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Hidden mover-stayer model for disease progression accounting for misclassified and partially observed diagnostic tests: Application to the natural history of human papillomavirus and cervical precancer.

Stat Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer and Epidemiology, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been proposed to model the natural history of diseases while accounting for misclassification in state identification. We introduce a discrete time HMM for human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical precancer/cancer where the hidden and observed state spaces are defined by all possible combinations of HPV, cytology, and colposcopy results. Because the population of women undergoing cervical cancer screening is heterogeneous with respect to sexual behavior, and therefore risk of HPV acquisition and subsequent precancers, we use a mover-stayer mixture model that assumes a proportion of the population will stay in the healthy state and are not subject to disease progression. Read More

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[Prevalence of cholelithiasis and gallbladder cancer among Aymara individuals].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Oct;148(10):1398-1405

Hospital Dr. Ernesto Torres Galdames, Iquique, Chile.

Background: The prevalence of cholelithiasis and gallbladder cancer may be different across ethnic groups.

Aim: To study the prevalence of cholelithiasis and gallbladder cancer among Aymara individuals.

Material And Methods: An abdominal ultrasound was carried out in a sample of 182 Aymara women aged 46 ± 16 years and 76 Aymara men aged 55 ± 16 years. Read More

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October 2020

Pancreaticobiliary maljunction in Turkish patients: a multicenter case series.

Surg Endosc 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Background And Aims: Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is a malformation in which the pancreatic and bile ducts join outside the duodenal wall. It is associated with various biliary and pancreatic diseases. In addition, patients with PBM carry a substantial lifetime risk of developing biliary or gallbladder carcinoma. Read More

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Characterization of Adult Patients With SMA Treated in US Hospital Settings: A Natural History Study in the Premier Healthcare Database.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by progressive muscular weakness and atrophy resulting from motor neuron degeneration. Limited information is available on disease progression among older SMA patients, particularly adults.

Objective: This study sought to characterize the natural history of SMA among adult patients in US hospital settings through the assessment of symptoms, complications, costs, and healthcare resource utilization (HRU) over 3 years before the availability of disease-modifying therapies. Read More

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A Bayesian Disease Progression Model for Clinical Trajectories.

Graphs Biomed Image Anal Integr Med Imaging Nonimaging Modalities (2018) 2018 Sep 16;11044:57-65. Epub 2018 Sep 16.

Schools of ECE and BME, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA.

In this work, we consider the problem of predicting the course of a progressive disease, such as cancer or Alzheimer's. Progressive diseases often start with mild symptoms that might precede a diagnosis, and each patient follows their own trajectory. Patient trajectories exhibit wild variability, which can be associated with many factors such as geno-type, age, or sex. Read More

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September 2018

Audiometric Phenotypes of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss by Data-Driven Cluster Analysis and Their Relevant Characteristics.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 25;8:662045. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The definition of notched audiogram for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is presently based on clinical experience, but audiometric phenotypes of NIHL are highly heterogeneous. The data-driven clustering of subtypes could provide refined characteristics of NIHL, and help identify individuals with typical NIHL at diagnosis. This cross-sectional study initially recruited 12,218 occupational noise-exposed employees aged 18-60 years from two factories of a shipyard in Eastern China. Read More

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Rapidly Growing Huge Lower Back Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour.

Cureus 2021 Mar 5;13(3):e13712. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Universiti Sains Malaysia School of Medical Sciences, Kota Bharu, MYS.

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (also called neurofibrosarcomas) are a rare, highly aggressive soft tissue sarcomas that arise from the peripheral nerves or cells associated with the nerve sheath, such as Schwann cells, peri-neural cells and fibroblasts. It is representing 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas in which it is considered as an extremely rare malignancy, especially in patients with neurofibromatosis type I. In the general population, it affects approximately 1 in 100,000 people. Read More

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Modeling the demography of species providing extended parental care: A capture-recapture multievent model with a case study on polar bears ().

Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 10;11(7):3380-3392. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

CEFE Univ Montpellier CNRS EPHE-PSL University IRD Univ Paul Valéry Montpellier 3 Montpellier France.

In species providing extended parental care, one or both parents care for altricial young over a period including more than one breeding season. We expect large parental investment and long-term dependency within family units to cause high variability in life trajectories among individuals with complex consequences at the population level. So far, models for estimating demographic parameters in free-ranging animal populations mostly ignore extended parental care, thereby limiting our understanding of its consequences on parents and offspring life histories. Read More

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Genetic Diversity and Demographic History of the Shaggy Soft-Haired Mouse (Cricetidae; Abrotrichini).

Front Genet 2021 24;12:642504. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Genetic information on species can inform decision making regarding conservation of biodiversity since the response of organisms to changing environments depend, in part, on their genetic makeup. Territories of central-southern Chile and Argentina have undergone a varying degree of impact during the Quaternary, where the response of local fauna and flora was rather species-specific. Here, we focus on the sigmodontine rodent , distributed from 35° S in Chile and Argentina to northern Tierra del Fuego. Read More

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Exaptation Traits for Megafaunal Mutualisms as a Factor in Plant Domestication.

Front Plant Sci 2021 24;12:649394. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

Megafaunal extinctions are recurring events that cause evolutionary ripples, as cascades of secondary extinctions and shifting selective pressures reshape ecosystems. Megafaunal browsers and grazers are major ecosystem engineers, they: keep woody vegetation suppressed; are nitrogen cyclers; and serve as seed dispersers. Most angiosperms possess sets of physiological traits that allow for the fixation of mutualisms with megafauna; some of these traits appear to serve as exaptation (preadaptation) features for farming. Read More

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A Systematic Review on the Effects of Fungal Endophytes on Drought Tolerance in Cool-Season Grasses.

Front Plant Sci 2021 24;12:644731. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisiológicas y Ecológicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura (IFEVA), Facultad de Agronomía, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Symptomless fungal endophytes in the genus are repeatedly mentioned to increase tolerance of cool-season grasses to a wide range of environmental stress factors, mainly drought. However, the generality of this idea is challenged because (i) most studies have been conducted on two economically important forage grasses {tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Dumort] and perennial ryegrass ( L. Read More

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The History of Lentil ( subsp. ) Domestication and Spread as Revealed by Genotyping-by-Sequencing of Wild and Landrace Accessions.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:628439. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Interdisciplinary Center for Archaeology and Evolution of Human Behavior (ICArEHB), Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal.

Protein-rich legumes accompanied carbohydrate-rich cereals since the beginning of agriculture and yet their domestication history is not as well understood. Lentil ( Medik. subsp. Read More

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Depression and Anxiety Among Quarantined People, Community Workers, Medical Staff, and General Population in the Early Stage of COVID-19 Epidemic.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:638985. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Community Health Service Management Center, The Eighth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China.

We described the prevalence of anxiety and depression related to COVID-19 pandemic among different types of population and examined their potential risk factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect demographic characteristics, exposure histories, and many other concerns about COVID-19. The Zung's self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS), followed by a four-step multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mental health outcomes. Read More

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Family history of esophageal cancer modifies the association of serum lipids and malignant esophageal lesions: a nested case-control study from the "Endoscopic Screening for Esophageal Cancer in China" trial.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Laboratory of Genetics, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing 100142, China Hua County People's Hospital, Anyang, Henan 456400, China Anyang Cancer Hospital, Anyang, Henan 455000, China.

Background: The association of lipids and cancer has varied greatly among different cancer types, lipid components and study populations. This study is aimed to investigate the association of serum lipids and the risk of malignant lesions in esophageal squamous epithelium.

Methods: In the "Endoscopic Screening for Esophageal Cancer in China" (ESECC) trial, serum samples were collected and tested for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at the time of subject enrollment. Read More

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The COVID-19 pandemic: prediction study based on machine learning models.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

COVID-19 was first discovered in Wuhan, China in December 2019. It is one of the worst pandemics in human history. Recent studies reported that COVID-19 is transmitted among humans by droplet infection or direct contact. Read More

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Jumping rope and whole-body vibration program effects on bone values in Olympic artistic swimmers.

J Bone Miner Metab 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, c/Villarroel, 170, 08036, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: Artistic swimming seems not to benefit bone development like other out-of-water physical activities. To increase bone acquisition, artistic swimming should combine water training with weight-bearing impact or strength activities. Artistic swimmers can be a population at risk of developing osteopenia and osteoporosis in later life. Read More

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Organophosphate pesticide exposure: Demographic and dietary predictors in an urban pregnancy cohort.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 11;283:116920. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatrics, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Population Health, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Pregnant women are widely exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, which are potentially neurotoxicant for the developing fetus. We aimed to identify principal demographic and dietary predictors of OP pesticide exposure among 450 pregnant women participating in the New York University Children's Health and Environment Study (enrolled 2016-19). Urinary concentrations of six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites (3 dimethyl (DM) metabolites and 3 diethyl (DE) metabolites) of OP pesticides were determined at three time points across pregnancy. Read More

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Closed-loop vagal nerve stimulation for intractable epilepsy: A single-center experience.

Seizure 2021 Apr 1;88:95-101. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill-Cornell Medicine/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, 525 East 68th Street, Box 99, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: A new class of heart-rate sensing, closed-loop vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) devices for refractory epilepsy may improve seizure control by using pre-ictal autonomic changes as an indicator for stimulation. We compared our experience with closed- versus open-loop stimulator implantation at a single institution.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of consecutive VNS implantations performed from 2004 to 2018. Read More

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Relationship between urinary heavy metals with metabolic syndrome and its components in population from Hoveyzeh cohort study: A case-control study in Iran.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Apr 5;66:126757. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Environmental Technologies Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science, Ahvaz, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The incidence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) has been growing rapidly and is rising to pandemic proportions. Although obesity is a primary risk factor for the enhancement of these conditions, not all obese individuals develop metabolic syndrome, indicating that the risk for developing MetS is impacted by other genetic and/or environmental factors such as heavy metals. Therefore, the present study focused on the association between exposures to heavy metal and MetS. Read More

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Differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who did and did not undergo screening: Results from the 45 and Up Study cohort.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 Apr 8;72:101936. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

University of Wollongong, Australia; Sax Institute, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program is a free population-based screening program aiming to identify precancerous lesions and early colorectal cancer using faecal occult blood tests in average-risk Australians. The participation rate in people invited to screening was 42 % in 2017-2018, well below the 56.6 % target level. Read More

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Teleglaucoma Initiative at a Veterans Affairs Hospital: Pilot Safety Data and Early Experience.

Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the safety, reliability and efficacy of telemedicine in delivering tertiary sub-specialty glaucoma care (herein referred to as teleglaucoma) to the Veteran patient population.

Study Design: Prospective case series.

Participants: 20 patients being referred for glaucoma sub-specialist opinion participated in the pilot safety study. Read More

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Electrical Storm in Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Devices: Risk Factors, Incidence, and Impact on Survival.

Heart Rhythm 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Electrophysiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and electrical storm (ES) are recognized complications following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, although their association with long term outcomes remains poorly understood.

Objective: To describe the clinical impact of ES in a population of patients undergoing LVAD implantation at a quaternary care center in the United States.

Methods: This was an observational retrospective study of patients undergoing LVAD implantation from 2009 to 2020 at Duke University Hospital. Read More

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Genetic architecture affecting maize agronomic traits identified by variance heterogeneity association mapping.

Genomics 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Guangdong Sugarcane Genetic Improvement Engineering Center, Institute of Bioengineering, Guangdong, Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510316, China. Electronic address:

Conventional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) focused on the phenotypic mean differences (mGWAS) but often ignored genetic variants influencing differences in the variance between genotypes. In this study, we performed variance heterogeneity GWAS (vGWAS) analysis for 13 previously measured agronomic traits in a maize population. We discovered a total of 129 significant SNPs. Read More

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Shifting the focus away from binary thinking of statistical significance and towards education for key stakeholders: revisiting the debate on whether it's time to de-emphasize or get rid of statistical significance.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Health research methods, Evidence, and Impact (HEI), McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Father Sean O'Sullivan Research Centre, St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

There has been a long-standing controversy among scientists regarding the appropriate use of p-values and statistical significance in clinical research. This debate has resurfaced through recent calls to modify the threshold of p-value required to declare significance, or to retire statistical significance entirely. In this article, we revisit the issue by discussing: i) the connection between statistical thinking and evidence-based practice; ii) some history of statistical significance and p-values; iii) some practical challenges with statistical significance or p-value thresholds in clinical research; iv) the on-going debate on what to do with statistical significance; v) suggestions to shift the focus away from binary thinking of statistical significance and towards education for key stakeholders on research essentials including statistical thinking, critical thinking, good reporting, basic clinical research concepts and methods, and more. Read More

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Etiology of early hearing loss in Brazilian children.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Departamento de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Oftalmologia e Otorrinolaringologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Introduction: Hearing loss etiology depends on the population studied as well as on the ethnicity and the socio-economic condition of the analyzed region. Etiological diagnosis contributes to the improvement of preventive measures and to the early identification of this deficiency.

Objective: To identify the etiological factors of hearing loss and its prevalence in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil, to verify the frequency of mutations in GJB2 and GJB6 genes, and to correlate the degree of hearing loss with the etiological factors of deafness. Read More

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Trends in missing females at birth in India from 1981 to 2016: analyses of 2·1 million birth histories in nationally representative surveys.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centre for Global Health Research, Unity Health Toronto and Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Half of the world's missing female births occur in India, due to sex-selective abortion. It is unknown whether selective abortion of female fetuses has changed in recent years across different birth orders. We sought to document the trends in missing female births, particularly among second and third children, at national and state levels. Read More

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Association of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α -308G>A, -238G>A and -376G>A polymorphisms with recurrent pregnancy loss risk in the Greek population.

Fertil Res Pract 2021 Apr 10;7(1). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Alexandra' General Hospital, Molecular Biology Unit, Division of Human Reproduction and Recurrent Abortions, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 80, Vasilissis Sofias Ave., 11528, Athens, Greece.

Background: Promoter region SNPs in TNF-α have been studied in association with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL) occurrence in various populations. Among them, -238G > A, -308G > A and - 376G > A have been frequently investigated for their potential role in recurrent abortions. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the correlation among TNF-α 238, TNF-α 308 and TNF-α 376 polymorphisms and recurrent pregnancy loss risk in Greek women. Read More

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Vergence, accommodation, and visual tracking in children and adolescents evaluated in a multidisciplinary concussion clinic.

Vision Res 2021 Apr 7;184:30-36. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States.

Many patients with concussion experience visual symptoms following injury that lead to a diagnosis of convergence insufficiency, accommodative insufficiency, or saccadic dysfunction. However, these diagnostic categories are based on aggregates of clinical tests developed from a non-concussed population and therefore may not accurately describe visual deficits in the concussed population. Thus, we sought to understand individual metrics of visual dysfunction in chronically symptomatic post-concussion patients. Read More

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