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E-Health Ultrasonic Diagnostic Monitoring for Analysis of Cardiac Insufficiency and Neuronal Regulation in Patients with Sepsis in Emergency Department under Image Reconstruction Algorithm.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 6;2022:9415694. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006, China.

An anisotropic diffusion filtering- (ADF-) ultrasound (ADF-U) for ultrasound reconstruction was constructed based on the ADF to explore the diagnostic application of ultrasound imaging based on electronic health (E-health) for cardiac insufficiency and neuronal regulation in patients with sepsis. The 144 patients with sepsis were divided into an experimental group (78 patients with cardiac insufficiency) and a control group (66 patients with normal cardiac function), and another 58 healthy people were included in a blank control. The ultrasound examination was performed on all patients. Read More

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January 2022

Critical changes in hypothalamic gene networks in response to pancreatic cancer as found by single-cell RNA sequencing.

Mol Metab 2022 Jan 11:101441. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Papé Family Pediatric Research Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, United States; Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, United States; Brenden-Colson Center for Pancreatic Care, Oregon Health and & Science University Portland, Portland, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Cancer cachexia is a devastating chronic condition characterized by involuntary weight loss, muscle wasting, abnormal fat metabolism, anorexia, and fatigue. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this syndrome remain poorly understood. In particular, the hypothalamus may play a central role in cachexia, given that it has direct access to peripheral signals due to its anatomical location and attenuated blood-brain barrier. Read More

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January 2022

The Spectrum of Genetic Variants Associated with the Development of Monogenic Obesity in Qatar.

Obes Facts 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Introduction: Monogenic obesity (MO) is a rare genetic disease characterized by severe early-onset obesity in affected individuals. Previous genetic studies revealed 8 definitive genes for monogenic non-syndromic obesity; many were discovered in consanguineous populations. Here, we examined MO in the Qatari population, whose population is largely consanguineous (54%) and characterized by extensive obesity (45%). Read More

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January 2022

Kisspeptin and the Genetic Obesity Interactome.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1339:111-117

University Research Institute of Maternal and Child Health and Precision Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: Kisspeptin (encoded by the KISS1 gene in humans) is an excitatory neuromodulatory peptide implicated in multiple homeostatic systems, including anti-oxidation, glucose homeostasis, nutrition, locomotion, etc. Therefore, in the current obesity epidemic, kisspeptin is gaining increasing interest as a research objective.

Aim: To construct an updated interactome of genetic obesity, including the kisspeptin signal transduction pathway. Read More

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January 2022

The response patterns of infantile spasms to treatments in 156 patients: Hormonal therapy with intravenous synthetic ACTH appears promising.

Neurosciences (Riyadh) 2022 Jan;27(1):40-44

From the Department of Pediatrics (Alrifai, Al-Rumayyan, Al-Tuwaijri, Baarmah, Bali), Neurology Division, King Abdullah Specialist Children's Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, from the College of Medicine (Alrifai, Al-Rumayyan, Al-Tuwaijri, Baarmah, Asiri, Bali, Alsadhan, Alsugheir), King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, and from King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (Alrifai, Al-Rumayyan, Al-Tuwaijri, Baarmah, Asiri, Bali), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: To report the efficacy of intravenous (IV) synthetic ACTH (Tetracosactide) in the treatment of infantile spasms.

Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of patients with a diagnosis of infantile spasms conducted at the Pediatric Department of King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from 01-01-2005 to 31-12-2019.

Results: Of the 156 cases, 141 were treated initially with vigabatrin (VGB) with a complete response seen in 42(30%). Read More

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January 2022

The Role of Glial Cells in Regulating Feeding Behavior: Potential Relevance to Anorexia Nervosa.

J Clin Med 2021 Dec 30;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Institute of Anatomy, Rostock University Medical Center, 18057 Rostock, Germany.

Eating behavior is controlled by hypothalamic circuits in which agouti-related peptide-expressing neurons when activated in the arcuate nucleus, promote food intake while pro-opiomelanocortin-producing neurons promote satiety. The respective neurotransmitters signal to other parts of the hypothalamus such as the paraventricular nucleus as well as several extra-hypothalamic brain regions to orchestrate eating behavior. This complex process of food intake may be influenced by glia cells, in particular astrocytes and microglia. Read More

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December 2021

Effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratios on growth, biochemical indicators, lipid metabolism, and appetite in Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2022 Jan 8. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

College of Fisheries, Chinese Perch Research Center, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid (CHO:L) ratios on growth performance, body composition, serum biochemical indexes, lipid metabolism, and gene expression of central appetite regulating factors in Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi) (mean initial weight: 12.86 ± 0.10 g). Read More

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January 2022

Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Activates Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus and Dorsal Vagal Complex.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 20;12:772909. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Division of Cardiometabolic Health, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR, United States.

Central administration of fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) results in long-lasting resolution of hyperglycemia in various rodent models, but the pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms mediating the central effects of FGF1 are unknown. Here we utilize electrophysiology recordings from neuronal populations in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and area postrema (AP) to investigate the mechanisms underlying FGF1 actions. While FGF1 did not alter membrane potential in ARH-NPY-GFP neurons, it reversibly depolarized 83% of ARH-POMC-EGFP neurons and decreased the frequency of inhibitory inputs onto ARH-POMC-EGFP neurons. Read More

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December 2021

Chronic Restraint Stress Decreases the Excitability of Hypothalamic POMC Neuron and Increases Food Intake.

Exp Neurobiol 2021 Dec;30(6):375-386

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system, and induces the release of glucocorticoids, stress hormones, into circulation. Many studies have shown that stress affects feeding behavior, however, the underlying circuitry and molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. The balance between orexigenic (simulating appetite) and anorexigenic (loss of appetite) signals reciprocally modulate feeding behavior. Read More

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December 2021

Sex Differences in Metabolic Recuperation After Weight Loss in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 16;12:796661. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Instituto de Investigación La Princesa, Madrid, Spain.

Dietary intervention is a common tactic employed to curtail the current obesity epidemic. Changes in nutritional status alter metabolic hormones such as insulin or leptin, as well as the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, but little is known about restoration of these parameters after weight loss in obese subjects and if this differs between the sexes, especially regarding the IGF system. Here male and female mice received a high fat diet (HFD) or chow for 8 weeks, then half of the HFD mice were changed to chow (HFDCH) for 4 weeks. Read More

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December 2021

A Single Dose of Extract Induces Gene Expression of Hypothalamic Anorexigenic Effectors in Male Rats.

Brain Sci 2021 Dec 2;11(12). Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Biology, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Chemical and Pharmaceutical, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema 09972-279, Brazil.

Previous studies have shown that extract (GbE) reduces food intake and body mass gain and regulates proteins related to lipid metabolism in obese rats. In ovariectomized rats, GbE restored the hippocampal and hypothalamic serotonergic system activity, favoring the spontaneous feeding decrement. Considering the promising hypophagic effect of GbE, this study aimed to investigate the effect of a single acute dose on hypothalamic pathways that regulate feeding behavior in male rats. Read More

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December 2021

Arcuate proopiomelanocortin is part of a novel neural connection for short-term low-degree of high ambient temperature effects on food intake.

Physiol Behav 2022 Mar 20;245:113687. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Electronic address:

High ambient temperature (HTa) is an important environmental factor influencing food intake (FI). We previously demonstrated that low-degree HTa exposure decreased FI earlier than activated physiological responses, and this effect was related to the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and arcuate nucleus (Arc) connection. The present study refines the condition of low-degree HTa exposure and focuses on the mechanism of Arc neural activation. Read More

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Arcuate Angiotensin II increases arterial pressure via coordinated increases in sympathetic nerve activity and vasopressin secretion.

eNeuro 2021 Dec 17. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Department of Chemical Physiology and Biochemistry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239

The arcuate nucleus (ArcN) is an integrative hub for the regulation of energy balance, reproduction, and arterial pressure (AP), all of which are influenced by Angiotensin II (AngII); however, the cellular mechanisms and downstream neurocircuitry are unclear. Here we show that ArcN AngII increases AP in female rats via two phases, both of which are mediated via activation of AngII type 1 receptors (AT1aR): initial vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction, followed by slowly developing increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and heart rate (HR). In male rats, ArcN AngII evoked a similarly slow increase in SNA, but the initial pressor response was variable. Read More

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December 2021

Apple Polyphenols Extracts Ameliorate High Carbohydrate Diet-Induced Body Weight Gain by Regulating the Gut Microbiota and Appetite.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Jan 22;70(1):196-210. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

School of Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

To investigate the potential contribution of appetite regulation and modulation of gut microbiota to the ameliorated effects of apple polyphenols extracts (APE) on high carbohydrate diet (HCD)-induced body weight (BW) gain, we conducted this study. One hundred C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into seven groups and fed with the following diets for 12 weeks: chow diet (CON), HCD (HCD), high fructose and sucrose diet (HSCD), and HCD and HSCD with 125 or 500 mg/kg·day APE gavage. Compared to the CON group, the BW of mice in the HCD and HSCD groups increased significantly. Read More

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January 2022

Single-cell transcriptome analysis identifies a unique tumor cell type producing multiple hormones in ectopic ACTH and CRH secreting pheochromocytoma.

Elife 2021 12 14;10. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Department of Urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH&CRH-secreting by pheochromocytoma is extremely rare and can be fatal if not properly diagnosed. It remains unclear whether a unique cell type is responsible for multiple hormones secreting. In this work, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing to three different anatomic tumor tissues and one peritumoral tissue based on a rare case with ectopic ACTH&CRH-secreting pheochromocytoma. Read More

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December 2021

Adrenal gland responses surgical castration and immunocastration by different compensatory manners to increase DHEA secretion.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Dec 14:1-8. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Sheep and Goat Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Androgen from the testis and weak androgens from the adrenal cortex may interact with each other and affect their synthesis and secretion due to their similar functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the compensatory effect of adrenal in rats after immunocastration and surgical castration, and the interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. 24 male SD rats aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into three groups and accepted treatments: surgical castration group, immunocastration group and control group. Read More

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December 2021

Hypothalamic steroid receptor coactivator-2 regulates adaptations to fasting and overnutrition.

Cell Rep 2021 Dec;37(10):110075

Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

The neuroendocrine system coordinates metabolic and behavioral adaptations to fasting, including reducing energy expenditure, promoting counterregulation, and suppressing satiation and anxiety to engage refeeding. Here, we show that steroid receptor coactivator-2 (SRC-2) in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons is a key regulator of all these responses to fasting. POMC-specific deletion of SRC-2 enhances the basal excitability of POMC neurons; mutant mice fail to efficiently suppress energy expenditure during food deprivation. Read More

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December 2021

Concurrent corticotroph pituitary tumor and granular cell tumor: A very uncommon association.

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) 2021 Oct 18;68(8):591-593. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Sección Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante-ISABIAL, Alicante, Spain.

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October 2021

Glucocorticoid Production in Lymphoid Organs: Acute Effects of Lipopolysaccharide in Neonatal and Adult Mice.

Endocrinology 2022 Feb;163(2)

Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5, Canada.

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are critical modulators of the immune system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates circulating GC levels and is stimulated by endotoxins. Lymphoid organs also produce GCs; however, it is not known how lymphoid GC levels are regulated in response to endotoxins. Read More

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February 2022

Exercise increases NPY/AgRP and TH neuron activity in the hypothalamus of female mice.

J Endocrinol 2022 Jan 13;252(3):167-177. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA.

Recent evidence identifies a potent role for aerobic exercise to modulate the activity of hypothalamic neurons related to appetite; however, these studies have been primarily performed in male rodents. Since females have markedly different neuronal mechanisms regulating food intake, the current study aimed to determine the effects of acute treadmill exercise on hypothalamic neuron populations involved in regulating appetite in female mice. Mature, untrained female mice were exposed to acute sedentary, low- (10 m/min), moderate- (14 m/min), and high (18 m/min)-intensity treadmill exercise in a randomized crossover design. Read More

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January 2022

Genomic analysis to screen potential genes and mutations in children with non-syndromic early onset severe obesity: a multicentre study in Turkey.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Nov 30. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Health and Technology University, İstanbul, Turkey.

Background: Obesity is a complex genetic-based pediatric disorder which triggers life-threatening conditions. Therefore, the understanding the molecular mechanisms of obesity has been a significant approach in medicine. Computational methods allow rapid and comprehensive pathway analysis, which is important for generation of diagnosis and treatment of obesity. Read More

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November 2021

Mechanisms Driving Palmitate-Mediated Neuronal Dysregulation in the Hypothalamus.

Cells 2021 11 11;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building 3247A, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.

The hypothalamus maintains whole-body homeostasis by integrating information from circulating hormones, nutrients and signaling molecules. Distinct neuronal subpopulations that express and secrete unique neuropeptides execute the individual functions of the hypothalamus, including, but not limited to, the regulation of energy homeostasis, reproduction and circadian rhythms. Alterations at the hypothalamic level can lead to a myriad of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and infertility. Read More

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November 2021

Hypothalamic Regulation of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor under Stress and Stress Resilience.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 12;22(22). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki 036-8562, Aomori, Japan.

This review addresses the molecular mechanisms of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulation in the hypothalamus under stress and stress resilience. CRF in the hypothalamus plays a central role in regulating the stress response. CRF stimulates adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release from the anterior pituitary. Read More

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November 2021

A buried glutamate in the cross-β core renders β-endorphin fibrils reversible.

Nanoscale 2021 Dec 2;13(46):19593-19603. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634, USA.

Functional amyloids are abundant in living organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes playing diverse biological roles. In contrast to the irreversible aggregation of most known pathological amyloids, we postulate that naturally-occurring functional amyloids are reversible under evolutionary pressure to be able to modulate the fibrillization process, reuse the composite peptides, or perform their biological functions. β-Endorphin, an endogenous opioid peptide hormone, forms such kinds of reversible amyloid fibrils in secretory granules for efficient storage and returns to the functional state of monomers upon release into the blood. Read More

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December 2021

Liujunzi Decoction ameliorated cisplatin-induced anorexia by inhibiting the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and coordinating anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Mar 17;285:114840. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: As a traditional Chinese formula, Liujunzi Decoction (LJZD) originated from the Yi Xue Zheng Zhuan, and has a promising effect in treating chemotherapy-induced anorexia (CIA).

Aim Of The Study: The present study aims to investigate whether LJZD acts on interleukin-6 (IL-6)/leptin mediated janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway that regulates hypothalamus anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides to ameliorate CIA, and also elucidates the potential mechanism by metabolomic analysis.

Materials And Methods: Network pharmacology analyses were conducted to screen out potential targets and pathways. Read More

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AgRP/NPY and POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus and their potential role in treatment of obesity.

Eur J Pharmacol 2022 Jan 17;915:174611. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor's University Lakeside Campus, 47500, Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Obesity is a major health crisis affecting over a third of the global population. This multifactorial disease is regulated via interoceptive neural circuits in the brain, whose alteration results in excessive body weight. Certain central neuronal populations in the brain are recognised as crucial nodes in energy homeostasis; in particular, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) region contains two peptide microcircuits that control energy balance with antagonistic functions: agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide-Y (AgRP/NPY) signals hunger and stimulates food intake; and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) signals satiety and reduces food intake. Read More

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January 2022

The ER transmembrane protein PGRMC1 recruits misfolded proteins for reticulophagic clearance.

Autophagy 2021 Nov 15:1-3. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

ER-specific autophagy (reticulophagy) has emerged as a critical degradative route for misfolded secretory proteins. Our previous work showed that RTN3 (reticulon 3) drives reticulophagic clearance of disease-causing mutant prohormones. How RTN3, a protein residing on the cytosolic leaflet of the ER bilayer, recruits these lumenally-localized cargos has remained a mystery. Read More

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November 2021

Intraventricular insulin adjacent to the arcuate nucleus reduced the formalin-induced pain through dorsal raphe nucleus opioid receptors in the STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Behav Brain Res 2022 Feb 11;418:113662. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Neuroscience Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Diabetes mellitus is one of the diseases that affect nociception. In type 1 diabetes, the insulin release declines. One of the regions that respond to insulin and have insulin receptors is the hypothalamus, especially the arcuate nucleus. Read More

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February 2022

PHIP gene variants with protein modeling, interactions, and clinical phenotypes.

Am J Med Genet A 2022 Feb 13;188(2):579-589. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA.

Variants in the pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) gene are implicated in the clinical phenotype of Chung-Jansen syndrome, which includes dysmorphic features, cognitive dysfunction, aberrant behavior, and childhood onset obesity. Following a systematic literature review, 35 patients are reported to have unique PHIP variants impacting the encoded protein product. We summarize the status and frequency of these variants and relationship to clinical presentation. Read More

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February 2022