2,041 results match your criteria polyploidy observed

Chromosome Painting Provides Insights Into the Genome Structure and Evolution of Sugarcane.

Front Plant Sci 2021 27;12:731664. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

School of Life Sciences, Nantong University, Nantong, China.

The genus is composed of species with high polyploidy and highly varied chromosome numbers, laying a challenge for uncovering its genomic structure and evolution. We developed a chromosome 2 painting (CP2) probe by designing oligonucleotides covering chromosome 2 of (2n = 8x = 64). Fluorescence hybridization (FISH) using this CP2 probe revealed six types of ploidies from twenty clones, including 6x, 8x, 10x, 11x, 12x, and 13x clones. Read More

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Georgian Med News 2021 Jul-Aug(316-317):119-123

2Tbilisi State Medical University, Georgia.

There are data about 6 cases of acute leukemia in children who have been diagnosed with COVID-19 infection 1-1,5 months before, or at the same time. In 5 patients lymphoblastic and in one monoblastic acute leukemia were diagnosed. The course of leukemia passed without any particular complications. Read More

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September 2021

Spontaneous generation of diversity in Arachis neopolyploids (Arachis ipaënsis × Arachis duranensis)4x replays the early stages of peanut evolution.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Brasília, 70770-917, Brazill.

Polyploidy is considered a driving force in plant evolution and domestication. Although in the genus Arachis, several diploid species were traditionally cultivated for their seeds, only the allotetraploid peanut Arachis hypogaea became the successful, widely spread legume crop. This suggests that polyploidy has given selective advantage for domestication of peanut. Read More

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Development of the first microsatellite markers using high-throughput sequencing for a hexaploid coastal species, Tournefortia argentea L. f. (Boraginaceae).

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Backgroud: Tournefortia argentea L. f. is a hexaploid shrub or tree species with ecological and evolutionary significances, which forms the fringe of vegetation closest to the sea on tropical coral islands. Read More

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A high-quality genome assembly of Jasminum sambac provides insight into floral trait formation and Oleaceae genome evolution.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Tobacco College, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, China.

As one of the most economically significant Oleaceae family members, Jasminum sambac is renowned for its distinct sweet, heady fragrance. Using Illumina reads, Nanopore long reads, and HiC-sequencing, we efficiently assembled and annotated the J. sambac genome. Read More

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Gradual evolution of allopolyploidy in Arabidopsis suecica.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Gregor Mendel Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna BioCenter, Vienna, Austria.

Most diploid organisms have polyploid ancestors. The evolutionary process of polyploidization is poorly understood but has frequently been conjectured to involve some form of 'genome shock', such as genome reorganization and subgenome expression dominance. Here we study polyploidization in Arabidopsis suecica, a post-glacial allopolyploid species formed via hybridization of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa. Read More

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The Phytochemical Scoulerine Inhibits Aurora Kinase Activity to Induce Mitotic and Cytokinetic Defects.

J Nat Prod 2021 08 18;84(8):2312-2320. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Chengdu Anticancer Bioscience, Ltd., and J. Michael Bishop Institute of Cancer Research, Chengdu 610000, China.

To identify novel bioactive compounds, an image-based, cell culture screening of natural product extracts was conducted. Specifically, our screen was designed to identify phytochemicals that might phenocopy inhibition of the chromosomal passenger protein complex in eliciting mitotic and cytokinetic defects. A known alkaloid, scoulerine, was identified from the rhizomes of the plant as being able to elicit a transient mitotic arrest followed by either apoptosis induction or polyploidy. Read More

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Induction of polyploidy through colchicine in cotton () and its conformity by cytology and flow cytometry analyses.

J Genet 2021 ;100

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Anand Agricultural University, Anand 388 110, India.

Cotton is one of the most important fibre crops in the world. An increase in ploidy level was observed in diploid cotton species namely in the experiment, through colchicine application. There were significant growth variations noticed during the induction of polyploidy in the cotton plants depending upon the concentration of colchicine, duration of the treatments and genotypes taken. Read More

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January 2021

Cytogenetic findings of ectopic endometriotic tissue in women with endometriosis and review of the literature.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Sep 22;264:212-218. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Health Physics, Radiobiology & Cytogenetics, National Center for Scientific Research (NCSR) "Demokritos", Athens, Greece.

Objective: To determine chromosome and gene alterations in ectopic endometrial (EM) tissue which may be implicated in the clinical course or the progression of endometriosis and to review the literature concerning the cytogenetic findings of women with endometriosis.

Study Design: 15 women who underwent laparoscopic endometriosis surgery at the Athens Genesis Clinic were enrolled in the study. Ectopic endometrial tissue was surgically removed and further analyzed by conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Read More

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September 2021

Greater reproductive assurance of asexual plant compared with sexual relative in a low-density sympatric population: Experimental evidence for pollen limitation.

J Evol Biol 2021 Sep 12;34(9):1503-1509. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Herbarium Collections and Department of Botany, Charles University, Praha, Czechia.

High reproductive assurance is regarded as a key advantage of uniparentally reproducing organisms for establishing a new population. This demographic benefit should especially be relevant for plants with autonomous apomixis, that is those which produce seeds completely independently from mates and pollinators. Indeed, many autonomous apomicts occupy larger distributional ranges when compared to their sexual relatives, showing geographical parthenogenesis patterns. Read More

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September 2021

Nuclear-cytoplasmic balance: whole genome duplications induce elevated organellar genome copy number.

Plant J 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Biology Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

The plant genome is partitioned across three distinct subcellular compartments: the nucleus, mitochondria, and plastids. Successful coordination of gene expression among these organellar genomes and the nuclear genome is critical for plant function and fitness. Whole genome duplication (WGD) events in the nucleus have played a major role in the diversification of land plants and are expected to perturb the relative copy number (stoichiometry) of nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid genomes. Read More

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Comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the chloroplast genomes of species of Paeoniaceae.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 19;11(1):14643. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193, China.

Plants belonging to family Paeoniaceae are not only economically important ornamental plants but also medicinal plants used as an important source of traditional Chinese medicine. Owing to the complex network evolution and polyploidy evolution of this family, its systematics and taxonomy are controversial and require a detailed investigation. In this study, three complete chloroplast genomes of sect. Read More

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Defects in meiotic chromosome segregation lead to unreduced male gametes in Arabidopsis SMC5/6 complex mutants.

Plant Cell 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Institute of Experimental Botany, Czech Acad Sci, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Structural maintenance of chromosome 5/6 (SMC5/6) complex is a crucial factor for preserving genome stability. Here, we show that mutants for several Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SMC5/6 complex subunits produce triploid offspring. This phenotype is caused by a meiotic defect leading to the production of unreduced male gametes. Read More

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Polyploidy control in hepatic health and disease.

J Hepatol 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Institute for Developmental Immunology, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases (LBI-RUD), 1090 Vienna, Austria; CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

A balanced increase in DNA content (ploidy) is observed in some human cell types, including bone-resorbing osteoclasts, platelet-producing megakaryocytes, cardiomyocytes or hepatocytes. The impact of increased hepatocyte ploidy on normal physiology and diverse liver pathologies is still poorly understood. Recent findings suggest swift genetic adaptation to hepatotoxic stress and the protection from malignant transformation as beneficial effects. Read More

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Induction of Polyploidy and Metabolic Profiling in the Medicinal Herb .

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jun 17;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan.

, which belongs to the Asteraceae family, is a procumbent, perennial herb. It has medicinal anti-inflammatory properties and has been traditionally used as folk medicine in East and South Asia for treating fever, cough and phlegm. In Taiwan, is a common ingredient of herbal tea. Read More

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Characteristics of the Diploid, Triploid, and Tetraploid Versions of a Cannabigerol-Dominant F Hybrid Industrial Hemp Cultivar, 'Stem Cell CBG'.

Genes (Basel) 2021 06 17;12(6). Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

Hemp ( L.) has recently become an important crop due to the growing market demands for products containing cannabinoids. Unintended cross-pollination of crops is one of the most important threats to cannabinoid production and has been shown to reduce cannabinoid yield. Read More

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Genome-Wide Approach to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Drought Tolerance in Tetraploid Potato ( L.).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 7;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Plant Genetics, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 3, 18059 Rostock, Germany.

Drought represents a major abiotic stress factor negatively affecting growth, yield and tuber quality of potatoes. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses were performed in cultivated potatoes for drought tolerance index DRYM (deviation of relative starch yield from the experimental median), tuber starch content, tuber starch yield, tuber fresh weight, selected transcripts and metabolites under control and drought stress conditions. Eight genomic regions of major interest for drought tolerance were identified, three representing standalone DRYM QTL. Read More

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Diploid and aneuploid sperm in tetraploid ginbuna, Carassius auratus langsdorfii.

Theriogenology 2021 Sep 8;172:95-105. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Faculty and Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan; Institute for the Advancement of Higher Education, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

Ginbuna (Carassius auratus langsdorfii (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)) occur in diploid, triploid, and tetraploid forms in wild populations. Diploid females reproduce bisexually, whereas polyploid (triploid and tetraploid) females reproduce gynogenetically with no contribution from sperm nuclei. However, tetraploid males produce diploid sperm. Read More

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September 2021

Triterpenic and phenolic acids production changed in Salvia officinalis via in vitro and in vivo polyploidization: A consequence of altered genes expression.

Phytochemistry 2021 Sep 16;189:112803. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University, 65174, Hamedan, Iran. Electronic address:

The induction of polyploidy is an efficient technique for creating a diversity of genetic, phenotypic, and phytochemical novelties in plant taxa. Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is a well-known medicinal plant rich of valuable bioactive molecules such as triterpenic and phenolic acids. Read More

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September 2021

Loss of Adam10 Disrupts Ion Transport in Immortalized Kidney Collecting Duct Cells.

Function (Oxf) 2021 10;2(4):zqab024. Epub 2021 May 10.

University of Edinburgh/British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK.

The kidney cortical collecting duct (CCD) comprises principal cells (PCs), intercalated cells (IC), and the recently discovered intermediate cell type. Kidney pathology in a mouse model of the syndrome of apparent aldosterone excess revealed plasticity of the CCD, with altered PC:intermediate cell:IC ratio. The self-immortalized mouse CCD cell line, mCCD, shows functional characteristics of PCs, but displays a range of cell types, including intermediate cells, making it ideal to study plasticity. Read More

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Cytological and morphology characteristics of natural microsporogenesis within .

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 May 16;27(5):959-968. Epub 2021 May 16.

The College of Forestry, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Hunan, 410004 China.

is believed to exhibit a complex intraspecific polyploidy phenomenon. Abnormal microsporogenesis can promote the formation of unreduced gametes in plants and lead to sexual polyploidy, so it is hypothesized that improper meiosis probably results in the formation of natural polyploidy in . In this study, based on the cytological observation of meiosis in pollen mother cells (PMCs), we found natural 2n pollen for the first time in , which may lead to the formation of natural polyploids by sexual polyploidization. Read More

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IR-Surviving NSCLC Cells Exhibit Different Patterns of Molecular and Cellular Reactions Relating to the Multifraction Irradiation Regimen and p53-Family Proteins Expression.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 28;13(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Biological and Medical Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Russia.

Radiotherapy is a primary treatment modality for patients with unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tumor heterogeneity still poses the central question of cancer radioresistance, whether the presence of a particular cell population inside a tumor undergoing a selective outgrowth during radio- and chemotherapy give rise to metastasis and tumor recurrence. In this study, we examined the impact of two different multifraction X-ray radiation exposure (MFR) regimens, fraction dose escalation (FDE) in the split course and the conventional hypofractionation (HF), on the phenotypic and molecular signatures of four MFR-surviving NSCLC cell sublines derived from parental A549 (p53 wild-type) and H1299 (p53-null) cells, namely A549FR/A549HR, H1299FR/H1299HR cells. Read More

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Autotetraploid Emergence via Somatic Embryogenesis in Induces Marked Morphological Changes in Shoots, Mature Leaves, and Stomata.

Cells 2021 May 28;10(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Istituto di Bioscienze e BioRisorse, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Corso Calatafimi 414, 90129 Palermo, Italy.

Polyploidy plays an important role in plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Alterations of the ploidy in grapevine plants regenerated via somatic embryogenesis (SE) may provide a source of genetic variability useful for the improvement of agronomic characteristics of crops. In the grapevine, the SE induction process may cause ploidy changes without alterations in DNA profile. Read More

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Telomere Length in Metaphase Chromosomes of Human Triploid Zygotes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 25;22(11). Epub 2021 May 25.

D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductology, Mendeleevskaya Line 3, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia.

The human lifespan is strongly influenced by telomere length (TL) which is defined in a zygote-when two highly specialised haploid cells form a new diploid organism. Although TL is a variable parameter, it fluctuates in a limited range. We aimed to establish the determining factors of TL in chromosomes of maternal and paternal origin in human triploid zygotes. Read More

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Modulation of the anticancer activities of paclitaxel by Cremophor micelles.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jun 14;603:120699. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 33 Linsen South Road, Room 423, Taipei City 10050, Taiwan. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Cremophor (CrEL) on the antineoplastic effect induced by paclitaxel (PTX). Fluorescence spectroscopy, employing pyrene as a probe, was used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CrEL. EL4 murine thymoma cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were treated with PTX in different concentrations of CrEL. Read More

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Effects of triploid induction on innate immunity and hematology in Astyanax altiparanae.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Sep 7;116:12-18. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Fish Biotechnology, National Center for Research and Conservation of Continental Fish, Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation, Rodovia Pref. Euberto Nemésio Pereira de Godoy, Pirassununga, SP, 13630-970, Brazil.

Triploid induction is a promising biotechnique that could be used to enhance aquaculture yields in the near future. However, studies conducted with several fish species have demonstrated that the presence of an extra set of chromosomes may result in deleterious health effects. Furthermore, studies of fish immune responses still need to be conducted before these specimens can be readily commercialized. Read More

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September 2021

Impaired Expression of Cytoplasmic Actins Leads to Chromosomal Instability of MDA-MB-231 Basal-Like Mammary Gland Cancer Cell Line.

Molecules 2021 Apr 8;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

N.N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology, 115478 Moscow, Russia.

We have shown previously that two cytoplasmic actin isoforms play different roles in neoplastic cell transformation. Namely, β-cytoplasmic actin acts as a tumor suppressor, whereas γ-cytoplasmic actin enhances malignant features of tumor cells. The distinct participation of each cytoplasmic actin in the cell cycle driving was also observed. Read More

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Moving beyond assumptions: Polyploidy and environmental effects explain a geographical parthenogenesis scenario in European plants.

Mol Ecol 2021 06 7;30(11):2659-2675. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution of Plants (with Herbarium), Albrecht-von-Haller Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Geographical parthenogenesis (GP) describes the phenomenon that apomicts tend to have larger distribution areas and/or occur at higher altitudes or latitudes compared to sexual relatives. However, the complex effects of genome-wide heterozygosity, ploidy, reproduction mode (sexual vs. apomictic), and environment shaping GP of plants are still not well understood. Read More

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Gene and Transposable Element Expression Evolution Following Recent and Past Polyploidy Events in (Poaceae).

Front Genet 2021 25;12:589160. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

UMR CNRS 6553 Ecosystèmes, Biodiversité, Evolution (ECOBIO), Université de Rennes 1, Rennes, France.

Gene expression dynamics is a key component of polyploid evolution, varying in nature, intensity, and temporal scales, most particularly in allopolyploids, where two or more sub-genomes from differentiated parental species and different repeat contents are merged. Here, we investigated transcriptome evolution at different evolutionary time scales among tetraploid, hexaploid, and neododecaploid species (Poaceae, Chloridoideae) that successively diverged in the last 6-10 my, at the origin of differential phenotypic and ecological traits. Of particular interest are the recent (19th century) hybridizations between the two hexaploids (2 = 6 = 62) and (2 = 6 = 60) that resulted in two sterile F1 hybrids: × (2 = 6 = 62) in England and × (2 = 6 = 62) in France. Read More

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Physiological and biochemical responses of Kinnow mandarin grafted on diploid and tetraploid Volkamer lemon rootstocks under different water-deficit regimes.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0247558. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Food and Tourism Engineering and Management, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Romania.

Water shortage is among the major abiotic stresses that restrict growth and productivity of citrus. The existing literature indicates that tetraploid rootstocks had better water-deficit tolerance than corresponding diploids. However, the associated tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant defence and nutrient uptake are less explored. Read More

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September 2021