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The food, the bug, and the ugly: A recipe for food-induced gut pain.

Allergy 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University Medical Center, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, L8S 4K1, ON, Canada.

It is estimated that one-fifth of the general population experiences adverse reactions to food. There is evidence of an increase in the prevalence of well-defined food sensitivities such as celiac disease, food allergy, and food intolerance, suggesting a critical role of yet unknown environmental factors as modifiers of disease expression. The role of microorganisms in inciting sensitivity to foods has garnered significant attention. Read More

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Ferric Citrate Dosing in Iron Deficiency Anemia in Nondialysis-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease.

Am J Nephrol 2021 Jul 22:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Akebia Therapeutics, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: Ferric citrate (FC) is indicated as an oral iron replacement for iron deficiency anemia in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis. The recommended starting dose is one 1-g tablet three times daily (TID). This study investigated long-term efficacy and safety of different FC dosing regimens for treating anemia in nondialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD). Read More

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Application of in vitro data in physiologically-based kinetic models for quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolation: A case-study for baclofen.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Jul 19:105223. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, 3508TD Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) models can simulate concentrations of chemicals in tissues over time without animal experiments. Nevertheless, in vivo data are often used to parameterise PBK models. This study aims to illustrate that a combination of kinetic and dynamic readouts from in vitro assays can be used to parameterise PBK models simulating neurologically-active concentrations of xenobiotics. Read More

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Upper Reference Limits for High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T and N-Terminal Fragment of the Prohormone Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients With CKD.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Medicine.

Rationale & Objective: The utility of conventional upper reference limits (URL) for N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains debated. We analyzed the distribution of hsTnT and NT-proBNP in people with CKD in ambulatory settings to examine the diagnostic value of conventional URL in this population.

Study Design: Observational study. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide 2·0 mg versus 1·0 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes (SUSTAIN FORTE): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3B trial.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Semaglutide is an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes; however, 20-30% of patients given semaglutide 1·0 mg do not reach glycaemic treatment goals. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide 2·0 mg versus 1·0 mg in adults with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes on a stable dose of metformin with or without a sulfonylurea.

Methods: We did a 40-week, randomised, active-controlled, parallel-group, double-blind, phase 3B trial (SUSTAIN FORTE) at 125 outpatient clinics in ten countries. Read More

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The effect of bearing and rearing a child on blood pressure: a nationally representative instrumental variable analysis of 444611 mothers in India.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (HIGH), Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: At the individual level, it is well known that pregnancies have a short-term effect on a woman's cardiovascular system and blood pressure. The long-term effect of having children on maternal blood pressure, however, is unknown. We thus estimated the causal effect of having children on blood pressure among mothers in India, a country with a history of high fertility rates. Read More

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Nutrient composition of preterm mother's milk and factors that influence nutrient content.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Background: Breast milk feedings are the optimal feeding choice for premature infants. Clinicians depend on accurate nutrient profiles of the breast milk in order to make informed decisions regarding the need for nutrient supplementation. Existing data for nutrient composition of preterm breast milk are dated and not representative of the current population of women delivering prematurely in the United States. Read More

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High regional variation in prostate surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia in Switzerland.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254143. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of General Internal Medicine, Bern University Hospital, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Among various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), surgical therapy is the most invasive. As Switzerland has the highest transurethral prostatectomy rate among OECD countries, we assessed the regional variation in prostate surgery for BPH and explored potential determinants of variation.

Methods: We conducted a population-based analysis using discharge data for men aged ≥40 years with transurethral or simple prostatectomy from all Swiss hospitals during 2013-2018. Read More

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Risk of Late-Onset Breast Cancer in Genetically Predisposed Women.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 22:JCO2100531. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Purpose: The prevalence of germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in established breast cancer predisposition genes in women in the general population over age 65 years is not well-defined. However, testing guidelines suggest that women diagnosed with breast cancer over age 65 years might have < 2.5% likelihood of a PV in a high-penetrance gene. Read More

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Population pharmacokinetic analysis of rivaroxaban in children and comparison to prospective physiologically-based pharmacokinetic predictions.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Bayer AG, Research & Development, Pharmaceuticals, Wuppertal/Leverkusen, Germany.

Rivaroxaban has been investigated in the EINSTEIN-Jr program for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children aged 0 to 18 years and in the UNIVERSE program for thromboprophylaxis in children aged 2 to 8 years with congenital heart disease after Fontan-procedure. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and population pharmacokinetic (popPK) modeling were used throughout the pediatric development of rivaroxaban according to the learn-and-confirm paradigm. The development strategy was to match pediatric drug exposures to adult exposure proven to be safe and efficacious. Read More

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Population Pharmacokinetics of Favipiravir in Patients with COVID-19.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Kobe City Hospital Organization, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, 650-0047, Japan.

The antiretroviral drug favipiravir inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. It has been developed for the treatment of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection disease (COVID-19). However, its pharmacokinetics in patients with COVID-19 is poorly understood. Read More

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Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Ulotaront in Subjects with Schizophrenia.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marlborough, MA, USA.

Ulotaront (SEP-363856) is a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonist with 5-HT agonist activity in Phase 3 development for the treatment of schizophrenia. The efficacy of ulotaront is not mediated by blockade of D or 5-HT receptors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the population PK of ulotaront in adult subjects using pooled data from seven Phase 1 studies, one Phase 2 acute study, and one 6-month extension study. Read More

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What is the best anthropometric predictor for identifying higher risk for cardiovascular diseases in afro-descendant Brazilian women? A cross-sectional population-based study.

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Jul 22:e23652. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Social Nutrition and Nutritional Sciences Graduate Program, Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Objectives: Excessive adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Anthropometric indices are useful in screening individuals at higher risk for these diseases. However, there are no studies that show which of these indices has the best discriminatory power among Afro-descendant Brazilian women. Read More

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Data inaccessibility at sub-county scale limits implementation of manuresheds.

J Environ Qual 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI, 53705.

The manureshed concept aims to rebalance surplus manure nutrients produced at animal feeding operations (sources) and the demands from nutrient-deficient croplands (sinks) to reduce negative environmental impacts and utilize nutrients more efficiently. Due to water quality implications, studies focused on this re-balancing have typically created domain boundaries that match a particular watershed. However, a majority of agricultural datasets that are used to inform these analyses - specifically, livestock populations - are only available at the county scale, which generally do not match watershed boundaries. Read More

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Direct and Indirect Costs of Influenza-Like Illness Treated with and Without Oseltamivir in 15 European Countries: A Descriptive Analysis Alongside the Randomised Controlled ALICE Trial.

Clin Drug Investig 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Centre for Health Economics Research and Modelling Infectious Diseases (CHERMID), Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610, Wilrijk, Belgium.

Background And Objective: Influenza-like illness (ILI) leads to a substantial disease burden every winter in Europe; however, oseltamivir is not frequently prescribed to ILI patients in the primary-care setting. An open-label, multi-country, multi-season, randomised controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of oseltamivir for treating ILI in 15 European countries. We aimed to evaluate whether patients presenting with ILI in primary care and being managed with the addition of oseltamivir to usual care had lower average direct and indirect costs compared to patients with usual care alone. Read More

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Budget Impact Analysis of Fidaxomicin Versus Vancomycin for the Treatment of Clostridioides difficile Infection in the United States.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Merck & Co., Inc., 200 Galloping Hill Road, Kenilworth, NJ, 07033, USA.

Introduction: Fidaxomicin is as effective as vancomycin in treating Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) but more effective at preventing recurrence. However, because fidaxomicin is more costly than vancomycin, its overall value in managing CDI is not well understood. This study assessed the budget impact of introducing fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for the treatment of adults with CDI from a hospital perspective in the US. Read More

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Interventions to Improve Trainers' Learning and Behaviors for Educating Health care Professionals Using Train-the-Trainer Method: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Contin Educ Health Prof 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Ms. Poitras: Professor, Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Saguenay, Canada. Ms. Bélanger: Candidate, Psychology Department Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Canada. Ms. T Vaillancourt: Research coordinator, Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Saguenay, Canada. Ms. Kienlin: PhD Student, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, University of Tromsø and The South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority, Department of Medicine and Healthcare, Tromsø, Norway. Ms. Körner: Professor, Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Ms. Godbout: Coordinator, Quebec SPOR Unit, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Canada. Ms. Bernard-Hamel: Registered Nurse, CIUSSS de l'Estrie, Sherbrooke, Canada. Ms. O'Connor: PhD Student, Department of Pharmacy, Université Laval, Québec, Canada. Ms. Blanchette: PhD Student, School of Nursing, Université de Sherbrooke, Saguenay, Canada. Ms. Khadhraoui: Biostatistician, Quebec SPOR Unit, Université Laval, Québec, Canada. Ms. Sawadogo: Student, Quebec SPOR Unit, Université Laval. Ms. Massougbodji: PhD Student, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Université Laval, Québec, Canada. Mr. Zomahoun: Scientific Coordonnator, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, Québec, Canada. Ms. Gallani: Professor, Nursing Faculty, Université Laval, Québec, Canada. Ms. Stacey: School of Nursing, University of Ottawa and Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. Dr. Légaré: Professor, Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.

Introduction: Train-the-trainer (TTT) programs are frequently used to facilitate knowledge dissemination. However, little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. Therefore, we sought to assess the impact of TTT programs on learning and behavior of trainers for educating health and social professionals (trainees). Read More

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Estimation of Sex From Dental Arch Dimensions: An Odontometric Analysis.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department of Dentistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur Department of Anthropology (UGC Centre of Advanced Study), Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Abstract: Sex estimation is one of the "big three" of human identification and is a vital aspect of the process of generating biological profile of unknown deceased. Anthropometric and odontometric methods that utilize measurement of distances between certain landmarks are commonly employed to differentiate between the 2 sexes. Teeth are the most robust and well-preserved parts of the human body, and studies have shown that the sex of an unknown individual can be estimated using their measurements. Read More

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Disparities in Elevated Body Mass Index in Youth Receiving Care at Community Health Centers.

Fam Community Health 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

AllianceChicago, Chicago, Illinois (Dr Mohanty and Ms Padilla); SASU Project Management (Ms Rittner) and General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Department of Medicine (Dr Persell), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (Dr Mohanty), Chicago, Illinois; Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, Oregon (Dr Leo and Mr Crawford); University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (Ms Tilmon); Division of Cardiology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (Dr Akhabue); and University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu (Dr Okihiro).

Childhood obesity has increased significantly in the United States. Racial subgroups are often grouped into categories in research, limiting our understanding of disparities. This study describes the prevalence of obesity among youth of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds receiving care at community health centers (CHCs). Read More

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EXPRESS: A Prospective Population-Based Study of Stroke in the Central Region of Iran: The Qom Incidence of Stroke Study (QSIS).

Int J Stroke 2021 Jul 22:17474930211037526. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Qom University of Medical Sciences and Health Services School of Medicine, Neurology, Qom, Qom, Iran (the Islamic Republic of).

Objective: The present study is one of the few population-based studies that have been conducted in the Middle East, aimed to determine the incidence of stroke in Qom, one of the central provinces of Iran.

Methods: The Qom province includes an estimated at-risk population of about 1 million. During a twelve-month period (November 2018âNovember 2019), all first-ever strokes occurring in the target population were registered. Read More

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Detecting false identities: A solution to improve web-based surveys and research on leadership and health/well-being.

J Occup Health Psychol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Management.

A challenge for leadership and health/well-being research and applications relying on web-based data collection is false identities-cases where participants are not members of the targeted population. To address this challenge, we investigated the effectiveness of a new approach consisting of using internet protocol (IP) address analysis to enhance the validity of web-based research involving constructs relevant in leadership and health/well-being research (e.g. Read More

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Effects of anticholinergic and sedative medication use on fractures: A self-controlled design study.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Background/objectives: Unintentional falls are a leading cause of injury for older adults, and evidence is needed to understand modifiable risk factors. We evaluated 1-year fall-related fracture risk and whether dispensing of medications with anticholinergic/sedating properties is temporally associated with an increased odds of these fractures.

Design: A retrospective cohort study with nested self-controlled analyses conducted between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016. Read More

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Resolution of post-traumatic chronic testicular pain in a pediatric patient after microsurgical denervation of the spermatic cord: a case report.

Can J Anaesth 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Purpose: Chronic scrotal content pain, chronic orchialgia, or testicular pain can present after trauma, vasectomy, and hernia repair, among other triggers. Microsurgical denervation of the spermatic cord is an option for definitive pain control. While this practice is established in adult urology, access to diagnostic intervention and definitive denervation surgery is limited in the pediatric population. Read More

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On the path towards personalized medicine: Implications of pharmacogenetic studies of alcohol use disorder medications.

Expert Rev Precis Med Drug Dev 2020 10;5(1):43-54. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

University of California Los Angeles, Department of Psychology, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Introduction: The heritability of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is estimated to be ~50%; however, the genetic basis of the disease is still poorly understood. The genetic variants identified thus far only explain a small percentage of AUD phenotypic variability. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are impacted by technical and methodological limitations, genetic variants that have been identified independently of GWAS findings can moderate the efficacy of AUD medications. Read More

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February 2020

Estimation of the Rural Dog Population Within a Mega-City: An Example in Jiading District, Shanghai.

Front Vet Sci 2021 5;8:630180. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Shanghai Animal Disease Control Center, Shanghai, China.

Rural dog populations have long been recognized to be inadequately managed in terms of disease control and prevention. In this study we consider dog management in rural Shanghai and its implications for rabies control in the entire metropolitan area of Shanghai. The prerequisite to improve rabies vaccination coverage in rural Shanghai depends on a proper enumeration of the total rural dog population. Read More

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Risk Diagrams Based on Primary Care Electronic Medical Records and Linked Real-Time PCR Data to Monitor Local COVID-19 Outbreaks During the Summer 2020: A Prospective Study Including 7,671,862 People in Catalonia.

Front Public Health 2021 5;9:693956. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Centre for Statistics in Medicine, NDORMS, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Monitoring transmission is a prerequisite for containing COVID-19. We report on effective potential growth (EPG) as a novel measure for the early identification of local outbreaks based on primary care electronic medical records (EMR) and PCR-confirmed cases. Secondly, we studied whether increasing EPG precedes local hospital and intensive care (ICU) admissions and mortality. Read More

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Sleep Duration and Quality and Sensory Reactivity in School-Aged Children: The Spanish Cross-Sectional InProS Study.

Front Pediatr 2021 5;9:646011. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Surgery and Pathology, Miguel Hernández University, Alicante, Spain.

The relationship between children's sleep and health has been widely examined; however, research focused on the link between sleep and sensory reactivity in children without medical conditions is relatively new and based on studies with small samples. Hence, we aimed at exploring the association between sleep duration and quality and prevalence of sensory reactivity in a population-based sample of children aged 3-7. We examined data on 579 school-age children from the InProS project, a cross-sectional population-based study. Read More

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Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among the elderly population in South Khorasan, Birjand, 2019.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2021 5;35:86. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Anemia is a multifactorial and common public health problem in geriatric age groups, especially in developing countries. Therefore, this study was designed to study the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among the elderly population in Birjand, Iran, in 2019. This was a cross-sectional approach to the baseline data of the Birjand longitudinal aging study (BLAS) in which 1396 people aged ≥ 60 years were screened for the presence of anemia based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Read More

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Antibody Subclass and Glycosylation Shift Following Effective TB Treatment.

Front Immunol 2021 5;12:679973. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States.

With an estimated 25% of the global population infected with (), tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death by infectious diseases. Humoral immunity following TB treatment is largely uncharacterized, and antibody profiling could provide insights into disease resolution. Here we focused on the distinctive TB-specific serum antibody features in active TB disease (ATB) and compared them with latent TB infection (LTBI) or treated ATB (txATB). Read More

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Mitochondrial- sequence polymorphism reflects spatial genetic clustering of sibling species E in Sri Lanka.

J Vector Borne Dis 2020 Apr-Jun;57(2):139-146

Center for Biotechnology, Department of Zoology; Genetics and Molecular Biology Unit, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Sri Lanka.

Background & Objectives: Malaria infects around 216 million people annually with estimated 445,000 deaths globally. Anopheles culicifacies is the vector of malaria in Sri Lanka, a complex of five morphologically identical sibling species of which precise identification using DNA-based methods is still under experimentation. This study was carried out in Sri Lanka to observe the utility of BCE-PCR assay based on mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase II (COII) developed in India, in sibling species B and E identification in Sri Lanka, to characterize nucleotide and corresponding amino acid sequences of COII region in major vector sibling species E in Sri Lanka and to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of sibling species E in Sri Lanka using microsatellite markers. Read More

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