240,502 results match your criteria potential mechanisms

Contemporary Clinical Use of Aspirin: Mechanisms of Action, Current Concepts, Unresolved Questions, and Future Perspectives.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

The ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation has positioned this agent within the most frequently used drugs worldwide. The aim of this article is to review the contemporary clinical use of aspirin and also to discuss unresolved issues not yet translated into clinical practice. Results from several clinical trials have led to strong guideline recommendations for aspirin use in the acute management and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Sexual Development and the Environment: Conclusions from 40 Years of Theory.

Sex Dev 2021 Jun 15:1-16. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

In this review, we consider the insight that has been gained through theoretical examination of environmental sex determination (ESD) and thermolability - how theory has progressed our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary dynamics associated with ESD, the transitional pathways between different modes of sex determination, and the underlying mechanisms. Following decades of theory on the adaptive benefits of ESD, several hypotheses seem promising. These hypotheses focus on the importance of differential fitness (sex-specific effects of temperature on fitness) in generating selection for ESD, but highlight alternative ways differential fitness arises: seasonal impacts on growth, sex-specific ages of maturation, and sex-biased dispersal. Read More

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Exploring the Effects of a Golf Program on Psychological and Social Wellbeing for People With Dementia, Carers, and Staff.

J Aging Phys Act 2021 Jun 13:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

There is a paucity of evidence regarding the effects of sport and physical activity on wellbeing in dementia. The present study is the first known study to involve golf with this population. People with dementia (n = 10) and carers (n = 5) participated in a 6-week golf program, facilitated by golf center staff (n = 3). Read More

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Acute and chronic toxicity of microcystin-LR and phenanthrene alone or in combination to the cladoceran (Daphnia magna).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 12;220:112405. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:

Hazardous substances, such as microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and phenanthrene (Phe) are ubiquitous co-contaminants in eutrophic freshwaters, which cause harms to aquatic organisms. However, the risks associated with the co-exposure of aquatic biota to these two chemicals in the environment have received little attention. In this study, the single and mixture toxic effects of MC-LR and Phe mixtures were investigated in Daphnia magna after acute and chronic exposure. Read More

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The antidepressant-like effects of Danggui Buxue Decoction in GK rats by activating CREB/BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway.

Phytomedicine 2021 May 21;89:153600. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Traditional Chinese Medicine•College of Intergrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 138 Xianlin Rd, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Background: High rates of co-morbidity have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus with depression (DD). Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD), a Traditional Chinese Medicine formula composed of Angelica and Astragalus, has been historically used for the treatment of diabetes.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigated whether DBD and its main active component, ferulic acid (FA) from Angelica, could ameliorate depression-like behavior in DD and the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Metabolic regulation of cardiac regeneration: roles of hypoxia, energy homeostasis, and mitochondrial dynamics.

Curr Opin Genet Dev 2021 Jun 11;70:54-60. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratory for Heart Regeneration, RIKEN Center for Biosystem Dynamics Research, 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0043, Japan. Electronic address:

The adult mammalian heart cannot regenerate after myocardial injury because most cardiomyocytes lack the ability to proliferate. In contrast, cardiomyocytes of vertebrates such as zebrafish and urodele amphibians, but also those of fetal and early neonatal mammals, maintain the ability to proliferate and therefore support regeneration of injured tissue and recovery of cardiac function. Whether evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanisms of cardiomyocyte proliferation exist and, if so, whether they are modifiable to allow cardiac regeneration in adult mammals are questions of great scientific and medical interest. Read More

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The role of systemic inflammation in the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 27;40(6):3661-3667. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Blood Transfusion, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains inconclusive. Moreover, whether inflammatory biomarkers are involved in this association has not been explored. This study aims to investigate serum 25(OH)D in relation to T2DM in a Chinese population and provide clues for the inflammatory mechanism whereby serum 25(OH)D deficiency increases T2DM risk. Read More

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Age-Associated Proteomic Signatures and Potential Clinically Actionable Targets of Colorectal Cancer.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Jun 12:100115. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics and Department of General Practice, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, China. Electronic address:

The occurrence and prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is closely associated with age. More than 90% of CRC patients are diagnosed after 50 years old. However, CRC incidence of young individuals has been increasing since 1990s as overall CRC frequency declining. Read More

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Microglia, synaptic dynamics and forgetting.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Center of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, And Department of Neurology of Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Microglia are the major immune cells in the brain parenchyma. Besides their immune functions, microglia are important in regulating the dynamics of synapses. It is believed that the stability of synapses is essential for long-term storage and retrieval of memories, whereas microglial regulation of synaptic dynamics could affect the stability of memories, thus providing a potential mechanism for forgetting. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic study of Ninjin'yoeito: Absorption and brain distribution of Ninjin'yoeito ingredients in mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 12:114332. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Anatomy, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 431-3192, Japan; Preppers Co. Ltd., 1-23-17 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo, 140-0001, Japan; International Mass Imaging Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 431-3192, Japan; Department of Systems Molecular Anatomy, Institute for Medical Photonics Research, Preeminent Medical Photonics Education & Research Center, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 431-3192, Japan. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ninjin'yoeito (NYT), a Japanese traditional Kampo medicine, has been reported to exert various clinical benefits such as relief from fatigue, malaise, anorexia, frailty, sarcopenia, and cognitive dysfunction. Recently, some review articles described the pharmacological effects of NYT and additionally indicated the possibility that multiple ingredients in NYT contribute to these effects. However, pharmacokinetic data on the ingredients are essential in addition to data on their pharmacological activities to accurately determine the active ingredients in NYT. Read More

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Maternal gestational mercury exposure in relation to cord blood T cell alterations and placental gene expression signatures.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 12:111385. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine and the Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth; Hanover, NH, USA.

The immunotoxic impacts of mercury during early life is poorly understood. We investigated the associations between gestational mercury exposure and frequency of cord blood T cells as well as placental gene expression. Frequency of natural Treg cells was positively associated with prenatal and postpartum mercury toenail concentrations. Read More

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Lipoproteins and cancer: The role of HDL-C, LDL-C, and cholesterol-lowering drugs.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Jun 12:114654. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City University of New York School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Graduate Program in Biology, City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Cholesterol is an amphipathic sterol molecule that is vital for maintaining normal physiological homeostasis. It is a relatively complicated molecule with 27 carbons whose synthesis starts with 2-carbon units. This in itself signifies the importance of this molecule. Read More

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Targeting Alveolar Repair in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

AstraZeneca PLC, 4625, Cambridge, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland;

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal interstitial lung disease with limited therapeutic options. Current evidence suggests that IPF may be initiated by repeated epithelial injury in the distal lung followed by abnormal wound healing responses which occur due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Mechanisms contributing to chronic damage of the alveolar epithelium in IPF include dysregulated cellular processes such as apoptosis, senescence, abnormal activation of developmental pathways, aging, as well as genetic mutations. Read More

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Resveratrol reduces drug resistance of SCLC cells by suppressing the inflammatory microenvironment and the STAT3/VEGF pathway.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Laizhou People's Hospital, Wuli Street, Laizhou City, Shandong, China, 261400.

DNA-damaging agents, such as adriamycin, are widely used for the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, drug resistance is one of the major challenges for treatment of SCLC. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms underlying drug resistance in SCLC cells and the effects of resveratrol (Res) on drug resistance. Read More

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Effects of Macrophage Regulation on Fat Grafting Survival: Improvement, Mechanisms, and Potential Application A Review.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Autologous fat grafting has become a popular tool in plastic surgery to solve soft tissue defects and achieve skin rejuvenation, but the volume loss after transplantation remains a disturbing problem. In recent years, some new strategies have improved the outcome to some extent, but the fat graft retention is still far from ideal, so there remains a wide development prospect in this field. Macrophages are closely related to the local microenvironment and tissue regeneration, and their role in fat grafting has been increasingly highlighted. Read More

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Do working conditions contribute differently to gender gaps in self-rated health within different occupational classes? Evidence from the Swedish Level of Living Survey.

Sara Kjellsson

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253119. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Socioeconomic inequality in health among women is often referred to as smaller than health inequality among men. However, we know less about differences in health between men and women within the same socioeconomic groups. In this article the lack of attention to potential socioeconomic variation in gender health inequality is argued as unfortunate, as it can obscure how mechanisms, such as e. Read More

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Platycodin D attenuates airway inflammation via suppression Th2 transcription factor in a murine model of acute asthma.

J Asthma 2021 Jun 15:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Bronchial asthma is a common chronic inflammatory condition of the airway tissue. Platycodin D (PLD) has anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of allergic asthma. In this work, the anti-asthma potential of PLD was studied by investigation of its effect to suppress airway inflammation and mucin production, a murine model of asthma and the possible mechanisms. Read More

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Systems-level approaches for understanding and engineering of the oleaginous cell factory Yarrowia lipolytica.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Concerns about climate change and the search for renewable energy sources together with the goal of attaining sustainable product manufacturing have boosted the use of microbial platforms to produce fuels and high-value chemicals. In this regard, Y. lipolytica has been known as a promising yeast with potentials in diverse array of biotechnological applications such as being a host for different oleochemicals, organic acid and recombinant protein production. Read More

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The potential role of Keap1-Nrf2 pathway in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes-related Alzheimer's disease.

Ling He Yi Sun

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 639 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, 211198, China.

Kelch-like ECH associated-protein 1 (Keap1)-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway is thought to be the key regulatory process defensing oxidative stress in multiple organs. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both serious global health problems with high prevalence. A growing number of literatures have suggested a possible link between Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway and the pathological changes of T2DM, AD as well as T2DM-related AD. Read More

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Protective Effect of Lutein/Zeaxanthin Isomers in Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice.

Neurotox Res 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.

Previous studies revealed that oxidative stress and inflammation are the main contributors to secondary injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In an earlier study, we reported that lutein/zeaxanthin isomers (L/Zi) exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects by activating the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathways. However, its precise role and underlying mechanisms were largely unknown after TBI. Read More

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Comparative transcriptome analysis provides insights into steviol glycoside synthesis in stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) leaves under nitrogen deficiency.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for the Research and Utilization of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Qianhuhoucun Village, Zhongshan Gate, Nanjing, 210014, China.

Key Message: Transcriptome analysis revealed the potential mechanism of nitrogen regulating steviol glycosides synthesis via shifting of leaf carbon metabolic flux or inducing certain transcription factors. Nitrogen (N) plays key regulatory roles in both stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) growth and the synthesis of its functional metabolite steviol glycosides (SGs), but the mechanism by which this nutrient regulates SGs synthesis remains to be elucidated. To address this question, a pot experiment was performed in a greenhouse where stevia plants fertilized with N (the control as CK plants) and compared with plants without the supply of N. Read More

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Determining the association between hypertension and bone metabolism markers in osteoporotic patients.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26276

Department of Cardiovascular Internal Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang.

Abstract: The aim of the case study is to examine the association between hypertension and the level of bone metabolism markers in newly diagnosed osteoporotic patients.A cross-sectional study of 518 subjects was done to see the association between hypertension and the level of osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP.5B), and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD). Read More

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Integrated transcriptomic analysis of human tuberculosis granulomas and a biomimetic model identifies therapeutic targets.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a persistent global pandemic and standard treatment has not changed for thirty years. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has undergone prolonged co-evolution with humans, and patients can control Mtb even after extensive infection, demonstrating the fine balance between protective and pathological host responses within infected granulomas. We hypothesised that whole transcriptome analysis of human TB granulomas isolated by laser capture microdissection could identify therapeutic targets, and that comparison with a non-infectious granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis, would identify disease-specific pathological mechanisms. Read More

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ENT2 facilitates brain endothelial cell penetration and blood-brain barrier transport by a tumor-targeting anti-DNA autoantibody.

JCI Insight 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, United States of America.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents antibodies from penetrating the CNS and limits conventional antibody-based approaches to brain tumors. We now show that ENT2, a transporter that regulates nucleoside flux at the BBB, may offer an unexpected path to circumventing this barrier to allow targeting of brain tumors with an anti-DNA autoantibody. Deoxymab-1 (DX1) is a DNA-damaging autoantibody that localizes to tumors and is synthetically lethal to cancer cells with defects in the DNA damage response. Read More

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Antibody Levels to Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1-DBLγ11 and DBLδ-1 Predict Reduction in Parasite Density.

mSystems 2021 Jun 15:e0034721. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Molecular and Pathogenesis Biomarkers Section, Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology (LMIV), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a variant surface antigen family expressed on infected red blood cells that plays a role in immune evasion and mediates adhesion to vascular endothelium. PfEMP1s are potential targets of protective antibodies as suggested by previous seroepidemiology studies. Here, we used previously reported proteomic analyses of PfEMP1s of clinical parasite isolates collected from Malian children to identify targets of immunity. Read More

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RNA sequencing identifies two novel liver-specific long noncoding RNAs with potential diagnostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Biomark Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, 530021, PR China.

To explore the expression profiles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and identify novel lncRNAs as biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs in five paired HCC and adjacent normal tissues were obtained by RNA sequencing. Eight lncRNAs, including two novel liver-specific lncRNAs (NONHSAT059247. Read More

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Room-Temperature Methane Activation Mediated by Free Tantalum Cluster Cations: Size-by-Size Reactivity.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie, Chemistry Department & Catalysis Research Center, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85748 Garching, Germany.

The energetics of small cationic tantalum clusters and their gas-phase adsorption and dehydrogenation reaction pathways with methane are investigated with ion-trap experiments and spin-density-functional-theory calculations. Ta clusters are exposed to methane under multicollision conditions in a cryogenic ring electrode ion-trap. The cluster size affects the reaction efficiency and the number of consecutively dehydrogenated methane molecules. Read More

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Marine Natural Products: A Potential Source of Anti-hepatocellular Carcinoma Drugs.

J Med Chem 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Colorectal and Anal Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has high associated morbidity and mortality rates. Although chemical medication represents a primary HCC treatment strategy, low response rates and therapeutic resistance serve to reduce its efficacy. Hence, identifying novel effective drugs is urgently needed, and many researchers have sought to identify new anti-cancer drugs from marine organisms. Read More

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Regioselective Radical Arene Amination for the Concise Synthesis of -Phenylenediamines.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Yusuf Hamied Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, U.K.

The formation of arene C-N bonds directly from C-H bonds is of great importance and there has been rapid recent development of methods for achieving this through radical mechanisms, often involving reactive -centered radicals. A major challenge associated with these advances is that of regiocontrol, with mixtures of regioisomeric products obtained in most protocols, limiting broader utility. We have designed a system that utilizes attractive noncovalent interactions between an anionic substrate and an incoming radical cation in order to guide the latter to the arene position. Read More

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Antiviral and Immunological Activity of Zinc and Possible Role in COVID-19.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 15:1-21. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI, Brazil.

Zinc deficiency compromises its biological functions, its effect on the immune system and its antiviral activity, increasing vulnerability to infectious diseases. This narrative review aims at presenting and discussing functional aspects and possible mechanisms involved in the potential role of zinc in the immune response and antiviral activity for COVID-19 prevention and control. The searches were conducted in PubMed and Science Direct databases, using clinical trials, experimental studies in animals and humans, case-control studies, case series, letters to the editor, and review articles published in English, without restrictions on year of publication. Read More

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