13,033 results match your criteria potential hosts

Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in hair and spleen of cats revealed a possible underestimation of feline vector-borne pathogens.

Res Vet Sci 2021 May 5;137:144-149. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064, Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy. Electronic address:

Feline Vector-Borne Diseases show increased global prevalence and some Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species may pose a risk to human health. The diagnosis of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species infection in cats is achieved by the combined use of different methods as cytologic examination evidencing intracytoplasmic morulae, serologic tests and molecular assays. The peripheral whole blood is considered the sample of choice for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species DNA detection in cats, but false negative results are reported leading to underestimation of infection prevalence. Read More

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Impacts of reference selection on the assembly of suspicious coronavirus genome.

J Bioinform Comput Biol 2021 May 6:2140005. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Computer Science North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58106, USA.

The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has had a significant impact on the whole world. In a theory of the origin of SARS-CoV-2, pangolins are considered as a potential intermediate host. To assemble the genome of suspicious coronavirus (CoV) found in pangolins, SARS-CoV-2 was used as a reference in most of the previous studies, implicitly assuming the pangolin CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are the closest neighbors in evolution. Read More

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Soil type shapes the antibiotic resistome profiles of long-term manured soil.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 27;786:147361. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China. Electronic address:

Animal manure fertilization facilitates the proliferation and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil, posing high risks to humans and ecosystem health. Although studies suggest that soil types could shape the ARG profiles in greenhouse soil, there is still a lack of comparative studies on the fate of ARGs in different types of manured soils under field trials. Thus, a metagenomic approach was used to decipher the fate of ARGs in 12-year long-term fertilized (inorganic fertilizer, compost manure and a mix of them) acidic, near-neutral and alkaline soils. Read More

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Zoonotic potential of Newcastle disease virus: Old and novel perspectives related to public health.

Rev Med Virol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Quality Operations Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has a worldwide distribution, causing lethal infection in a wide range of avian species. Affected birds develop respiratory, digestive and neurologic symptoms with profound immunosuppression. Mild systemic Newcastle disease (ND) infection restricted to the respiratory and neurological systems can be observed in humans and other non-avian hosts. Read More

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Effects of historical co-infection on host shift abilities of exploitative and competitive viruses.

Evolution 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, P. O. Box 208106, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520, USA.

Rapid evolution contributes to frequent emergence of RNA viral pathogens on novel hosts. However, accurately predicting which viral genotypes will emerge has been elusive. Prior work with lytic RNA bacteriophage ɸ6 (family Cystoviridae) suggested that evolution under low multiplicity of infection (MOI; proportion of viruses to susceptible cells) selected for greater host exploitation, while evolution under high MOI selected for better intracellular competition against co-infecting viruses. Read More

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Mixed Grazing and Dietary Supplementation Improve the Response to Gastrointestinal Nematode Parasitism and Production Performances of Goats.

Front Vet Sci 2021 23;8:628686. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

URZ, Unité de Recherches Zootechniques INRAE, Petit-Bourg, France.

Small ruminants are very affected by gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism worldwide. The improvement of the host protective response and the reduction of the probability of contact between hosts and parasites appear as very promising strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a combination of two components of these two strategies on natural GIN infection and production performances of Creole goat kids: dietary supplementation and a rotational mixed grazing system. Read More

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Involvement of Phosphatases in Parasite Biology and Pathogeny.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 22;11:633146. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo De Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

In the lifecycle, the motile promastigote form is transmitted from the sand fly vector to a mammalian host during a blood meal. Inside vertebrate host macrophages, the parasites can differentiate into the amastigote form and multiply, causing leishmaniasis, one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases. parasites face different conditions throughout their development inside sand flies. Read More

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: General Characteristics of Pathogenicity and Methods of Control.

Front Plant Sci 2021 22;12:634397. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Instituto de Patología Vegetal, Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Córdoba, Argentina.

is a generalist soil-borne fungus present all over the world. It cause diseases such as stem and root rot, charcoal rot and seedling blight. Under high temperatures and low soil moisture, this fungus can cause substantial yield losses in crops such as soybean, sorghum and groundnut. Read More

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Virus Prevalence and Genetic Diversity Across a Wild Bumblebee Community.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:650747. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Cornwall, United Kingdom.

Viruses are key population regulators, but we have limited knowledge of the diversity and ecology of viruses. This is even the case in wild host populations that provide ecosystem services, where small fitness effects may have major ecological impacts in aggregate. One such group of hosts are the bumblebees, which have a major role in the pollination of food crops and have suffered population declines and range contractions in recent decades. Read More

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Bacterial Manipulation of the Integrated Stress Response: A New Perspective on Infection.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:645161. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Biomolecular Sciences Research Centre, Department of Biosciences and Chemistry, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Host immune activation forms a vital line of defence against bacterial pathogenicity. However, just as hosts have evolved immune responses, bacteria have developed means to escape, hijack and subvert these responses to promote survival. In recent years, a highly conserved group of signalling cascades within the host, collectively termed the integrated stress response (ISR), have become increasingly implicated in immune activation during bacterial infection. Read More

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Biosolids as a Source of Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids for Commensal and Pathogenic Bacteria.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:606409. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, United States.

Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a threat to modern medicine, and plasmids are driving the global spread of AR by horizontal gene transfer across microbiomes and environments. Determining the mobile resistome responsible for this spread of AR among environments is essential in our efforts to attenuate the current crisis. Biosolids are a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) byproduct used globally as fertilizer in agriculture. Read More

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Moving the Needle on Global Surgery Education in the US.

J Surg Educ 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Global Surgery Student Alliance, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objective: Interest in global surgery continues to increase among students and trainees in the U.S. pursuing fields that provide perioperative care, including surgery, anesthesia, and OB/GYN. Read More

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Interference of ISEcp1-bla with the shufflon rearrangement in IncI1 plasmids.

Plasmid 2021 May 5:102578. Epub 2021 May 5.

Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food science department (IKBM), Campus Ås, Universitetstunet 3, Ås 1433, Norway.

IncI1 plasmids are known disseminators of the extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance (ESC) gene bla, among species of the Enterobacteriaceae family. In several IncI1 plasmids, this gene was found incorporated into the transposition unit, ISEcp1-bla-orf477, interrupting a shufflon region, a hallmark of IncI1 conjugative plasmids. The shufflon diversifies pilV gene that encodes the adhesine-type protein found on the tip of the conjugative pilus. Read More

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Doing synthetic biology with photosynthetic microorganisms.

Physiol Plant 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Microbial Chemistry, Department of Chemistry-Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

The use of photosynthetic microbes as synthetic biology hosts for the sustainable production of commodity chemicals and even fuels has received increasing attention over the last decade. The number of studies published, tools implemented, and resources made available for microalgae have increased beyond expectations during the last few years. However, the tools available for genetic engineering in these organisms still lag those available for the more commonly used heterotrophic host organisms. Read More

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Sphingomyelinases in a journey to combat arthropod-borne pathogen transmission.

FEBS Lett 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA.

Ixodes scapularis ticks feed on humans and other vertebrate hosts and transmit several pathogens of public health concern. Tick saliva is a complex mixture of bioactive proteins, lipids, and immunomodulators such as I. scapularis SMase (IsSMase)-like protein, an ortholog of dermonecrotoxin Sphingomyelinase D found in the venom of Loxosceles spp. Read More

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Dioctophimosis: A Parasitic Zoonosis of Public Health Importance.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1306:129-142

Project Dioctophyme renale in Dogs and Cats (PRODIC), Department of Veterinary Clinics, Veterinary College, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Dioctophyme renale, the giant kidney worm, is a renal nematode from domestic and wild mammals that has zoonotic potential. In humans, dioctophimosis has been reported in several countries, mainly on the Asian continent, totaling more than 40 cases, which describe the parasite mainly infecting the kidneys, bladder, urethra and skin. Infection in animals and humans is related to the ingestion of the infective larva (L3) present in the aquatic oligochaete annelid (mandatory intermediate host) or fish and anurans (facultative paratenic hosts). Read More

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Virus Detection: A Review of the Current and Emerging Molecular and Immunological Methods.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 20;8:637559. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

Viruses are ubiquitous in the environment. While many impart no deleterious effects on their hosts, several are major pathogens. This risk of pathogenicity, alongside the fact that many viruses can rapidly mutate highlights the need for suitable, rapid diagnostic measures. Read More

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Quantifying the risk of vector-borne disease transmission attributable to genetically modified vectors.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;8(3):201525. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Data61, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

The relative risk of disease transmission caused by the potential release of transgenic vectors, such as through sterile insect technique or gene drive systems, is assessed with comparison with wild-type vectors. The probabilistic risk framework is demonstrated with an assessment of the relative risk of lymphatic filariasis, malaria and o'nyong'nyong arbovirus transmission by mosquito vectors to human hosts given a released transgenic strain of carrying a dominant sterile male gene construct. Harm is quantified by a logarithmic loss function that depends on the causal risk ratio, which is a quotient of basic reproduction numbers derived from mathematical models of disease transmission. Read More

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Intravacuolar Pathogens Hijack Host Extracellular Vesicle Biogenesis to Secrete Virulence Factors.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:662944. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have garnered significant interest in recent years due to their contributions to cell-to-cell communication and disease processes. EVs are composed of a complex profile of bioactive molecules, which include lipids, nucleic acids, metabolites, and proteins. Although the biogenesis of EVs released by cells under various normal and abnormal conditions has been well-studied, there is incomplete knowledge about how infection influences EV biogenesis. Read More

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CRISPR-mediated host genomic DNA damage is efficiently repaired through microhomology-mediated end joining in Zymomonas mobilis.

J Genet Genomics 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China; Key Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy (Ministry of Agriculture), Biomass Energy Technology Research Centre, Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against mobile genetic elements (MGEs) through uptake of invader-derived spacers. De novo adaptation samples spacers from both invaders and hosts, whereas primed adaptation shows higher specificity to sample spacers from invaders in many model systems as well as in the subtype I-F system of Zymomonas mobilis. Self-derived spacers will lead to CRISPR self-interference. Read More

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Co-occurrence of and in and first report of microfilariae in the chigger mite: possible evidence of a lifecycle pathway?

J Helminthol 2021 May 7;95:e25. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

While much attention has been paid to vector-borne filariasis, diseases that threaten millions of people in tropical and subtropical countries, the literature on host-parasite associations and transmission strategies of filarial nematodes in wildlife is scarce. Here, we report the co-occurrence of chigger mites (Eutrombicula alfreddugesi) and onchocercid nematodes (Oswaldofilaria chabaudi) parasitizing the lizard Tropidurus torquatus in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Examination of chiggers established, for the first time, the occurrence of microfilariae in trombiculid mites (Trombiculidae). Read More

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Pulmonary echinococcosis: A rare pseudotumour of the lung.

Rare Tumors 2021 11;13:20363613211009769. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Institut für Pathologie, DIAKO Hospital Flensburg, Flensburg, Germany.

Cystic echinococcosis is a widely endemic helminthic disease worldwide but occurs only rarely in Central Europe. Humans are infected as 'aberrant' hosts by and develop cysts in numerous different organs. 20%-30% of the affected individuals develop hydatid disease in the lungs with associated complications including pleuritis, lung abscess and pneumothorax. Read More

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Host-Directed Therapies: Modulating Inflammation to Treat Tuberculosis.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:660916. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Following infection with , the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), most human hosts are able to contain the infection and avoid progression to active TB disease through expression of a balanced, homeostatic immune response. Proinflammatory mechanisms aiming to kill, slow and sequester the pathogen are key to a successful host response. However, an excessive or inappropriate pro-inflammatory response may lead to granuloma enlargement and tissue damage, which may prolong the TB treatment duration and permanently diminish the lung function of TB survivors. Read More

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Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus: emerging novel phlebovirus and their control strategy.

Exp Mol Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.

An emerging infectious disease first identified in central China in 2009, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was found to be caused by a novel phlebovirus. Since SFTSV was first identified, epidemics have occurred in several East Asian countries. With the escalating incidence of SFTS and the rapid, worldwide spread of SFTSV vector, it is clear this virus has pandemic potential and presents an impending global public health threat. Read More

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Unveiling the CHO surfaceome: identification of cell surface proteins reveals cell aggregation relevant mechanisms.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Applied Sciences Biberach, Hubertus-Liebrecht-Str. 35, 88400, Biberach, Germany.

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) suspension cells are the main production hosts for biopharmaceuticals. For the improvement of production processes, it is essential to understand the interaction between CHO cells and their microenvironment. While the cellular membrane is the crucial surface barrier between the inner and outer cell compartments, the subgroup of cell surface proteins (surfaceome) is of particular interest due to its potential to react to external factors and initiate cell communication and interaction pathways. Read More

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The complete mitogenome of from the Siberian tiger ().

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Apr 15;6(4):1416-1418. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

is a polyxenical parasite and commonly found in canids and felids. In this study, we used the Illumina high throughput sequencing and assembly to determine the complete mitogenome of a representative of this parasite from the Siberian tiger (). The genome was 14,248 bp in size and encoded 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs. Read More

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Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic and wild felids as public health concerns: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9509. Epub 2021 May 4.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Felidae as definitive hosts for Toxoplasma gondii play a major role in transmission to all warm-blooded animals trough oocysts dissemination. Therefore the current comprehensive study was performed to determine the global status of T. gondii infection in domestic and wild felids aiming to provide comprehensive data of interest for further intervention approaching the One Health perspective. Read More

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Immune Gene Expression Covaries with Gut Microbiome Composition in Stickleback.

mBio 2021 05 4;12(3). Epub 2021 May 4.

University of Connecticut, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Storrs, Connecticut, USA.

Commensal microbial communities have immense effects on their vertebrate hosts, contributing to a number of physiological functions, as well as host fitness. In particular, host immunity is strongly linked to microbiota composition through poorly understood bi-directional links. Gene expression may be a potential mediator of these links between microbial communities and host function. Read More

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Host and parasite traits predict cross-species parasite acquisition by introduced mammals.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 May 5;288(1950):20210341. Epub 2021 May 5.

Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Species invasions and range shifts can lead to novel host-parasite communities, but we lack general rules on which new associations are likely to form. While many studies examine parasite sharing among host species, the directionality of transmission is typically overlooked, impeding our ability to derive principles of parasite acquisition. Consequently, we analysed parasite records from the non-native ranges of 11 carnivore and ungulate species. Read More

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Using Data Mining and Network Analysis to Infer Arboviral Dynamics: The Case of Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses Reported in Mexico.

Insects 2021 Apr 29;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico.

Given the significant impact of mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFVs) on both human and animal health, predicting their dynamics and understanding their transmission cycle is of the utmost importance. Usually, predictions about the distribution of priority pathogens, such as Dengue, Yellow fever, West Nile Virus and St. Louis encephalitis, relate abiotic elements to simple biotic components, such as a single causal agent. Read More

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