86 results match your criteria portions mating

Combinatorial Signal Processing in an Insect.

Am Nat 2020 10 8;196(4):406-413. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

AbstractHuman language is combinatorial: phonemes are grouped into syllables, syllables are grouped into words, and so on. The capacity for combinatorial processing is present, in different degrees, in some mammals and birds. We used vibrational insects, treehoppers, to test the hypothesis of basic combinatorial processing against two competing hypotheses: beginning rule (where the early signal portions play a stronger role in acceptability) and no ordering rule (where the order of signal elements plays no role in signal acceptability). Read More

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October 2020

Novel species of from naturally-occurring forest trees in Greece and South Africa.

MycoKeys 2020 10;69:33-52. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology (BGM), Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa University of Pretoria Pretoria South Africa.

species are wood-infecting, filamentous ascomycetes that occur in fresh wounds on a wide variety of tree species. These fungi are mainly known as saprobes although some have been associated with disease symptoms. Six fungal isolates with typical culture characteristics of spp. Read More

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The morphology of mating plugs and its formation in scorpions: Implications for intersexual participation.

J Morphol 2020 06 8;281(6):620-635. Epub 2020 May 8.

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físicas y Naturales, Departamento de Diversidad Biológica y Ecología, Córdoba, Argentina.

Mating plugs have been proposed as a mechanism that has evolved to avoid sperm competition. Their structure and composition vary across taxa and are related to the effectiveness of its function. This effectiveness could be related to different evolutionary interests of the sexes. Read More

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Drivers of global Scolytinae invasion patterns.

Ecol Appl 2020 07 26;30(5):e02103. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Northern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, 180 Canfield Street, Morgantown, West Virginia, 26505, USA.

Biological invasions are affected by characteristics of invading species, strength of pathway connectivity among world regions and habitat characteristics of invaded regions. These factors may interact in complex ways to drive geographical variation in numbers of invasions among world regions. Understanding the role of these drivers provides information that is crucial to the development of effective biosecurity policies. Read More

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Mycoplasma Chromosomal Transfer: A Distributive, Conjugative Process Creating an Infinite Variety of Mosaic Genomes.

Front Microbiol 2019 23;10:2441. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

IHAP, INRA, ENVT, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

The capacity of Mycoplasmas to engage in horizontal gene transfers has recently been highlighted. Despite their small genome, some of these wall-less bacteria are able to exchange multiple, large portions of their chromosome via a conjugative mechanism that does not conform to canonical Hfr/ models. To understand the exact features underlying mycoplasma chromosomal transfer (MCT), extensive genomic analyses were performed at the nucleotide level, using individual mating progenies derived from our model organism, . Read More

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October 2019

True Colors: Commercially-acquired morphological genotypes reveal hidden allele variation among dog breeds, informing both trait ancestry and breed potential.

PLoS One 2019 28;14(10):e0223995. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States of America.

Direct-to-consumer canine genetic testing is becoming increasingly popular among dog owners. The data collected therein provides intriguing insight into the current status of morphological variation present within purebred populations. Mars WISDOM PANELTM data from 11,790 anonymized dogs, representing 212 breeds and 4 wild canine species, were evaluated at genes associated with 7 coat color traits and 5 physical characteristics. Read More

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Fitness benefits of loss of heterozygosity in hybrids.

Genome Res 2019 10 23;29(10):1685-1692. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

With two genomes in the same organism, interspecific hybrids have unique fitness opportunities and costs. In both plants and yeasts, wild, pathogenic, and domesticated hybrids may eliminate portions of one parental genome, a phenomenon known as loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Laboratory evolution of hybrid yeast recapitulates these results, with LOH occurring in just a few hundred generations of propagation. Read More

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October 2019

An overview of and related genera of Polyporales from the Neotropics.

Mycologia 2019 Sep-Oct;111(5):813-831. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET) and Área de Protección Forestal, Centro de Investigación y Extensión Forestal Andino Patagónico , C.C. 14, 9200 Esquel , Chubut , Argentina.

The genus includes resupinate and pileate species of polypores with a dimitic hyphal system, small, globose to cylindrical basidiospores, absence of cystidia, tetrapolar mating system, and haplo-dikaryotic nuclear behavior. Recent studies, however, indicate that is highly polyphyletic, so many of its species have been transferred to other genera. This study reviews the systematic status and diversity of from the Neotropics based, in part, on studies of type specimens. Read More

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Year-round plasma steroid hormone profiles and the reproductive ecology of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) at the southernmost edge of their range.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2019 10 28;282:113213. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Florida Gulf Coast University, Department of Biological Sciences, Fort Myers, FL, United States.

Populations of wide ranging ectotherms often exhibit variation in traits that are influenced by local environmental conditions. Although the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, is well studied in pine flatwoods habitats across their range, little attention has been given to coastal populations existing in the southern extreme portion of the range. We examined the reproductive physiology of a coastal dune population in southwest Florida to determine if reproductive cycles vary across populations. Read More

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October 2019

High temperature/pressure MAS-NMR for the study of dynamic processes in mixed phase systems.

Magn Reson Imaging 2019 02 25;56:37-44. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354, United States. Electronic address:

A new MAS-NMR rotor (the WHiMS rotor) has been developed which can reach pressures of 400 bar at 20 °C or 225 bar at 250 °C. These rotors are ideal for mixed phase systems such as a reaction using a solid catalyst with a liquid/supercritical solvent topped with high pressure gas in the head space. After solid and liquid portions of the sample are loaded, the rotor is capped with an o-ring equipped polymer bushing that snaps into a mating groove in the rotor. Read More

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February 2019

Impact of cuticle photoluminescence on the color morphism of a male damselfly Ischnura senegalensis (Rambur, 1842).

Sci Rep 2016 12 14;6:38051. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, 97401, Taiwan.

In this study the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis (Rambur, 1842) was first found to produce strong photoluminescence (PL) emissions from various colored-body portions, such as the eighth abdominal segment of the tail. The colors of the colored-body portions can be enhanced or modified by the PL emissions for assistance in reducing intrasexual and male harassment, and improving mature mating and conspecific identity. Therefore, the PL emissions that contribute to the color modification and coloration are involved in the cuticle evolution of the damselflies. Read More

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December 2016

Multiple Origins of the Pathogenic Yeast Candida orthopsilosis by Separate Hybridizations between Two Parental Species.

PLoS Genet 2016 Nov 2;12(11):e1006404. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

School of Biomedical and Biomolecular Science and UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.

Mating between different species produces hybrids that are usually asexual and stuck as diploids, but can also lead to the formation of new species. Here, we report the genome sequences of 27 isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis. We find that most isolates are diploid hybrids, products of mating between two unknown parental species (A and B) that are 5% divergent in sequence. Read More

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November 2016

Fusarium agapanthi sp. nov., a novel bikaverin and fusarubin-producing leaf and stem spot pathogen of Agapanthus praecox (African lily) from Australia and Italy.

Mycologia 2016 09 29;108(5):981-992. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois 60604-3999

This study was conducted to characterize a novel Fusarium species that caused leaf and stem spot on Agapanthus praecox (Agapanthus, African lily) in northern Italy and leaf rot and spot on the same host in Melbourne, Australia. Formally described as Fusarium agapanthi, this pathogen was analyzed using phenotypic, phytopathogenic, secondary metabolite, molecular phylogenetic and genomic data. Five strains were characterized, including one isolated in 1999 from symptomatic A. Read More

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September 2016

Clearing of fixed tissue: a review from a microscopist's perspective.

J Biomed Opt 2016 Aug;21(8):081205

National Institute of Optics, National Research Council, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, ItalybEuropean Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, ItalycUniversity of Florence, Dep.

Chemical clearing of fixed tissues is becoming a key instrument for the three-dimensional reconstruction of macroscopic tissue portions, including entire organs. Indeed, the growing interest in this field has both triggered and been stimulated by recent advances in high-throughput microscopy and data analysis methods, which allowed imaging and management of large samples. The strong entanglement between clearing methods and imaging technology is often overlooked, as typical classification of the former is based only on the chemicals used. Read More

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Paternity analyses in wild-caught and laboratory-reared Caribbean cricket females reveal the influence of mating environment on post-copulatory sexual selection.

E Oneal L L Knowles

J Evol Biol 2015 Dec 10;28(12):2300-7. Epub 2015 Oct 10.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Polyandry is ubiquitous in insects and provides the conditions necessary for male- and female-driven forms of post-copulatory sexual selection to arise. Populations of Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis exhibit significant divergence in portions of the male genitalia that are inserted directly into the female reproductive tract, suggesting that males may exercise some post-copulatory control over fertilization success. We examine the potential for male-male and male-female post-copulatory interactions to influence paternity in wild-caught females of A. Read More

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December 2015

Diversity and evolution of Ty1-copia retroelements within Chalcidoidea by reverse transcriptase domain analysis.

Insect Mol Biol 2015 Oct 16;24(5):503-16. Epub 2015 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Ty1-copia retrotransposons are widespread and diverse in insects. Some features of their hosts, such as mating and genetic systems, are predicted to influence the spread of selfish genetic elements like Ty1-copia. Using part of the reverse transcriptase gene as a reference, we experimentally surveyed Ty1-copia elements in eight species of fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), and performed an in silico analysis of six available genomes of chalcid wasps. Read More

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October 2015

Ex vivo preparations of the intact vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.

J Vis Exp 2014 Aug 4(90):e51813. Epub 2014 Aug 4.

Department of Neuroscience, UT Southwestern Medical Center;

The mouse accessory olfactory system (AOS) is a specialized sensory pathway for detecting nonvolatile social odors, pheromones, and kairomones. The first neural circuit in the AOS pathway, called the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), plays an important role in establishing sex-typical behaviors such as territorial aggression and mating. This small (<1 mm(3)) circuit possesses the capacity to distinguish unique behavioral states, such as sex, strain, and stress from chemosensory cues in the secretions and excretions of conspecifics. Read More

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Divergence of Drosophila melanogaster repeatomes in response to a sharp microclimate contrast in Evolution Canyon, Israel.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Jul 8;111(29):10630-5. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Virginia Bioinformatics Institute andDepartments of Biological Sciences andFish and Wildlife Conservation, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061;

Repeat sequences, especially mobile elements, make up large portions of most eukaryotic genomes and provide enormous, albeit commonly underappreciated, evolutionary potential. We analyzed repeatomes of Drosophila melanogaster that have been diverging in response to a microclimate contrast in Evolution Canyon (Mount Carmel, Israel), a natural evolutionary laboratory with two abutting slopes at an average distance of only 200 m, which pose a constant ecological challenge to their local biotas. Flies inhabiting the colder and more humid north-facing slope carried about 6% more transposable elements than those from the hot and dry south-facing slope, in parallel to a suite of other genetic and phenotypic differences between the two populations. Read More

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Phage ϕC2 mediates transduction of Tn6215, encoding erythromycin resistance, between Clostridium difficile strains.

mBio 2013 Nov 19;4(6):e00840-13. Epub 2013 Nov 19.

Department of Pathology and Pathogen Biology, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.

Unlabelled: In this work, we show that Clostridium difficile phage ϕC2 transduces erm(B), which confers erythromycin resistance, from a donor to a recipient strain at a frequency of 10(-6) per PFU. The transductants were lysogenic for ϕC2 and contained the erm(B) gene in a novel transposon, Tn6215. This element is 13,008 bp in length and contains 17 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Read More

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November 2013

Floral and mating system divergence in secondary sympatry: testing an alternative hypothesis to reinforcement in Clarkia.

Ann Bot 2014 Jan 29;113(2):223-35. Epub 2013 Sep 29.

Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, 1445 Gortner Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Background And Aims: Reproductive character displacement (RCD) is often an important signature of reinforcement when partially cross-compatible taxa meet in secondary sympatry. In this study, floral evolution is examined during the Holocene range expansion of Clarkia xantiana subsp. parviflora from eastern Pleistocene refugia to a western zone of sympatry with its sister taxon, subsp. Read More

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January 2014

Propagation of obesity across generations: the roles of differential realized fertility and assortative mating by body mass index.

Hum Hered 2013 27;75(2-4):204-12. Epub 2013 Sep 27.

Office of Energetics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Ala., USA.

Background/aims: To quantify the extent to which the increase in obesity observed across recent generations of the American population is associated with the individual or combined effects of assortative mating (AM) for body mass index (BMI) and differential realized fertility by BMI.

Methods: A Monte Carlo framework is formed and informed using data collected from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The model has 2 portions: one that generates childbirth events on an annual basis and another that produces a BMI for each child. Read More

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Selection gradients, the opportunity for selection, and the coefficient of determination.

Am Nat 2013 Mar 28;181(3):291-300. Epub 2013 Jan 28.

Duke Population Research Institute and Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

Abstract We derive the relationship between R(2) (the coefficient of determination), selection gradients, and the opportunity for selection for univariate and multivariate cases. Our main result is to show that the portion of the opportunity for selection that is caused by variation for any trait is equal to the product of its selection gradient and its selection differential. This relationship is a corollary of the first and second fundamental theorems of natural selection, and it permits one to investigate the portions of the total opportunity for selection that are involved in directional selection, stabilizing (and diversifying) selection, and correlational selection, which is important to morphological integration. Read More

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First Report of Late Blight Caused by Phytophthora infestans Clonal Lineage US-24 on Potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Wisconsin.

Plant Dis 2013 Jan;97(1):152

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) crops are grown on over 25,090 ha in Wisconsin annually. Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) deBary, is a potentially devastating disease that affects tomato and potato crops in Wisconsin every few years when inoculum is introduced and weather conditions favor disease. Read More

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January 2013

Morphological and morphometrical assessment of spermathecae of Aedes aegypti females.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2012 Sep;107(6):705-12

Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brasil.

The vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti is directly influenced by its high reproductive output. Nevertheless, females are restricted to a single mating event, sufficient to acquire enough sperm to fertilize a lifetime supply of eggs. How Ae. Read More

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September 2012

Molecular characterization and evolution of a gene family encoding male-specific reproductive proteins in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

BMC Evol Biol 2011 Oct 6;11:292. Epub 2011 Oct 6.

Istituto-Pasteur - Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.

Background: During copulation, the major Afro-tropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. transfers male accessory gland (MAG) proteins to females as a solid mass (i. Read More

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October 2011

Disruption of urinary odor preference and lordosis behavior in female mice given lesions of the medial amygdala.

Physiol Behav 2012 Jan 17;105(2):554-9. Epub 2011 Sep 17.

Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, United States.

Previous research showed that axonal inputs to both anterior and posterior subdivisions of the medial amygdala from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs of female mice, respectively, process volatile and non-volatile pheromonal signals from male conspecifics. In the present study we found that bilateral electrolytic lesions that included posterior portions, but not the anterior subdivision alone of the medial amygdala (Me) blocked the preference of estrous female mice to investigate volatile urinary odors from testes-intact vs. castrated males. Read More

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January 2012

Factors influencing progress toward sympatric speciation.

J Evol Biol 2011 Oct 27;24(10):2186-96. Epub 2011 Jun 27.

Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Many factors could influence progress towards sympatric speciation. Some of the potentially important ones include competition, mate choice and the degree to which alternative sympatric environments (resources) are discrete. What is not well understood is the relative importance of these different factors, as well as interactions among them. Read More

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October 2011

New species from the Fusarium solani species complex derived from perithecia and soil in the old World tropics.

Mycologia 2011 Nov-Dec;103(6):1302-30. Epub 2011 Jun 23.

Molecular Biology Program, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003, USA.

A large collection of strains belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) was isolated from soil and perithecia in primary forests in Sri Lanka (from fallen tree bark) and tropical Australia (Queensland, from fallen tree fruits and nuts). Portions of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene, the nuclear large subunit (NLSU) and internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA genes were sequenced in 52 isolates from soil and perithecia. The FSSC was divided previously into three clades with some biogeographic structure, termed Clades 1, 2 and 3. Read More

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January 2012

The pelvic kidney of male Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia, urodela, ambystomatidae) with special reference to the sexual collecting ducts.

J Morphol 2010 Dec;271(12):1422-39

Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri 63103, USA.

This study details the gross and microscopic anatomy of the pelvic kidney in male Ambystoma maculatum. The nephron of male Ambystoma maculatum is divided into six distinct regions leading sequentially away from a renal corpuscle: (1) neck segment, which communicates with the coelomic cavity via a ventrally positioned pleuroperitoneal funnel, (2) proximal tubule, (3) intermediate segment, (4) distal tubule, (5) collecting tubule, and (6) collecting duct. The proximal tubule is divided into a vacuolated proximal region and a distal lysosomic region. Read More

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December 2010