink of bacterial cellulose nanocrystal (BCNC) and UV-responsive ZnO QD via electrostatic self-assembly for improving solvent resistance and message encryption process. Under investigations on the printed areas, the nanohybrid can slightly infiltrate into the paper fibers and form a thin layer on the top of paper substrates, conferring an enhanced print permanence against wetting conditions while maintaining the daylight unobservability and its luminescent stability. Read More

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Leukocyte transmigration efficiency and longitudinal forward-thrusting force in a microfluidic Transwell device.

Biophys J 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

LAI, Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, INSERM, Turing center for living systems, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Transmigration of leukocytes across blood vessels walls is a critical step of the immune response. Transwell assays examine transmigration properties in vitro by counting cells passages through a membrane, however the difficulty of in situ imaging hampers a clear disentanglement of the roles of adhesion, chemokinesis and chemotaxis. We used here microfluidic Transwells to image the cells transition from 2D migration on a surface to 3D migration in a confining microchannels, and measure cells longitudinal forward-thrusting force in microchannels. Read More

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Deep learning in photoacoustic imaging: a review.

J Biomed Opt 2021 Apr;26(4)

Tsinghua University, Department of Electronic Engineering, Haidian, Beijing, China.

Significance: Photoacoustic (PA) imaging can provide structural, functional, and molecular information for preclinical and clinical studies. For PA imaging (PAI), non-ideal signal detection deteriorates image quality, and quantitative PAI (QPAI) remains challenging due to the unknown light fluence spectra in deep tissue. In recent years, deep learning (DL) has shown outstanding performance when implemented in PAI, with applications in image reconstruction, quantification, and understanding. Read More

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Identifying high-confidence capture Hi-C interactions using CHiCANE.

Nat Protoc 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

The ability to identify regulatory interactions that mediate gene expression changes through distal elements, such as risk loci, is transforming our understanding of how genomes are spatially organized and regulated. Capture Hi-C (CHi-C) is a powerful tool to delineate such regulatory interactions. However, primary analysis and downstream interpretation of CHi-C profiles remains challenging and relies on disparate tools with ad-hoc input/output formats and specific assumptions for statistical modeling. Read More

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Serum lipid profiling analysis and potential marker discovery for ovarian cancer based on liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometry.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Mar 26;199:114048. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, 116023, China.

Low early diagnosis rate and unclear pathogenesis are the primary reasons for the high mortality of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Lipidomics is a powerful tool for marker discovery and mechanism explanation. Hence, a ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based non-targeted lipidomics analysis was performed to acquire lipid profiling of 153 serum samples including healthy control (HC, n = 50), benign ovarian tumor (BOT, n = 41), and EOC (n = 62) to reveal lipid disturbance, then differential lipids were verified in another sample set including 187 sera. Read More

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Transmission Mode 2D-IR Spectroelectrochemistry of Electrocatalytic Intermediates.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 9:3712-3717. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, 930 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.

Unraveling electrocatalytic mechanisms, as well as fundamental structural dynamics of intermediates, requires spectroscopy with high time and frequency resolution that can account for nonequilibrium concentration changes inherent to electrochemistry. Two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy is an ideal candidate, but several technical challenges have hindered development of this powerful tool for spectroelectrochemistry (SEC). We demonstrate a transmission-mode, optically transparent thin-layer electrochemical (OTTLE) cell adapted to 2D-IR-SEC to monitor the important Re(bpy)(CO)Cl CO-reduction electrocatalyst. Read More

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Bioinformatic pipelines combining denoising and clustering tools allow for more comprehensive prokaryotic and eukaryotic metabarcoding.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

MARBEC, Ifremer, Univ. Montpellier, IRD, CNRS, Sète, France.

Environmental DNA metabarcoding is a powerful tool for studying biodiversity. However, bioinformatic approaches need to adjust to the diversity of taxonomic compartments targeted as well as to each barcode gene specificities. We built and tested a pipeline based on read correction with DADA2 allowing analysing metabarcoding data from prokaryotic (16S) and eukaryotic (18S, COI) life compartments. Read More

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Metabolism study and toxicological determination of mephtetramine (MTTA) in biological samples by LC-HRMS.

Drug Test Anal 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Health Surveillance and Bioethics, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore F. Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

The emerging market of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) is a global-scale phenomenon and their identification in biological samples is challenging because of the lack of information about their metabolism and pharmacokinetic. In this study, we performed in silico metabolic pathway prediction and in vivo metabolism experiments, in order to identify the main metabolites of mephtetramine (MTTA), an NPS found in seizures since 2013. MetaSite software was used for in silico metabolism predictions and subsequently the presence of metabolites in the blood, urine and hair of mice after MTTA administration was verified. Read More

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Establishment of a post-race biomarkers database and application of pathway analysis to identify potential biomarkers in post-race equine plasma.

Drug Test Anal 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Drug Analysis Department, Laboratory of Racing Chemistry, 1731-2, Tsuruta-machi, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, 320-0851, Japan.

In the context of doping control, conventional direct chemical testing detects only a limited scope of target substances in equine biological samples. To expand the ability to detect doping agents and their detection windows, metabolomics has recently become a common approach for monitoring alteration of biomarkers caused by doping agents in relevant metabolic pathways. In horse racing, remarkable changes in metabolic profiles between the rest state and racing are likely to affect the identification of doping biomarkers. Read More

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Current trends in diabetes mellitus database research in Japan.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Apr;23 Suppl 2:3-18

Cardiovascular, Renal, and Metabolism, Medical Affairs, AstraZeneca K.K., Osaka, Japan.

With the widespread use of electronic medical records and administrative claims databases, analytic results from so-called real-world data have become increasingly important in healthcare decision-making. Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous condition that involves a broad spectrum of patients. Real-world database studies have been recognised as a powerful tool to understand the impact of current practices on clinical courses and outcomes, such as long-term glucose control, development of microvascular or macro-vascular diseases, and mortality. Read More

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Micro-RNA Quantification, Target Gene Identification, and Pathway Analysis.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2284:207-229

Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

RNA sequencing has become a powerful tool for profiling the expression level of small RNAs from both solid tissues and liquid biopsies. In conjunction with pathway analysis, it offers exciting possibilities for the identification of disease specific biomarkers. In this chapter, we describe a workflow for processing this type of sequencing data. Read More

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January 2021

Teledermatology During COVID-19: An Updated Review.

Am J Clin Dermatol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has fundamentally transformed the landscape of providing dermatologic care. In an age of lockdowns and social distancing, teledermatology (TD) has emerged as a powerful tool to deliver remote care. Here, we review literature on TD use during the pandemic to evaluate the positives and negatives of TD implementation. Read More

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A retrospective in-depth analysis of continuous glucose monitoring datasets for patients with hepatic glycogen storage disease: recommended outcome parameters for glucose management.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Section of Metabolic Diseases, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems have great potential for real-time assessment of glycaemic variation in patients with hepatic glycogen storage disease (GSD). However, detailed descriptions and in-depth analysis of CGM data from hepatic GSD patients during interventions are scarce. This is a retrospective in-depth analysis of CGM parameters, acquired in a continuous, real-time fashion describing glucose management in 15 individual GSD patients. Read More

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Automated Online Flow Cytometry Advances Microalgal Ecosystem Management as , High-Temporal Resolution Monitoring Tool.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 23;9:642671. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Sustainable Food Processing Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Microalgae are emerging as a next-generation biotechnological production system in the pharmaceutical, biofuel, and food domain. The economization of microalgal biorefineries remains a main target, where culture contamination and prokaryotic upsurge are main bottlenecks to impair culture stability, reproducibility, and consequently productivity. Automated online flow cytometry (FCM) is gaining momentum as bioprocess optimization tool, as it allows for spatial and temporal landscaping, real-time investigations of rapid microbial processes, and the assessment of intrinsic cell features. Read More

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