1,011,341 results match your criteria polymer


Injectable and reversible preformed cryogels based on chemically crosslinked gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) and physically crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) for soft tissue engineering.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Mar 31;203:111725. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran.

Hydrogels are a promising choice for soft tissue (cartilage, skin and adipose) engineering and repair. However, lack of interconnected porosity and poor mechanical performance have hindered their application, especially in natural polymer-based hydrogels. Cryogels with the potential to overcome the shortcomings of hydrogels have drawn attention in the last few years. Read More

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Dose-response of Fricke- and PAGAT-dosimetry gels in kilovoltage and megavoltage photon beams: Impact of LET on sensitivity.

Phys Med 2021 Apr 7;84:41-49. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina; Laboratorio de Investigación e Instrumentación en Física Aplicada a la Medicina e Imágenes por Rayos X, FAMAF-UNC, Córdoba, Argentina; Centro de Física e Ingeniería en Medicina - CFIM & Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile.

Purpose: Dosimetry of ionizing radiation quantifies the energy deposited by an incident beam to the medium. This study presents the relative response of two types of gel dosimeters describing their differences by estimating radiation chemical yields produced in water radiolysis.

Methods: Two types of gel dosimeter were used, namely an acid ferrous ion solution infused with xylenol orange known as Fricke gel and a polymer gel based on acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) known as PAGAT. Read More

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Microplastics in four bivalve species and basis for using bivalves as bioindicators of microplastic pollution.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 29;782:146830. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute of Coastal Environmental Pollution Control, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, and College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics in bivalves have caused widespread concern due to their potential health risk to humans. In this study, microplastics in the digestive systems of four locally cultured bivalve species (scallop Chlamys farreri, mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, oyster Crassostrea gigas, and clam Ruditapes philippinarum) in Qingdao, China, were analyzed and detected in 233 out of 290 bivalve samples (80%) over four seasons. The microplastic abundance in four species of bivalves ranged between 0. Read More

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Robust antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with Curcumin-Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) nanoparticles against COVID-19: A preliminary in vitro study in Vero cell line as a model.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Apr 7:102286. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Fellowship in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: In this study, the ability of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as a treatment approach and adjuvant therapy using Curcumin-Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) nanoparticles (Cur@PLGA-NPs) to inactivate Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in plasma was investigated. Furthermore, to verify whether the quality requirement of aPDT-treated plasma is acceptable, the differences of the levels of clotting factors, total plasma proteins, and anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies titrations in plasma of patient before and after aPDT treatment were investigated.

Materials And Methods: Cur@PLGA-NPs was synthesized using Electrospinning process and characterized by different analysis including Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy assays. Read More

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Self-assembling peptide-based hydrogels: Fabrication, properties, and applications.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 Apr 7:107752. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

The hierarchical formation of self-assembling peptide-based hydrogels (SAPHs) starts from peptide to nanofibers, following with the entanglement into hydrogels with nanofibrous network. Such characteristic structure and extraordinary biocompatibility, and the peptide components endow the SAPHs with diverse applications in biotechnological field. Therefore, the thorough comprehension of SAPHs is significant to broadening their application. Read More

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Cytocompatibility and cellular interactions of chondroitin sulfate microparticles designed for inhaled tuberculosis treatment.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Centre for Marine Sciences, Universidade do Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal; Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:

Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of death, therapeutic failure being mainly due to non-compliance with prolonged treatments, often associated with severe side-effects. New therapeutic strategies are demanded and, considering that the lung is the primary site of infection, direct lung delivery of antibiotics is possibly an effective approach. Therapeutic success in this context depends on suitable carriers that reach the alveoli where Mycobacterium hosts (macrophages) reside, as well as on their ability to promote macrophage capture and intracellular accumulation of drugs. Read More

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Ultrafine self-N-doped porous carbon nanofibers with hierarchical pore structure utilizing a biobased chitosan precursor.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Research Center for Functional Materials, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan.

Ultrafine porous carbon nanofiber network with ∼40 nm fiber diameter is realized for the first time utilizing a biobased polymer as carbon precursor. A simple one-step carbonization procedure is applied to convert the electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) nanofibers to self-N-doped ultrafine hierarchically porous carbon nanofiber interconnected web. The pore formation process is governed by the immiscible nature of the two polymers and the sacrificial character of poly(ethylene oxide) with low carbon yield at the carbonization temperature (800 °C). Read More

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Understanding the dissolution of softwood lignin in ionic liquid and water mixed solvents.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302, India; P.K. Sinha Centre for Bioenergy and Renewables, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal, 721302, India. Electronic address:

Lignin is the most abundant heterogeneous aromatic polymer on earth to produce a large number of value-added chemicals. Besides, the separation of lignin from the lignocellulosic biomass is essential for cellulosic biofuel production. For the first time, we report a cosolvent-based approach to understand the dissolution of lignin with 61 guaiacyl subunits at the molecular level. Read More

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The multi-domain architecture of a bacteriophage endolysin enables intramolecular synergism and regulation of bacterial lysis.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 7:100639. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Dept. of Fundamental Microbiology, University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Endolysins are peptidoglycan hydrolases produced at the end of the bacteriophage (phage) replication cycle to lyse the host cell. Endolysins in Gram-positive phages come in a variety of multi-modular forms that combine different catalytic and cell wall binding domains. However, the reason why phages adopt endolysins with such complex multidomain architecture is not well understood. Read More

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The effect of retinal scaffold modulus on performance during surgical handling.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Apr 7:108566. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Carver Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, 5601 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA; Institute for Vision Research, The University of Iowa, USA. Electronic address:

Emerging treatment strategies for retinal degeneration involve replacing lost photoreceptors using supportive scaffolds to ensure cells survive the implantation process. While many design aspects of these scaffolds, including material chemistry and microstructural cues have been studied in depth, a full set of design constraints has yet to be established. For example, while known to be important in other tissues and systems, the influence of mechanical properties on surgical handling has not been quantified. Read More

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Shear-driven Rolling of DNA-adhesive Microspheres.

Biophys J 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Electronic address:

Many biologically important cell binding processes, such as the rolling of leukocytes in the vasculature, are multivalent, being mediated by large numbers of weak binding ligands. Quantitative agreement between experiments and models of rolling has been elusive, and often limited by the poor understanding of the binding and unbinding kinetics of the ligands involved. Here we present a cell-free experimental model for such rolling, consisting of polymer microspheres whose adhesion to a glass surface is mediated by ligands with well-understood force-dependent binding free energy-short complementary DNA strands. Read More

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A Generalized Method for High-Speed Fluorination of Metal Oxides by Spark Plasma Sintering Yields Ta O F and TaO F with High Photocatalytic Activity for Oxygen Evolution from Water.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 10:e2007434. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Chemistry Department, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Duesbergweg 10-14, Mainz, D-55128, Germany.

A general method to carry out the fluorination of metal oxides with poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE, Teflon) waste by spark plasma sintering (SPS) on a minute scale with Teflon is reported. The potential of this new approach is highlighted by the following results. i) The tantalum oxyfluorides Ta O F and TaO F are obtained from plastic scrap without using toxic or caustic chemicals for fluorination. Read More

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Reconsidering adsorption in hemodialysis: is it just an epiphenomenon? A narrative review.

J Nephrol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Hypertension, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 5 Place d'Arsonval, Cedex 03, 6943769003, Lyon, France.

Since the first attempt at extracorporeal renal replacement therapy, renal replacement therapy has been constantly improved. In the field of hemodialysis, substantial efforts have been made to improve toxin removal and biocompatibility. The advent of hemodiafiltration (HDF) and, more recently, of mid cut-off membranes have contributed to management of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Read More

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Abundance and characteristics of microplastics in freshwater and treated tap water in Bangkok, Thailand.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 9;193(5):258. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Environmental Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Thailand is one of the largest contributors to plastic waste in the oceans. Since mismanaged plastic waste can enter the ocean via inland waterways, microplastic contamination in freshwater used for tap water production has been raised as a potential issue. This study was conducted to determine the abundance and characteristics of microplastics in freshwater and treated tap water in Bangkok. Read More

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Optomechanical crystals for spatial sensing of submicron sized particles.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 9;11(1):7829. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128, Mainz, Germany.

Optomechanical crystal cavities (OMC) have rich perspectives for detecting and indirectly analysing biological particles, such as proteins, bacteria and viruses. In this work we demonstrate the working principle of OMCs operating under ambient conditions as a sensor of submicrometer particles by optically monitoring the frequency shift of thermally activated mechanical modes. The resonator has been specifically designed so that the cavity region supports a particular family of low modal-volume mechanical modes, commonly known as -pinch modes-. Read More

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Synthetic control over the binding configuration of luminescent sp-defects in single-walled carbon nanotubes.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 9;12(1):2119. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute for Physical Chemistry, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

The controlled functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with luminescent sp-defects has created the potential to employ them as quantum-light sources in the near-infrared. For that, it is crucial to control their spectral diversity. The emission wavelength is determined by the binding configuration of the defects rather than the molecular structure of the attached groups. Read More

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Leveling the cost and carbon footprint of circular polymers that are chemically recycled to monomer.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 9;7(15). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Biological Systems and Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Mechanical recycling of polymers downgrades them such that they are unusable after a few cycles. Alternatively, chemical recycling to monomer offers a means to recover the embodied chemical feedstocks for remanufacturing. However, only a limited number of commodity polymers may be chemically recycled, and the processes remain resource intensive. Read More

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The intracellular environment affects protein-protein interactions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 430071 Wuhan, China;

Protein-protein interactions are essential for life but rarely thermodynamically quantified in living cells. In vitro efforts show that protein complex stability is modulated by high concentrations of cosolutes, including synthetic polymers, proteins, and cell lysates via a combination of hard-core repulsions and chemical interactions. We quantified the stability of a model protein complex, the A34F GB1 homodimer, in buffer, cells and oocytes. Read More

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Towards a flexible electrochemical biosensor fabricated from biocompatible Bombyx mori silk.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Mar 28;183:113204. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), FH Aachen, Campus Jülich, Heinrich-Mußmann-Strasse 1, 52428, Jülich, Germany; Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Biological Information Processing (IBI-3), Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse 6, 52425, Jülich, Germany. Electronic address:

In modern days, there is an increasing relevance of and demand for flexible and biocompatible sensors for in-vivo and epidermal applications. One promising strategy is the implementation of biological (natural) polymers, which offer new opportunities for flexible biosensor devices due to their high biocompatibility and adjustable biodegradability. As a proof-of-concept experiment, a biosensor was fabricated by combining thin- (for Pt working- and counter electrode) and thick-film (for Ag/AgCl quasi-reference electrode) technologies: The biosensor consists of a fully bio-based and biodegradable fibroin substrate derived from silk fibroin of the silkworm Bombyx mori combined with immobilized enzyme glucose oxidase. Read More

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The promiscuous potential of cellulase in degradation of polylactic acid and its jute composite.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 1;278:130443. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.

It has been suggested that cellulolytic enzymes can be effective on the degradation of PLA samples. The idea was investigated by examining the impact of cellulase on degradation of PLA and PLA-jute (64/36) composite in an aqueous medium. The obtained results demonstrated 55% and 61% thickness reduction in PLA and PLA-jute specimens after four months of treatment, respectively. Read More

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Nano-emulsification of oriental lacquer sap by ultrasonic wave propagation: Improvement of thin-film characteristics as a natural resin.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Mar 29;73:105545. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Lacquer sap has received much attention as a traditional natural resin because it is a renewable and eco-friendly biopolymer resource unlike artificial coating materials. However, strict drying conditions and long drying times of lacquer sap should be modified to expand its applications. This study presents the first attempt to investigate the effect of different amplitudes of ultrasonic waves on the lacquer sap composed of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion droplets and the mechanical properties of the resultant film by solvent evaporation. Read More

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Novel bayberry-and-honeycomb-like magnetic surface molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective enrichment of rutin from Sophora japonica.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 29;356:129722. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

School of Chemistry, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China.

Rutin (RT), a widely distributed natural flavonoid compound, has been generally utilized as an important active ingredient owing to its considerable biomedical and economic value. Inspired by the structure features of densely-packed bayberry and well-orientated honeycomb, a novel type of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (HB-TI-MMIPs) with abundant high-affinity and uniformly-distributed binding sites was rationally constructed for the selective enrichment of RT from Sophora japonica. The polymerization conditions, physicochemical properties, and adsorption performance of the imprinted nanomaterials were systematically investigated. Read More

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Simultaneous removal of calcium, fluoride, nickel, and nitrate using microbial induced calcium precipitation in a biological immobilization reactor.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 27;416:125776. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China.

In this research, an immobilized biofilm reactor was established for the simultaneous removal of calcium (Ca), fluoride (F), nickel (Ni), and nitrate (NO-N) by microbial induced calcium precipitation (MICP). The operating parameters of the reactor, hydraulic retention time (HRT: 4, 8, and 12 h), influent Ca concentration (36.0, 108. Read More

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Physical and mechanical degradation behaviour of semi-crystalline PLLA for bioresorbable stent applications.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Feb 23;118:104409. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Biomechanics Research Centre (BioMEC), Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. Electronic address:

This study presents a systematic evaluation of the physical, thermal and mechanical performance of medical-grade semi-crystalline PLLA undergoing thermally-accelerated degradation. Samples were immersed in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 50 °C for 112 days and mass loss, molecular weight, thermal properties, degree of crystallinity, FTIR and Raman spectra, tensile elastic modulus, yield stress and failure stress/strain were evaluated at consecutive time points. Samples showed a consistent reduction in molecular weight and melting temperature, a consistent increase in percent crystallinity and limited changes in glass transition temperature and mass loss. Read More

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February 2021

Pretreatment and determination methods for benzimidazoles: An update since 2005.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 16;1644:462068. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, China. Electronic address:

Benzimidazoles, commonly used as pesticides and veterinary drugs, have posed a threat to human health and the environment due to unreasonable use and lack of valid regulation. Therefore, an up-to-date and comprehensive summary of the pretreatment and analytical approaches in different substrates is urgently needed. The present review consequently updates and covers various newly developed pretreatment methods (e. Read More

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The anti-biofilm capability of nano-emodin-mediated sonodynamic therapy on multi-species biofilms produced by burn wound bacterial strains.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Apr 6:102288. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Fellowship in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Management of burn wound infections (BWIs) as an important health problem is especially difficult due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. This study aimed to explore the anti-biofilm efficacy of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) using nano-emodin (N-EMO) against multi-species bacterial biofilms containing Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii.

Methods: Following synthesis and confirmation of N-EMO as a sonosensitizer, the anti-biofilm efficacy of SDT against multi-species bacterial biofilms was determined using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of N-EMO. Read More

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PILP remineralization of artificial and natural dentin carious lesions evaluated by nanoindentation and microcomputed tomography.

J Dent 2021 Apr 6:103659. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Preventative and Restorative Dental Sciences, UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The study evaluates the efficacy to remineralize artificial and natural dentin lesions through restorative dental procedures that include the Polymer-Induced Liquid Precursor (PILP) method comprising polyaspartic acid (pAsp).

Methods: Novel ionomeric cement compositions based on bioglass 45S5 and pAsp mixtures, as well as conditioning solutions (conditioner) containing 5 mg/ml pAsp, were developed and tested on demineralized dentin blocks (3-4 mm thick) on shallow and deep lesions with the thickness of 150 µm ± 50 and 700 µm ± 50, respectively. In the first treatment group, 20 µl of conditioner was applied to demineralized shallow (n = 3) and deep (n = 3) lesion specimens for 20 s before restoration with glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). Read More

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Antioxidant films and coatings based on starch and phenolics from Spondias purpurea L.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory of Polymers and Materials Innovation, Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Sciences Center, Federal University of Ceará, Campus of Pici, 60440-900 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to prepare, for the first time, active films and coatings from fruit starch (SPFS) and phenolic stem bark extract (SBPE) from Spondias purpurea L. Starch film formulations were prepared with different SBPE contents (5-20 wt% on starch), then cast and dried into films. SBPE showed higher antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Read More

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Properties of degradable polyhydroxyalkanoates with different monomer compositions.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodnyi av., Krasnoyarsk 660041, Russia; Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Federal Research Center "Krasnoyarsk Science Center SB RAS", 50/50Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia.

Purpose: To synthesize and investigate polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with different monomer composition and percentages and polymer films prepared from them.

Results: Various PHAs: homopolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate P(3HB) and 2-, 3-, and 4-component copolymers comprising various combinations of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB), and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx) monomers were synthesized under specialized conditions. Relationships were found between the monomer composition of PHAs and their molecular-weight and thermal properties and degree of crystallinity. Read More

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Gemini Thermotropic Smectic Liquid Crystals for Two-Dimensional Nanostructured Water-Treatment Membranes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.

We have developed a two-dimensional (2D) liquid-crystalline (LC) nanostructured water-treatment membrane showing high virus rejection ability (over 99.99997% for bacteriophage Qβ) and improved water permeation. Polymerizable gemini amphiphiles have been designed and synthesized. Read More

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