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Obesity and the Risk of Infertility, Gestational Diabetes, and Type 2 Diabetes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Semin Reprod Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, Monash University, Victoria, Australia.

This review describes the relationship between obesity and the most common reproductive (infertility) and metabolic (gestational diabetes mellitus [GDM] and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]) consequences in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It also describes the vital role of lifestyle management for PCOS. PCOS is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder common in reproductive-age women. Read More

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How Safe and Time Consuming is the Surgical Training of Young Orthopaedic Surgeons? A Retrospective Analysis of Proximal Femur Fractures.

Z Orthop Unfall 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ulm, Germany.

Background: Fractures of the proximal femur in the elderly population are rising. Teaching the appropriate surgical treatment of these fractures is of paramount importance. The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in outcome of surgical procedures between supervised trainees and senior surgeons. Read More

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The Relationship between Psychoacoustic and Electrophysiological Assessments of Temporal Resolution.

J Am Acad Audiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background:  Temporal resolution is essential to speech acoustic perception. However, it may alter in individuals with auditory disorders, impairing the development of spoken and written language. The envelope of speech signals contains amplitude modulation (AM) that has critical information. Read More

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The Dietary Inflammatory Index and Human Health: An Umbrella Review of Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies.

Adv Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Deakin University, Institute for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Translation (IMPACT), Food & Mood Centre, School of Medicine, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Numerous observational studies have investigated the role of the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) in chronic disease risk. The aims of this umbrella review and integrated meta-analyses were to systematically synthesize the observational evidence reporting on the associations between the DII and health outcomes based on meta-analyses, and to assess the quality and strength of the evidence for each associated outcome. This umbrella review with integrated meta-analyses investigated the association between the DII and a range of health outcomes based on meta-analyses of observational data. Read More

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Simulation Modeling for the Economic Evaluation of Population-Based Dietary Policies: A Systematic Scoping Review.

Adv Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.

Simulation modeling can be useful to estimate the long-term health and economic impacts of population-based dietary policies. We conducted a systematic scoping review following the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews) guideline to map and critically appraise economic evaluations of population-based dietary policies using simulation models. We searched Medline, Embase, and EconLit for studies published in English after 2005. Read More

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Adjuvanting a subunit COVID-19 vaccine to induce protective immunity.

Nature 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and Infection, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

The development of a portfolio of COVID-19 vaccines to vaccinate the global population remains an urgent public health imperative. Here we demonstrate the capacity of a subunit vaccine, comprising the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain displayed on a protein nanoparticle (RBD-NP), to stimulate robust and durable neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses and protection against SARS-CoV-2 in non-human primates. We evaluated five adjuvants including Essai O/W 1849101, a squalene-in-water emulsion; AS03, an alpha-tocopherol-containing oil-in-water emulsion; AS37, a TLR-7 agonist adsorbed to Alum; CpG1018-Alum, a TLR-9 agonist formulated in Alum; and Alum. Read More

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Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention versus Health Self-Management on Subclinical Anxiety in Older Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: The SCD-Well Randomized Superiority Trial.

Psychother Psychosom 2021 Apr 19:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, Department of Medicine and Department of Psychology, Department of Political Science and International Relations, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Introduction: Older adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD) have a heightened risk of developing dementia and frequently experience subclinical anxiety, which is itself associated with dementia risk.

Objective: To understand whether subclinical anxiety symptoms in SCD can be reduced through behavioral interventions.

Methods: SCD-Well is a randomized controlled trial designed to determine whether an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (caring mindfulness-based approach for seniors; CMBAS) is superior to a structurally matched health self-management program (HSMP) in reducing subclinical anxiety. Read More

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Baseline Characteristics and Survival of an Australian Interstitial Pneumonia with Autoimmune Features Cohort.

Respiration 2021 Apr 19:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Respiratory, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background And Objective: The research term "interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features" (IPAF) encompasses interstitial lung disease (ILD) patients with autoimmune features not meeting diagnostic criteria for a defined connective tissue disease (CTD). It remains unclear if IPAF is a distinct disease entity with implications for management and prognosis. We describe an Australian IPAF population and compare their baseline characteristics and outcomes with distinct cohorts of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), CTD-ILD, and unclassifiable ILD. Read More

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Induction of Immune Responses and Immune Evasion by Human Bocavirus.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Apr 19:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Virology Research Group, Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Respiratory tract infections are the primary cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), a member of the Parvoviridae family causes a wide spectrum of respiratory diseases in children, and gastroenteritis in adults. The mechanisms of latency, persistence, and reinfection of Bocavirus are poorly understood at present due to the lack of permissive cell lines and efficient animal models. Read More

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"A Revolution in Favor of Reproduction"? Gynecology and Obstetrics in the "Third Reich".

Gynecol Obstet Invest 2021 Apr 19;85(6):468-496. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institut für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

During the "Third Reich," the majority of German gynecologists and obstetricians did not hesitate to put themselves at the service of those in power. In 1933, many gynecologists initially only focused on the fact that the biopolitical objectives of the National Socialists matched their own long-standing demands for population policy measures and the early detection and prevention of cancer. In addition, cooperating with the Nazis promised the political advancement of the profession, personal advantages, and the honorary title of Volksgesundheitsführer (national health leaders). Read More

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Modelling dynamics of Coronavirus disease 2019 spread for pandemic forecasting based on simulink.

Phys Biol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University of Granada, Hospital Real, Avenida del Hospicio, S/N C.P. 18010 CP:18071 Granada Granada S/N C.P. 18010, 18010 Granada, Spain, Granada, Andalucía, 18010, SPAIN.

In this paper, we demonstrate the application of MATLAB to develop a pandemic prediction system based on Simulink. The Susceptible-Exposed-Asymptomatic but infectious-symptomatic and Infectious (Severe Infected Population + Mild Infected Population)-Recovered-Deceased (SEAI(I1+I2)RD) physical model for unsupervised learning and two types of supervised learning, namely, fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and wavelet neural-network PID learning, are used to build a predictive-control system model that enables self-learning artificial intelligence (AI)-based control. After parameter setting, the data entering the model are predicted, and the value of the data set at a future moment is calculated. Read More

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On the therapeutic targets and pharmacological treatments for pain relief following spinal cord injury: A mechanistic review.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 16;139:111563. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Neurobiology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is globally considered as one of the most debilitating disorders, which interferes with daily activities and life of the affected patients. Despite many developments in related recognizing and treating procedures, post-SCI neuropathic pain (NP) is still a clinical challenge for clinicians with no distinct treatments. Accordingly, a comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and national database (SID and Irandoc). Read More

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Changes in microbial communities and their predictive functionalities during fermentation of toddy, an alcoholic beverage of India.

Microbiol Res 2021 Apr 6;248:126769. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

DAICENTER (DBT-AIST International Centre for Translational and Environmental Research) and Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Sikkim University, Gangtok, 737102, Sikkim, India. Electronic address:

Toddy is a traditional mild-alcoholic drink of India, which is produced from fresh palm saps by natural fermentation. We studied the successional changes in bacterial and fungal communities during the natural fermentation (0 h-96 h) of toddy. During fermentation, alcohol content of the fermenting saps increased significantly from 0. Read More

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The Association Between Physical Performance and Health-Related Quality of Life Based on the EuroQol 5-Dimensional Questionnaire in Patients With Chagas Disease.

Value Health Reg Issues 2021 Apr 15;25:112-117. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Division, National Institute of Cardiology, Ministry of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; State University of Rio de Janeiro, Internal Medicine Department, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Chagas disease (CD) is a chronic disease to millions worldwide, and many patients develop heart disease. In addition, they are part of an aging population. These characteristics can be associated with a reduction in physical performance and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Read More

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Prevalence and associations of co-morbid insomnia and sleep apnoea in an Australian population-based sample.

Sleep Med 2021 Mar 31;82:9-17. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

The Adelaide Institute for Sleep Health, Flinders Health and Medical Research Institute: Sleep Health, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, SA, 5042, Australia.

Introduction: Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are the two most prevalent sleep disorders, and frequently co-occur (COMISA) in sleep clinic samples. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence or associations of COMISA in the general population.

Methods: We used population-based online survey data from 2044 Australian adults. Read More

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Swine as biomedical animal model for T-cell research-Success and potential for transmittable and non-transmittable human diseases.

Authors:
Tobias Käser

Mol Immunol 2021 Apr 16;135:95-115. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, 27607 Raleigh, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Swine is biologically one of the most relevant large animal models for biomedical research. With its use as food animal that can be exploited as a free cell and tissue source for research and its high susceptibility to human diseases, swine additionally represent an excellent option for both the 3R principle and One Health research. One of the previously most limiting factors of the pig model was its arguably limited immunological toolbox. Read More

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Demographic risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse: Do smoking, asthma, heavy lifting or family history matter?

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 12;261:25-28. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Sydney Medical School Nepean, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: Our objective was to identify non-obstetric risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse in women attending a urogynecology clinic.

Study Design: A retrospective study of 662 women referred for pelvic floor dysfunction between January 2017 and August 2018. Participants underwent a standardized interview, clinical exam including Pelvic Organ Prolapse Qualification (POP-Q) assessment, and four-dimensional transperineal ultrasound. Read More

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Analysis of factors that could affect symptomatic outcome in patients having laparoscopic excision of deep rectovaginal endometriosis in BSGE endometriosis centres.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 16;261:17-24. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Birmingham Women's and Children's Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TG, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objective: Investigate factors that influence quality of life after laparoscopic excision of deep rectovaginal endometriosis.

Study Design: A multicentre prospective cohort study involving 63 hospitals accredited as British Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy specialist endometriosis centres was conducted. The study population comprised of 8368 women who had undergone laparoscopic surgical excision of deep rectovaginal endometriosis requiring dissection of the pararectal space. Read More

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Dynamic interplay between GABAergic networks and developing neurons in the adult hippocampus.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2021 Apr 16;69:124-130. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Neuronal Plasticity, Leloir Institute (IIBBA - CONICET), Av. Patricias Argentinas 435, Buenos Aires, C1405BWE, Argentina. Electronic address:

Neurogenesis is a powerful mechanism for structural and functional remodeling that occurs in restricted areas of the adult brain. Although different neurotransmitters regulate various aspects of the progression from neural stem cell quiescence to neuronal maturation, GABA is the main player. The developmental switch from excitation to inhibition combined with a heterogeneous population of GABAergic interneurons that target different subcellular compartments provides multiple points for the regulation of development and function of new neurons. Read More

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The utility of Vibratip in accurate identification of loss of protective sensation in the contralateral foot of patients admitted with a diabetic foot ulcer.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 Apr 7;15(3):857-862. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Endocrinology, St. Johns Medical College Hospital, Sarjapur Road, Bangalore, 560034, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a debilitating complication of type 2 DM. Complexity of foot examination often precludes proper clinical assessment of the foot during routine evaluation. We assessed the utility of novel device, vibratip, both singly and in combination with standard bedside tools for assessment of loss of protective sensation. Read More

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Olfactory dysfunction in SARS-CoV-2 infection: Focus on odorant specificity and chronic persistence.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Apr 13;42(5):103014. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Physics and Chemistry of Materials, Faculty of Medicine/Dental Medicine, Danube Private University, Krems, Austria; Institute of Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria.

Background: Smell dysfunction has been recognized as an early symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection, often occurring before the onset of core symptoms of the respiratory tract, fever or muscle pain. In most cases, olfactory dysfunction is accompanied by reduced sense of taste, is partial (microsmia) and seems to normalize after several weeks, however, especially in cases of virus-induced complete smell loss (anosmia), there are indications of persisting deficits even 2 months after recovery from the acute disease, pointing towards the possibility of chronic or even permanent smell reduction for a significant part of the patient population. To date, we have no knowledge on the specificity of anosmia towards specific odorants or chemicals and about the longer-term timeline of its persistence or reversal. Read More

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The utility and cultural specificity of cognitive-based interventions in preventing cognitive decline among healthy older adults in Asia: A systematic review.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 Apr 6;60:102646. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Clinical Psychology and Behavioural Health Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Centre for Healthy Ageing and Wellness (H-CARE), Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: The effects of aging and its associated cognitive decline is particularly acute in Asia given the exponential growth of older adults as a proportion of the population as a whole. Many structured cognitive interventions have been proposed to prevent the cognitive decline typically seen in older age, but their utility as a viable means of achieving these goals is questionable.

Objectives: To summarize and synthesize evidence on the utility and methodological quality of cognitive-based interventions on cognitive performance and associated secondary outcomes among healthy older adults in Asia, as well as novel, culture-specific components of cognitive interventions across the region. Read More

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Nicotine metabolite ratio: Comparison of the three urinary versions to the plasma version and nicotine clearance in three clinical studies.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 16;223:108708. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, CAMH, Toronto, Canada; Addictions Division, CAMH and Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Variation in CYP2A6 activity influences tobacco smoking behaviors and smoking-related health outcomes. Plasma Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR) is a robust phenotypic biomarker of CYP2A6 activity and nicotine clearance. In urine, the NMR has been calculated as a ratio of free trans-3'-hydroxycotinine to free cotinine (NMR), total trans-3'-hydroxycotinine to free cotinine (NMR), or total trans-3'-hydroxycotinine to total cotinine (NMR). Read More

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Genome-wide transcriptional analysis unveils the molecular basis of organ-specific expression of isosteroidal alkaloids biosynthesis in critically endangered Fritillaria roylei Hook.

Phytochemistry 2021 Apr 16;187:112772. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (CSIR-IHBT), Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, 176061, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-HRDC Campus, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, 201 002, India. Electronic address:

Fritillaria roylei Hook. is a critically endangered high altitude Himalayan medicinal plant species with rich source of pharmaceutically active structurally diverse steroidal alkaloids. Nevertheless, except few marker compounds, the chemistry of the plant remains unexplored. Read More

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Parenting in poor health: Examining associations between parental health, prescription drug use, and child maltreatment.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 1;277:113887. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Social Work, Ohio State University, 340C Stillman Hall, 1947 College Rd. N, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Rationale: Child maltreatment and problematic parenting are related to negative outcomes for children. Poor parental health could be a risk factor for problematic parenting through several mechanisms: 1) inadequate emotional regulation and coping; 2) impairment of parental capacity; and, 3) impairment of the parent-child relationship.

Objective: This study examines relationships between self-rated parental health, prescription drug use, and a broad array of negative parenting outcomes. Read More

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Coronavirus awareness, confinement stress, and mental health: Evidence from Honduras, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico and Spain.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 16;277:113933. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

National University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica.

Rationale: The purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of coronavirus awareness, psychological stress responses, and sociodemographic variables on mental health indicators (somatization, depression, and anxiety) in residents of Honduras, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain.

Methods: The study used a quantitative, cross-sectional approach. Data was collected online using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18); the Coronavirus Awareness Scale-6 (CAS-6) and a questionnaire that included psychological and sociodemographic questions. Read More

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Links between conspiracy beliefs, vaccine knowledge, and trust: Anti-vaccine behavior of Serbian adults.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 13;277:113930. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.

Rationale: Immunization is a critical tool in the fight against infectious disease epidemics. Understanding hesitancy towards immunization is even more important nowadays, with the continuous threat of COVID-19 pandemic. Medical conspiracy beliefs, scientific skepticism, as well as low trust in governmental institutions, and evidence-based knowledge all have troubling effects on immunization. Read More

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Current perceptions of cancer nurses in France about their role and the evolution of nursing practices: Findings and perspectives.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 3;277:113896. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

University of Saint-Etienne, Centre Hygée, Institut Presage, CIC-EC Inserm 1408, Saint-Etienne, France. Electronic address:

Background: Florence Nightingale lamented that nurses were seen as merely obedient and devoted. Our two previous oncology studies demonstrated the continuum of strictly curative care and paternalistic care practices among healthcare professionals. At a time when France has just formalized the nursing sciences, this article seeks to shed light on the specifics of the nursing role in oncology and the evolution of standard nursing practices in a rapidly changing environment. Read More

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Hip-flask defense: An experimental study in the Hungarian population.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 Apr 16;80:102171. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department in Miskolc, Hungarian Institute of Forensic Sciences, Bajcsy-Zsilinszky u. 13. H-3527 Miskolc, Hungary. Electronic address:

Toxicology tests and medical expert opinions are part of routine work in drunk driving cases in both domestic and international practice. The greatest challenge to forming an opinion is that the perpetrator claims to have consumed alcohol after the act of driving. To determine the time of consumption, it is essential to establish whether the alcohol in the body was in the absorption phase or in the elimination phase when the sample was collected. Read More

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Exploratory analysis of the genetics of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease using genetic risk scores.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Apr 11;86:74-77. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Paris Brain Institute, F-75013, Paris, France; Inserm, U 1127, F-75013, Paris, France; CNRS, UMR 7225, F-75013, Paris, France; Sorbonne Université, F-75013, Paris, France; Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Neurology, Centre d'Investigation Clinique Neurosciences, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, F-75013, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Objective: To study the association between impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and genetic risk scores (GRS) for 40 known or putative risk factors (e.g. depression, personality traits). Read More

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