26,450 results match your criteria potential adaptive


The neuroimmune response during stress: A physiological perspective.

Immunity 2021 Sep;54(9):1933-1947

Department of immunology, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3525422, Israel. Electronic address:

Stress is an essential adaptive response that enables the organism to cope with challenges and restore homeostasis. Different stressors require distinctive corrective responses in which immune cells play a critical role. Hence, effects of stress on immunity may vary accordingly. Read More

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September 2021

Identification of Rare Thymic NKT Cell Precursors by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2388:101-112

INSERM, UMR-1160, Institut de Recherche St-Louis (IRSL), Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne, Paris, France.

Mouse invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes which have been shown to play a significant role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Features of innate responses are attributed to these cells because they can be stimulated simultaneously with the same ligand to produce quickly and in large amount cytokines without prior immunization. Because these characteristics could be exploited for clinical applications, NKT cells have attracted considerable interest. Read More

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January 2021

Factors Confounding the Athlete Biological Passport: A Systematic Narrative Review.

Sports Med Open 2021 Sep 15;7(1):65. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Through longitudinal, individual and adaptive monitoring of blood biomarkers, the haematological module of the athlete biological passport (ABP) has become a valuable tool in anti-doping efforts. The composition of blood as a vector of oxygen in the human body varies in athletes with the influence of multiple intrinsic (genetic) or extrinsic (training or environmental conditions) factors. In this context, it is fundamental to establish a comprehensive understanding of the various causes that may affect blood variables and thereby alter a fair interpretation of ABP profiles. Read More

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September 2021

Inflammation-related pyroptosis, a novel programmed cell death pathway, and its crosstalk with immune therapy in cancer treatment.

Theranostics 2021 12;11(18):8813-8835. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

In recent decades, chemotherapies targeting apoptosis have emerged and demonstrated remarkable achievements. However, emerging evidence has shown that chemoresistance is mediated by impairing or bypassing apoptotic cell death. Several novel types of programmed cell death, such as ferroptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis, have recently been reported to play significant roles in the modulation of cancer progression and are considered a promising strategy for cancer treatment. Read More

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Hypothesis: Immunotherapy by Selective Convalescent Blood Engineering to Stifle Diseases like COVID-19.

Int J Med Sci 2021 1;18(15):3389-3394. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Greka Engineering and Technology, 28 Landmark Plaza, Outer Ring Road 1, CBD, Zhengzhou, 450000, China.

Current standard vaccine testing protocols take approximately 10-24 months of testing before a vaccine can be declared successful. Sometimes by the time a successful vaccine is out for public use, the outbreak may already be over. With no vaccine or antiviral drug available to treat the infected, we are left with the age-old methods of isolation, quarantine, and rest, to arrest such a viral outbreak. Read More

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Lymph node stromal cells: subsets and functions in health and disease.

Trends Immunol 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Experimental Immunology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center (ARC), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Lymph nodes (LNs) aid the interaction between lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells, resulting in adequate and prolonged adaptive immune responses. LN stromal cells (LNSCs) are crucially involved in steering adaptive immune responses at different levels. Most knowledge on LNSCs has been obtained from mouse studies, and few studies indicate similarities with their human counterparts. Read More

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September 2021

Associations between metabolic traits and growth rate in brown trout () depend on thermal regime.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Sep 15;288(1958):20211509. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork, Distillery Fields, North Mall, Cork, Ireland.

Metabolism defines the energetic cost of life, yet we still know relatively little about why intraspecific variation in metabolic rate arises and persists. Spatio-temporal variation in selection potentially maintains differences, but relationships between metabolic traits (standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), and aerobic scope) and fitness across contexts are unresolved. We show that associations between SMR, MMR, and growth rate (a key fitness-related trait) vary depending on the thermal regime (a potential selective agent) in offspring of wild-sampled brown trout from two populations reared for approximately 15 months in either a cool or warm (+1. Read More

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September 2021

Immune response variables and viral mutations impact on COVID-19 reinfection and relapse.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 8;100:108108. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

The possibility of human reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, has not previously been thoroughly investigated. Although it is generally believed that virus-specific antibodies protect against COVID-19 pathogenesis, their duration of function and temporal activity remain unknown. Contrary to media reports that people retain protective antibody responses for a few months, science does not exclude reinfection and disease relapse shortly after initiating all immune responses during the primary onset of COVID-19. Read More

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September 2021

Dynamic borrowing from a single prior data source using the conditional power prior.

J Biopharm Stat 2021 Jul;31(4):403-424

Division of Biostatistics, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States.

The conditional power prior is a popular method to borrow information from a single prior data source. The amount of borrowing is controlled by the power parameter which is fixed before running the new study. However, fixing this parameter before running a new study is often difficult and may be unwise because if the outcomes in the current study are much different from the prior data outcomes, the power parameter cannot be changed to reflect a more appropriate degree of borrowing. Read More

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Consolidation and Maintenance in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Sep 14:JCO2101045. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Hematology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To address the role of consolidation treatment for newly diagnosed, transplant eligible patients with multiple myeloma in a controlled clinical trial.

Patients And Methods: The EMN02/HOVON95 trial compared consolidation treatment with two cycles of bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRD) or no consolidation after induction and intensification therapy, followed by continuous lenalidomide maintenance. Primary study end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Read More

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September 2021

Multiprong control of glioblastoma multiforme invasiveness: blockade of pro-inflammatory signaling, anti-angiogenesis, and homeostasis restoration.

Cancer Metastasis Rev 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Neuroscience Center of Excellence, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most invasive type of glial tumor with poor overall survival, despite advances in surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation. One of the main challenges in treating GBM is related to the tumor's location, complex and heterogeneous biology, and high invasiveness. To meet the demand for oxygen and nutrients, growing tumors induce new blood vessels growth. Read More

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September 2021

Bumblebee electric charge stimulates floral volatile emissions in Petunia integrifolia but not in Antirrhinum majus.

Naturwissenschaften 2021 Sep 14;108(5):44. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, UK.

The timing of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission by flowering plants often coincides with pollinator foraging activity. Volatile emission is often considered to be paced by environmental variables, such as light intensity, and/or by circadian rhythmicity. The question arises as to what extent pollinators themselves provide information about their presence, in keeping with their long co-evolution with flowering plants. Read More

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September 2021

Modified pixel level snake using bottom hat transformation for evolution of retinal vasculature map.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 Jun;18(5):5737-5757

Faculty of Communication Sciences, University of Teramo, Italy.

Small changes in retinal blood vessels may produce different pathological disorders which may further cause blindness. Therefore, accurate extraction of vasculature map of retinal fundus image has become a challenging task for analysis of different pathologies. The present study offers an unsupervised method for extraction of vasculature map from retinal fundus images. Read More

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Potential impact of 1.5, 2 and 3 °C global warming levels on heat and discomfort indices changes over Central Africa.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 7;804:150099. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Climate Change Research Laboratory (CCRL), National Institute of Cartography, P.O. Box 157, Yaounde, Cameroon; Laboratory for Environmental Modelling and Atmospheric Physics (LEMAP), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Investigating the effects of the increased global warming through the lens of the Paris agreements would be of particular importance for Central African countries, which are already experiencing multiple socio-political and socio-economic constraints, but are also subject to severe natural hazards that interact to limit their adaptive capacity and thus increase their vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. This study explores changes in heat stress and the proportion of population at risk of discomfort over Central Africa, based on an ensemble-mean of high-resolution regional climate model simulations that cover a 30-year period, under 1.5, 2 and 3 °C Global Warming Levels (GWLs). Read More

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September 2021

Fetal ECG Extraction from Maternal ECG using Attention-based CycleGAN.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Sep 13;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

A non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) is used to monitor the electrical pulse of the fetal heart. Decomposing the FECG signal from the maternal ECG (MECG) is a blind source separation problem, which is hard due to the low amplitude of the FECG, the overlap of R waves, and the potential exposure to noise from different sources. Traditional decomposition techniques, such as adaptive filters, require tuning, alignment, or pre-configuration, such as modeling the noise or desired signal to map the MECG to the FECG. Read More

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September 2021

Improved Variance Reduction Methods for Riemannian non-Convex Optimization.

Authors:
Andi Han Junbin Gao

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Sep 13;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Variance reduction is popular in accelerating gradient descent and stochastic gradient descent for optimization problems defined on both Euclidean space and Riemannian manifold. This paper further improves on existing variance reduction methods for non-convex Riemannian optimization, including R-SVRG and R-SRG/R-SPIDER by providing a unified framework for batch size adaptation. Such framework is more general than the existing works by considering retraction and vector transport and mini-batch stochastic gradients. Read More

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September 2021

Probabilistic Model-based Learning Control of a Soft Pneumatic Glove for Hand Rehabilitation.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 Sep 13;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Objective: Stroke survivors are usually unable to perform activities of daily living (ADL) independently due to loss of hand functions. Soft pneumatic gloves provide a promising assistance approach for stroke survivors to conduct ADL tasks. However, few studies have explored effective control strategies for the 'human-soft robot' integrated system due to challenges in the nonlinearities of soft robots and uncertainties of human intentions. Read More

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September 2021

Fish Oil for Healthy Aging: Potential Application to Master Athletes.

Sports Med 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, 28 Division St, Kingston, ON, Canada.

Master athletes perform high volumes of exercise training yet display lower levels of physical functioning and exercise performance when compared with younger athletes. Several reports in the clinical literature show that long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC n-3 PUFA) ingestion promotes skeletal muscle anabolism and strength in untrained older persons. There is also evidence that LC n-3 PUFA ingestion improves indices of muscle recovery following damaging exercise in younger persons. Read More

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September 2021

Smartphone-Based Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Promote Physical Activity Using Integrated Dynamic Models: Systematic Review.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Sep 13;23(9):e26315. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Background: Traditional psychological theories are inadequate to fully leverage the potential of smartphones and improve the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) change interventions. Future interventions need to consider dynamic models taken from other disciplines, such as engineering (eg, control systems). The extent to which such dynamic models have been incorporated in the development of interventions for PA and SB remains unclear. Read More

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September 2021

miR-337-5p promotes the development of cardiac hypertrophy by targeting Ubiquilin-1 (UBQLN1).

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):6771-6781

Electrocardiographic Function Department, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Affiliated Hospital Of Hubei University Of Arts And Science, Xiangyang, Hubei, China.

Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response of the myocardium to the pressure overload of the heart. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are shown to be directly involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the function of miR-337-5p and its potential contribution to the serine/threonine-protein kinase, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Read More

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December 2021

Role of Immune Cell-Specific Hypermethylation Signatures in Classification and Risk Stratification of Breast Cancer.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 26;8:674338. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of General Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Epigenetic regulation, including DNA methylation, plays a major role in shaping the identity and function of immune cells. Innate and adaptive immune cells recruited into tumor tissues contribute to the formation of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME), which is closely involved in tumor progression in breast cancer (BC). However, the specific methylation signatures of immune cells have not been thoroughly investigated yet. Read More

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Online Magnetic Resonance-Guided Radiotherapy (oMRgRT) for Gynecological Cancers.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:628131. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, University Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Radiation therapy (RT) is increasingly being used in gynecological cancer management. RT delivered with curative or palliative intent can be administered alone or combined with chemotherapy or surgery. Advanced treatment planning and delivery techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, including volumetric modulated arc therapy, and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy allow for highly conformal radiation dose delivery leading to improved tumor control rates and less treatment toxicity. Read More

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Anomalous Left Coronary Artery Connected to the Pulmonary Artery in a 15-Year-Old Girl: Case Report and Discussion on Secondary Prevention of Sudden Death.

Case Rep Cardiol 2021 31;2021:7198667. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Cardiology, Antibes Juan-les-Pins Hospital, France.

. Anomalous left coronary artery connected to the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital heart disease. Adaptive development of sufficient heterocoronary collaterality in the newborn may allow survival to a later age. Read More

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Comparative and Evolutionary Analyses on the Complete Plastomes of Five Horticultural Plants.

Front Plant Sci 2021 27;12:705874. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

School of Life Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Many species of the genus are important horticultural plants. They have evolved the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway to allow them to be better adapted to dry environments. Despite their importance, it is still debating whether is monophyletic, and understanding the past diversification of this genus requires a tremendous amount of effort and work being devoted to the studies of morphological and molecular characters of this genus. Read More

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Predictive Chromatography of Leaf Extracts Through Encoded Environmental Forcing on Phytochemical Synthesis.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:613507. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

DataSc/ense TechnoCoRe, Technological Institute of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines.

Environment fluctuations can influence a plant's phytochemical profile via phenotypic plasticity. This adaptive response ensures a plant's survival under fluctuating growth conditions. However, the resulting plant extract composition becomes unpredictable, which is a problem for highly standardized medicinal applications. Read More

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Brd4 Regulates the Homeostasis of CD8 T-Lymphocytes and Their Proliferation in Response to Antigen Stimulation.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:728082. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control of Ministry of Education, Institute of Human Virology, Guangdong Engineering Research Center for Antimicrobial Agent and Immunotechnology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

CD8 T cells are major components of adaptive immunity and confer robust protective cellular immunity, which requires adequate T-cell numbers, targeted migration, and efficient T-cell proliferation. Altered CD8 T-cell homeostasis and impaired proliferation result in dysfunctional immune response to infection or tumorigenesis. However, intrinsic factors controlling CD8 T-cell homeostasis and immunity remain largely elusive. Read More

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COVID-19 Immunobiology: Lessons Learned, New Questions Arise.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:719023. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

There is strong evidence that COVID-19 pathophysiology is mainly driven by a spatiotemporal immune deregulation. Both its phenotypic heterogeneity, spanning from asymptomatic to severe disease/death, and its associated mortality, are dictated by and linked to maladaptive innate and adaptive immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic factor of the disease. Deregulated interferon and cytokine responses, with the contribution of immune and cellular stress-response mediators (like cellular senescence or uncontrolled inflammatory cell death), result in innate and adaptive immune system malfunction, endothelial activation and inflammation (endothelitis), as well as immunothrombosis (with enhanced platelet activation, NET production/release and complement hyper-activation). Read More

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September 2021

Enhanced Recovery of Microbial Genes and Genomes From a Marine Water Column Using Long-Read Metagenomics.

Front Microbiol 2021 27;12:708782. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Evolutionary Genomics Group, División de Microbiología, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain.

Third-generation sequencing has penetrated little in metagenomics due to the high error rate and dependence for assembly on short-read designed bioinformatics. However, second-generation sequencing metagenomics (mostly Illumina) suffers from limitations, particularly in the assembly of microbes with high microdiversity and retrieval of the flexible (adaptive) fraction of prokaryotic genomes. Here, we have used a third-generation technique to study the metagenome of a well-known marine sample from the mixed epipelagic water column of the winter Mediterranean. Read More

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Evasion of Antiviral Innate Immunity by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:693799. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China.

Innate immunity is the front line for antiviral immune responses and bridges adaptive immunity against viral infections. However, various viruses have evolved many strategies to evade host innate immunity. A typical virus is the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), one of the most globally devastating viruses threatening the swine industry worldwide. Read More

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Adaptation of Soil Fungal Community Structure and Assembly to Long- Versus Short-Term Nitrogen Addition in a Tropical Forest.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:689674. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

College of Forestry, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.

Soil fungi play critical roles in ecosystem processes and are sensitive to global changes. Elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been well documented to impact on fungal diversity and community composition, but how the fungal community assembly responds to the duration effects of experimental N addition remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the soil fungal community variations and assembly processes under short- (2 years) versus long-term (13 years) exogenous N addition (∼100 kg N ha yr) in a N-rich tropical forest of China. Read More

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