50,190 results match your criteria populations indicating

Trans-ovo permethrin exposure affects growth, brain morphology and cardiac development in quail.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Biological Sciences and Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA.

Permethrin is a commonly used, highly effective pesticide in poultry agriculture, and has recently been trialed in conservation efforts to protect Galápagos finch hatchlings from an invasive ectoparasite. Although permethrin is considered safe for adults, pesticides can have health consequences when animals are exposed during early life stages. The few studies that have examined permethrin's effects in embryonic chicks and rats have shown hydrocephaly, anencephaly, reduced cellular energy conversion, and disruption of developing heart muscle. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Inversions and genomic differentiation after secondary contact: when drift contributes to maintenance, not loss, of differentiation.

Evolution 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

IBE, Institute of Evolutionary Biology (UPF-CSIC), Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra. PRBB, Av. Doctor Aiguader N88, Barcelona, 08003, Spain.

Due to their effects on reducing recombination, chromosomal inversions may play an important role in speciation by establishing and/or maintaining linked blocks of genes causing reproductive isolation (RI) between populations. This view fits empirical data indicating that inversions typically harbour loci involved in RI. However, previous computer simulations of infinite populations with 2-4 loci involved in RI implied that, even with gene flux as low as 10 per gamete, per generation between alternative arrangements, inversions may not have large, qualitative advantages over collinear regions in maintaining population differentiation after secondary contact. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Higher mortality of the less suitable brown trout host compared to the principal Atlantic salmon host when infested with freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) glochidia.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Postboks 5685 Torgarden, 7485, Trondheim, Norway.

The freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) is a highly host-specific parasite, with an obligate parasitic stage on salmonid fish. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. trutta and Salmo trutta f. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Trends in Food Sources and Diet Quality Among US Children and Adults, 2003-2018.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e215262. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Time trends and population disparities in nutritional quality of foods from major US sources, including grocery stores, restaurants, schools, worksites, and other sources, are not well established.

Objective: To investigate patterns and trends in diet quality by food sources among US children and adults overall and in sociodemographic subgroups.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This serial, cross-sectional survey study included respondents from 8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles (2003-2018) with valid dietary recalls. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

What's new in bone disease and fractures in HIV?

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2021 May;16(3):186-191

Centre for Experimental Pathogen Host Research, School of Medicine, University College Dublin.

Purpose Of Review: People living with HIV (PWH) are at greater risk of low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures compared to the general population. This narrative review summarises recent literature in the field, including the relative contribution of antiretroviral therapy and frailty to low BMD and fractures in PWH.

Recent Findings: The body of evidence indicating less impact on BMD from the use of tenofovir alafenamide compared to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate continues to grow, although this has not yet translated into data supporting a reduction in fracture incidence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Difference in lesion formation by male and female .

J Nematol 2020 25;52. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Plant Pathology Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 491 Russell Laboratories, 1630 Linden Dr., Madison, WI, 53706.

induce necrotic lesions, the hallmark symptom for the genus, soon after infection. The objective of our study was to characterize and quantify gender differences in lesion development. Independent experiments were conducted for three hosts; pea ( L. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

T1a triple negative breast cancer has the worst prognosis among all the small tumor (<1 cm) of TNBC and HER2-rich subtypes.

Gland Surg 2021 Mar;10(3):943-952

Department of Breast Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), accounting for 15% of all breast cancer cases, was usually considered as the most aggressive subtype. The present study evaluated the prognosis of T1a TNBC and the impact of tumor size on T1 TNBC survival in large-scale population.

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled T1a/T1b/T1c TNBC and HER2/hormone receptor (HoR) patients diagnosed between 2010 to 2012 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dietary creatine and kidney function in adult population: NHANES 2017-2018.

Sergej M Ostojic

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 20;9(4):2257-2259. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

FSPE Applied Bioenergetics Lab University of Novi Sad Novi Sad Serbia.

Consuming more creatine may be associated with an increased risk of renal dysfunction, yet this link remains poorly addressed at the population level. Using 2017-2018 NHANES data, the current study found that the odds ratio for having failing kidneys in 2,955 U.S adults consuming ≥2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Workers' Decisions to Disclose a Mental Health Issue to Managers and the Consequences.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:631032. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Tranzo, Scientific Center for Care and Wellbeing, Tilburg University, Tilburg, Netherlands.

Stigma can be a barrier to accessing effective interventions and work accommodations for mental illnesses. Fear of stigma's concomitant prejudice and discrimination can inhibit workers from asking for help. Thus, it may be important to develop effective interventions addressing workplace stigma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Survival of the Sawfly Upon Infection by an Entomopathogenic Fungus and in Relation to Clerodanoid Uptake.

Front Physiol 2021 24;12:637617. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Chemical Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.

Larvae of the turnip sawfly are a pest of Brassicacae plants, as their feeding can cause defoliation of various crops of economic importance. The larvae and the adults of this sawfly species are known to take up different classes of chemical compounds from their respective host plants, with potentially deterrent functions against predators. In addition, compounds taken up by the adults, the clerodanoids, are known for their antimicrobial activity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Live implant dosimetry may be an effective replacement for postimplant computed tomography in localized prostate cancer patients receiving low dose rate brachytherapy.

Brachytherapy 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland; Department of Radiation Oncology, Galway Clinic, Ireland; Prostate Cancer Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine if Live Implant Dosimetry (LIDO) utilizing intraoperative transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is equivalent to postimplant CT dosimetry (either day 0 or day 30) in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC) treated with low dose rate (LDR) prostate seed brachytherapy.

Methods And Materials: The treated population consisted of 628 men with localized (T1-T2) PC. All d'Amico risk categories (low, intermediate, and high) were included, and 437 patients were treated with monotherapy (160 Gy) [low and low tier intermediate], and the remainder (191) [high tier intermediate and high risk] with an implant boost (106 Gy) post external beam radiation, to a volume including the prostate and seminal vesicles (46 Gy). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Time trends of perfluoroalkyl substances in blood in 30-year old Norwegian men and women in the period 1986-2007.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Biomonitoring studies are helpful tools and can increase our knowledge on time trends in human blood concentrations of PFASs: how they relate to emission trends and the potential prenatal exposure for future generations. In this study, serum was sampled in cross-sections of men and women who were 30 years old in each of the years 1986, 1994, 2001, and 2007 in Northern Norway and analyzed for 23 PFASs. Differences in serum concentrations across sampling years were investigated graphically and with significance testing and compared with those observed in our previous longitudinal study using repeated individual measurements in older men in the same years. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Relationship between urinary heavy metals with metabolic syndrome and its components in population from Hoveyzeh cohort study: A case-control study in Iran.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Apr 5;66:126757. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Environmental Technologies Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science, Ahvaz, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The incidence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) has been growing rapidly and is rising to pandemic proportions. Although obesity is a primary risk factor for the enhancement of these conditions, not all obese individuals develop metabolic syndrome, indicating that the risk for developing MetS is impacted by other genetic and/or environmental factors such as heavy metals. Therefore, the present study focused on the association between exposures to heavy metal and MetS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ambient carbon monoxide and daily mortality: a global time-series study in 337 cities.

Lancet Planet Health 2021 Apr;5(4):e191-e199

Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.

Background: Epidemiological evidence on short-term association between ambient carbon monoxide (CO) and mortality is inconclusive and limited to single cities, regions, or countries. Generalisation of results from previous studies is hindered by potential publication bias and different modelling approaches. We therefore assessed the association between short-term exposure to ambient CO and daily mortality in a multicity, multicountry setting. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exploration of spatial-temporal varying impacts on COVID-19 cumulative case in Texas using geographically weighted regression (GWR).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Rd., Wuhan, 430079, Hubei, China.

Since COVID-19 is extremely threatening to human health, it is significant to determine its impact factors to curb the virus spread. To tackle the complexity of COVID-19 expansion on a spatial-temporal scale, this research appropriately analyzed the spatial-temporal heterogeneity at the county-level in Texas. First, the impact factors of COVID-19 are captured on social, economic, and environmental multiple facets, and the communality is extracted through principal component analysis (PCA). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Externally added cystatin C reduces growth of A375 melanoma cells by increasing cell cycle time.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of Clinical Chemistry & Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Some secreted cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin family appear to affect intracellular proteolysis and growth of human cells, as a result of internalization. Here, we studied the effects of external addition of the most abundant human cystatin, cystatin C, on viability and proliferation of cancer cells in culture. A dose-dependent decrease of viable cells was seen for A375 melanoma, MCF-7 breast cancer and PC-3 prostate cancer cells cultured in 1-5 μM cystatin C after 24 h. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genetic characteristics of the amphidromous fish Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis (Osmeriformes: Plecoglossidae) on Yaku-shima Island in Japan, the southernmost population of the subspecies.

Genetica 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, 4-50-20 Shimoarata, Kagoshima, 890-0056, Japan.

The Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) population on Yaku-shima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan represents the southernmost population of the subspecies and is considered to be facing extinction. We investigated the genetic characteristics of Ayu in the Miyanoura River (MYU) in the northeast of the island and the Kurio River (KRO) in the southwest of the island, using partial sequences of mitochondrial (mt) control region and polymorphic microsatellite (simple sequence repeat: SSR) loci. The mtDNA analysis revealed that the Yaku-shima Island population was significantly differentiated from other Ayu populations; additionally, the MYU and KRO populations were significantly different from each other in terms of mtDNA (pairwise Φ = 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tobramycin Adaptation Enhances Policing of Social Cheaters in .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045

The LasR-I quorum-sensing system regulates secreted proteases that can be exploited by cheaters, such as quorum sensing receptor-defective () mutants. mutants emerge in populations growing on casein as a sole source of carbon and energy. These mutants are exploitative cheaters because they avoid the substantial cost of engaging in quorum sensing. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The patient enablement instrument for back pain: reliability, content validity, construct validity and responsiveness.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Apr 9;19(1):116. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230, Odense M, Denmark.

Background: Currently, there are no outcome measures assessing the ability of people with non-specific low back pain to self-manage their illness. Inspired by the 'Patient Enablement Instrument', we developed the Patient Enablement Instrument for Back Pain (PEI-BP). The aim of this study was to describe the development of the Patient Enablement Instrument for Back Pain (PEI-BP) and investigate content validity, construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, measurement error, responsiveness and floor and ceiling effects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Are Older Persons in China Living More Years in an Independent Living Arrangement? Estimates Using Multistate Life Tables.

Demography 2021 Apr;58(2):739-762

Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

Adopting a multistate life table approach, this study estimates number of years the very old in China expect to live in an independent living arrangement (alone or with spouse only)-an estimate we term "independent living life expectancy" (ILLE)-as opposed to in coresidence with adult children or others. We also estimate how ILLE and proportion of total life expectancy (TLE) residing independently has changed over time. The backdrop for this study is a society experiencing both increasing longevity and social changes that influence the tendency to live in an independent living arrangement. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment of Quality of Life and Functional Outcomes of Operated Cases of Hirschsprung Disease in a Developing Country.

Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2021 Mar 4;24(2):145-153. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Paediatric Surgery, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India.

Purpose: Children treated for Hirschsprung disease (HD) are adversely affected by fecal incontinence and soiling. This can be detrimental to their physical, psychosocial quality of life (QoL) and impacts the normal functioning of their family. QoL studies in HD are predominantly from developed countries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Identifying and Characterizing Children of Parents with a Serious Illness Using Survey and Register Data.

Clin Epidemiol 2021 1;13:253-263. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, 1455, Denmark.

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence and characterize children and adolescents aged 0-21 years with a physically or mentally ill parent based on registers. Further, to explore the use of register and survey data to identify parental serious illness.

Methods: The study is based on: 1) a 20% register sample of children and adolescents aged 0-21 in 2014; and 2) survey data from the Danish Youth Profile 2014 including 63,437 youth education students linked to registers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparison of Argentinean microbiota with other geographical populations reveals different taxonomic and functional signatures associated with obesity.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7762. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Microbiology and Mycology Program, Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBM), School of Medicine, University of Chile, Av. Independencia 1027, Independencia, Santiago, Chile.

Accumulating evidence suggests that various genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of obesity. Among the latter, the gut microbiota has emerged as a critical player in the regulation of human metabolism and health and the development of non-communicable chronic diseases. Considering that no information on this matter is available in Argentina, our aim was to identify the microorganisms associated with obesity as well as their potential functionality. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tobacco mythbusting-tobacco is not a major driver of foot traffic in low socio-economic small retail stores.

Tob Control 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Population and Global Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: One of the opposing arguments to restricting or banning the sale of tobacco products stem from a perception that this would adversely impact on small retail stores that rely on tobacco sales for viability. It has also been argued that purchases of tobacco leads to unplanned purchasing of other items that yield income for small store owners. This study tested the veracity of these arguments in the Australian context. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Predicting need for hospital admission in patients with traumatic brain injury or skull fractures identified on CT imaging: a machine learning approach.

Emerg Med J 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Hull York Medical School Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK.

Background: Patients with mild traumatic brain injury on CT scan are routinely admitted for inpatient observation. Only a small proportion of patients require clinical intervention. We recently developed a decision rule using traditional statistical techniques that found neurologically intact patients with isolated simple skull fractures or single bleeds <5 mm with no preinjury antiplatelet or anticoagulant use may be safely discharged from the emergency department. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prevalence of low serum zinc concentrations in Indian children and adolescents: findings from the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey 2016-18.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

UNICEF, New Delhi, India.

Background: It is thought that there is a high risk of zinc deficiency in India, but there are no representative national estimates.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the national and state-level prevalence of low serum zinc concentrations (SZCs) in Indian children from the nationally representative Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey.

Methods: Prevalence of low SZC, adjusted for C-reactive protein, was estimated among preschool (1-4 y; n = 7874) and school-age children (5-9 y; n = 10,430) and adolescents (10-19 y; n = 10,140), using SZC cutoffs defined by the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Functional variability of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) NAT2 gene for drug-metabolising arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 5:114545. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Alexandroupolis, Greece. Electronic address:

Human NAT2 is a polymorphic pharmacogene encoding for N-acetyltransferase 2, a hepatic enzyme active towards arylamine and arylhydrazine drugs, including the anti-tubercular antibiotic isoniazid. The isoenzyme also modulates susceptibility to chemical carcinogenesis, particularly of the bladder. Human NAT2 represents an ideal model for anthropological investigations into the demographic adaptation of worldwide populations to their xenobiotic environment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Driving performance and turning reaction time following hip arthroscopy for FAIS: does capsular repair matter?

Hip Int 2021 Apr 8:11207000211006778. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

USC Epstein Family Center for Sports Medicine at Keck Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: (1) To compare the pre- and postoperative driving performance in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS); (2) to examine the differences in driving performance between patients with versus without capsular repair.

Methods: Patients who underwent arthroscopic hip surgery for FAIS were included. Driving performance of participating patients was collected using a driving simulator preoperatively and at 2 weeks, 4-6 weeks and 8-12 weeks postoperatively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Population genomics reveals molecular determinants of specialization to tomato in the polyphagous fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea in France.

Phytopathology 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

INRAE, 27057, BGPI, Paris, Île-de-France, France;

Many fungal plant pathogens encompass multiple populations specialized on different plant species. Understanding the factors underlying pathogen adaptation to their hosts is a major challenge of evolutionary microbiology, and it should help preventing the emergence of new specialized pathogens on novel hosts. Previous studies have shown that French populations of the grey mould pathogen Botrytis cinerea parasitizing tomato and grapevine are differentiated from each other, and have higher aggressiveness on their host-of-origin than on other hosts, indicating some degree of host specialization in this polyphagous pathogen. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF