1,866 results match your criteria postnatal undernutrition


L-Leucine Improves Metabolic Disorders in Mice With Cigarette Smoke Exposure.

Front Physiol 2021 1;12:700246. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Faculty of Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) causes intrauterine undernutrition, resulting in increased risk for metabolic disorders and type 2 diabetes in the offspring without sex differences. L-leucine supplementation has been shown to reduce body weight and improve glucose metabolism in both obese animals and humans. In this study, we aimed to determine whether postnatal L-leucine supplementation in female offspring can ameliorate the detrimental impact of maternal SE. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prenatal and postnatal determinants of stunting at age 0-11 months: A cross-sectional study in Indonesia.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(7):e0254662. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

SEAMEO Regional Center for Food and Nutrition, Pusat Kajian Gizi Regional Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Background: Childhood stunting remains the most challenging consequence of undernutrition because it is associated with suboptimal brain development and the subsequent increased risk of metabolic diseases and decreased earnings in adult life. The Sambas District in Indonesia has a high prevalence of stunting (28.4%), followed by underweight (25. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prenatal Stress in Maternal Hyperhomocysteinemia: Impairments in the Fetal Nervous System Development and Placental Function.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Jun;86(6):716-728

Research Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductology named after D.O.Ott, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia.

The article presents current views on maternal hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) as an important factor causing prenatal stress and impaired nervous system development in fetuses and newborns in early ontogenesis, as well as complications in adulthood. Experimental data demonstrate that prenatal HHcy (PHHcy) affects the morphological maturation of the brain and activity of its neurotransmitter systems. Cognitive deficit observed in the offspring subjected to PHHcy in experimental studies can presumably cause the predisposition to various neurodegenerative diseases, as the role of maternal HHcy in the pathogenesis such diseases has been proven in clinical studies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Perinatal Nutritional and Metabolic Pathways: Early Origins of Chronic Lung Diseases.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 15;8:667315. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Translational Experimental Pediatrics-Experimental Pulmonology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Lung development is not completed at birth, but expands beyond infancy, rendering the lung highly susceptible to injury. Exposure to various influences during a critical window of organ growth can interfere with the finely-tuned process of development and induce pathological processes with aberrant alveolarization and long-term structural and functional sequelae. This concept of developmental origins of chronic disease has been coined as perinatal programming. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Skeletal Deformities in Osterix-Cre;Tgfbr2 Mice May Cause Postnatal Death.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Jun 25;12(7). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Division of Biosciences, The Ohio State University College of Dentistry, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling plays an important role in skeletal development. We previously demonstrated that the loss of TGFβ receptor II (Tgfbr2) in Osterix-Cre-expressing mesenchyme results in defects in bones and teeth due to reduced proliferation and differentiation in pre-osteoblasts and pre-odontoblasts. These Osterix-Cre;Tgfbr2 mice typically die within approximately four weeks for unknown reasons. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Liver Proteome Profile of Growth Restricted and Appropriately Grown Newborn Wistar Rats Associated With Maternal Undernutrition.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 28;12:684220. Epub 2021 May 28.

Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and epigenetic modifications that impact gene expression leading to permanent changes of fetal metabolic pathways and thereby influence development of disease in childhood and adult life. In this study, we investigated the result of maternal food restriction on liver protein expression in Wistar male newborn pups.

Materials & Methods: Ten (n = 10) timed pregnant Wistar rats on their 14th day of gestation were randomly assigned to either control (n = 4) or food restricted group (n = 6). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Minimum acceptable diet among children aged 6-23 months in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: a community-based cross-sectional study.

BMC Pediatr 2021 05 19;21(1):239. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Suboptimal child nutrition remains the main factor underlying child undernutrition in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of minimum acceptable diet and associated factors among children aged 6-23 months old.

Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study including 742 mothers with children aged 6-23 months old was conducted in 2 Health Zones of South Kivu, Eastern DRC. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Differential diagnosis of metabolic disease in a commingled sample from 19th century Hisban, Jordan.

Int J Paleopathol 2021 06 15;33:220-233. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Anthropology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, 27858, USA.

Objective: This research attempts a differential diagnosis of skeletal lesions in a commingled sample from Hisban, Jordan, focusing on non-adults in the assemblage.

Materials: 2,883 well-preserved skeletal elements and 9 relatively complete skulls representing an MNI of 32 non-adults (<18 years old).

Methods: All skeletal elements were observed macroscopically and pathophysiological processes underlying any lesions or other anomalies were assessed, followed by a comparative approach to rule out potential diagnoses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Changes in Vitamin A Levels and the Effect of Early Vitamin A Supplementation on Vitamin A Levels in Infants Throughout the First 6 Months of Life: A Prospective Cohort Study in Chongqing, China.

Front Public Health 2021 27;9:650823. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Child Nutrition and Health, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Children's Nutrition Research Center, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorder, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

This study aimed to explore the changes in infant vitamin A (VA) status and the effect of early VA supplementation on VA level throughout the first 6 months of life. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Chongqing, China. A total of 1,016 healthy infants were enrolled at birth. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transcriptomics analysis of differentially expressed genes in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissue of sheep as affected by their pre- and early postnatal malnutrition histories.

BMC Genomics 2021 May 11;22(1):338. Epub 2021 May 11.

Nutrition Research Unit, Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Blichers Alle 20, 8830, Tjele, Denmark.

Background: Early life malnutrition is known to target adipose tissue with varying impact depending on timing of the insult. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes in subcutaneous (SUB) and perirenal (PER) adipose tissue of 2.5-years old sheep to elucidate the biology underlying differential impacts of late gestation versus early postnatal malnutrition on functional development of adipose tissues. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy and lactation increases transcription factors, ETV5 and GDNF, and alters regulation of apoptosis and heat shock proteins in the testis of adult offspring in the rat.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2021 May;33(7):484-496

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4L8, Canada; and Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4L8, Canada, and Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4L8, Canada.

We tested whether changes in Sertoli cell transcription factors and germ cell heat shock proteins (HSPs) are linked to the effects of maternal undernutrition on male offspring fertility. Rats were fed ad libitum with a standard diet (CONTROL) throughout pregnancy and lactation or with 50% of CONTROL intake throughout pregnancy (UNP) or lactation (UNL) or both periods (UNPL). After postnatal Day 21, 10 male pups per group were fed a standard diet ad libitum until postnatal Day 160 when testes were processed for histological, mRNA and immunohistochemical analyses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dietary Diversity Feeding Practice and Its Associated Factors among Infants and Young Children Aged between 6 and 23 Months in Birbir Town, Southern Ethiopia.

J Nutr Metab 2021 5;2021:3806360. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

A significant proportion of infant and young child mortality can be prevented by the provision of a diverse diet. Globally, an estimated 45% of deaths of children under the age of 5 are because of malnutrition. More than two-thirds of these deaths are associated with inappropriate child-feeding practices. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Undernutrition - thirty years of the Regional Basic Diet: the legacy of Naíde Teodósio in different fields of knowledge.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Apr 19:1-22. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of Biophysics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Undernutrition is characterized by an imbalance of essential nutrients with an insufficient nutritional intake, a disorder in which the clinical manifestations in most cases are the result of the economic and social context in which the individual lives. In 1990, the study by the medical and humanitarian Naíde Teodósio (1915-2005) and coworkers, which formulated the Regional Basic Diet (RBD) model for inducing undernutrition, was published. This diet model took its origin from the observation of the dietary habits of families that inhabited impoverished areas from the Pernambuco State. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Maternal nutrient restriction in late pregnancy programs postnatal metabolism and pituitary development in beef heifers.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249924. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy followed by ad libitum access to nutrients during postnatal life induces postnatal metabolic disruptions in multiple species. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate postnatal growth, metabolism, and development of beef heifers exposed to late gestation maternal nutrient restriction. Pregnancies were generated via transfer of in vitro embryos produced using X-bearing sperm from a single Angus sire. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vitamin D Deficiency Induces Chronic Pain and Microglial Phenotypic Changes in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 30;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 80138 Naples, Italy.

The bioactive form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D3), exerts immunomodulatory actions resulting in neuroprotective effects potentially useful against neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. In fact, vitamin D deficiency status has been correlated with painful manifestations associated with different pathological conditions. In this study, we have investigated the effects of vitamin D deficiency on microglia cells, as they represent the main immune cells responsible for early defense at central nervous system (CNS), including chronic pain states. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Maternal High Fat Diet Consumption Exaggerates Metabolic Disorders in Mice With Cigarette-Smoking Induced Intrauterine Undernutrition.

Front Nutr 2021 16;8:638576. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Research Center, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China.

Maternal smoking causes fetal underdevelopment and results in births which are small for gestation age due to intrauterine undernutrition, leading to various metabolic disorders in adulthood. Furthermore, postnatal high fat diet (HFD) consumption is also a potent obesogenic factor, which can interact with maternal smoking. In this study, we aimed to determine whether maternal HFD consumption during pregnancy can reverse the adverse impact of maternal smoking and change the response to postnatal HFD consumption. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hyperhomocysteinemia alters cytokine gene expression, cytochrome c oxidase activity and oxidative stress in striatum and cerebellum of rodents.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 24;277:119386. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Wyse's Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2600-Anexo, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aims: Homocysteine has been linked to neurodegeneration and motor function impairments. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of chronic mild hyperhomocysteinemia on the motor behavior (motor coordination, functional performance, and muscular force) and biochemical parameters (oxidative stress, energy metabolism, gene expression and/or protein abundance of cytokine related to the inflammatory pathways and acetylcholinesterase) in the striatum and cerebellum of Wistar male rats.

Main Methods: Rodents were submitted to one injection of homocysteine (0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of perinatal depression on risk of adverse infant health outcomes in mother-infant dyads in Gondar town: a causal analysis.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Mar 26;21(1):255. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Flinders University, College of Medicine and Public health, Health Sciences Building, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, SA, 5054, Australia.

Background: Approximately one-third of pregnant and postnatal women in Ethiopia experience depression posing a substantial health burden for these women and their families. Although associations between postnatal depression and worse infant health have been observed, there have been no studies to date assessing the causal effects of perinatal depression on infant health in Ethiopia. We applied longitudinal data and recently developed causal inference methods that reduce the risk of bias to estimate associations between perinatal depression and infant diarrhea, Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), and malnutrition in Gondar Town, Ethiopia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of balanced energy-protein supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on birth outcomes and infant growth in rural Burkina Faso: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2021 03 24;11(3):e038393. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Food Technology, Safety and Health, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.

Introduction: Adequate nutrition during pregnancy is crucial to both mother and child. Maternal malnutrition can be the cause of stillbirth or lead to poor birth outcomes such as preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age newborns. There is a probable positive effect of providing pregnant women a balanced energy-protein (BEP) food supplement, but more evidence is needed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Developmental programming of offspring adipose tissue biology and obesity risk.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 23;45(6):1170-1192. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Centre for Trophoblast Research, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, Downing Street, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and imposes major negative health crises and an economic burden in both high and low income countries. The multifaceted nature of obesity represents a major health challenge, with obesity affecting a variety of different organs and increases the risk of many other noncommunicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, dementia, cardiovascular diseases, and even cancer. The defining organ of obesity is the adipose tissue, highlighting the need to more comprehensively understand the development and biology of this tissue to understand the pathogenesis of obesity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Perinatal undernourishment provokes long-lasting alterations of clusterin and fumarate hydratase expression in the rat nucleus accumbens.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Mar 23:1-5. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Facultad de Farmacia and Institutos de Estudios de las Adicciones, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, Alcorcón, Spain.

Background: Background: Perinatal malnutrition seems to provoke important neurochemical alterations in the brain that lead to higher vulnerability to develop neuropsychiatric disorders in the adulthood.

Objectives: We have examined the persistence and reversibility of the changes induced by perinatal undernourishment on the expression of fumarate hydratase in the rat nucleus accumbens, bearing in mind that this expression has been previously linked with addictive disorders. Clusterin, a multifunctional protein known to be neuroprotective and possibly related to addiction in humans, was studied in parallel. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Minimum Dietary Diversity Practice and Associated Factors among Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

Glob Pediatr Health 2021 22;8:2333794X21996630. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Dire Dawa University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

Malnutrition because of poor dietary diversity contributing to child morbidity and mortality. Two-thirds of child mortality occurs within the first 2 years. However, there is limited data related to dietary diversity among children aged 6 to 23 months in Ethiopia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Severe malnutrition or famine exposure in childhood and cardiometabolic non-communicable disease later in life: a systematic review.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 03;6(3)

Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Introduction: Child malnutrition (undernutrition) and adult non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are major global public health problems. While convincing evidence links prenatal malnutrition with increased risk of NCDs, less is known about the long-term sequelae of malnutrition in childhood. We therefore examined evidence of associations between postnatal malnutrition, encompassing documented severe childhood malnutrition in low/middle-income countries (LMICs) or famine exposure, and later-life cardiometabolic NCDs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effectiveness of Breastfeeding Support Packages in Low- and Middle-Income Countries for Infants under Six Months: A Systematic Review.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 20;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK.

Small and nutritionally at-risk infants under six months, defined as those with wasting, underweight, or other forms of growth failure, are at high-risk of mortality and morbidity. The World Health Organisation 2013 guidelines on severe acute malnutrition highlight the need to effectively manage this vulnerable group, but programmatic challenges are widely reported. This review aims to inform future management strategies for small and nutritionally at-risk infants under six months in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) by synthesising evidence on existing breastfeeding support packages for all infants under six months. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Cord Blood from SGA Preterm Infants Exhibits Increased GLUT4 mRNA Expression.

Yonago Acta Med 2021 Feb 20;64(1):57-66. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Division of Pediatrics and Perinatology, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8503, Japan and.

Background: Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling plays an important role in prenatal and postnatal growth and glucose metabolism. Both small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm infants have abnormal growth and glucose metabolism. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Feeding Practices and Associated Factors During Diarrheal Disease Among Children Aged Less Than Five Years: Evidence from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2016.

Pediatric Health Med Ther 2021 18;12:69-78. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Purpose: Diarrhea is a common childhood illness and one of the leading causes of death in young children globally. In Ethiopia, a significant number of deaths and hospitalizations in under-five children are related to diarrheal diseases. Inappropriate feeding during diarrhea leads to a double burden of diarrhea recurrence and malnutrition among children. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Transcriptome analysis reveals liver metabolism programming in kids from nutritional restricted goats during mid-gestation.

PeerJ 2021 29;9:e10593. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

CAS Key Laboratory for Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, South-Central Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy causes a metabolic disorder that threatens the offspring's health in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanism of how undernutrition affecting hepatic metabolism of fetal or postnatal offspring is still unclear. We aimed to investigate transcriptomic changes of fetal livers in response to maternal malnutrition in goats during mid-gestation and to explore whether these changes would disappear when the nutrition was recovered to normal level during mid-gestation using goats () as the experimental animals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Impact of Early Nutrition, Physical Activity and Sleep on the Fetal Programming of Disease in the Pregnancy: A Narrative Review.

Nutrients 2020 Dec 20;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus Universitario de Cartuja, E-18071 Granada, Spain.

Early programming is the adaptation process by which nutrition and environmental factors alter development pathways during prenatal growth, inducing changes in postnatal metabolism and diseases. The aim of this narrative review, is evaluating the current knowledge in the scientific literature on the effects of nutrition, environmental factors, physical activity and sleep on development pathways. If in utero adaptations were incorrect, this would cause a mismatch between prenatal programming and adulthood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Impact of early life famine exposure on adulthood anthropometry among survivors of the 1983-1985 Ethiopian Great famine: a historical cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2021 01 7;21(1):94. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Nutritional insult in early life brings adaptive changes in body structure and functioning that could remain throughout the affected individual's life course. The long term impact of early life famine exposure on adulthood anthropometric measurements has been recorded in previous studies. However, the results were contradictory. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021