3,174 results match your criteria politicians


How Good is the Science That Informs Government Policy? A Lesson From the U.K.'s Response to 2020 CoV-2 Outbreak.

J Bioeth Inq 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

University of St Andrews North Haugh, KY16 9SX Fife, St Andrews, Scotland, UK.

In an era when public faith in politicians is dwindling, yet trust in scientists remains relatively high, governments are increasingly emphasizing the role of science based policy-making in response to challenges such as climate change and global pandemics. In this paper we question the quality of some scientific advice given to governments and the robustness and transparency of the entire framework which envelopes such advice, all of which raise serious ethical concerns. In particular we focus on the so-called Imperial Model which heavily influenced the government of the United Kingdom in devising its response to the COVID-19 crisis. Read More

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October 2021

[The certification of centers for weaning from mechanical ventilation in neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation by the German Society for Neurorehabilitation].

Nervenarzt 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Zertifizierungsausschuss der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurorehabilitation e. V., Rheinbach, Deutschland.

Specialized centers for weaning in neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation can be certified by the German Society for Neurorehabilitation (DGNR) since 1 October 2021. The certification criteria are indicators for structure and process quality and for treatment results for weaning of neurological patients from mechanical ventilation. In Germany these patients are treated in departments for neurological and neurosurgical early rehabilitation in acute care hospitals as well as in specialized rehabilitation hospitals. Read More

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October 2021

"No Country Bureaucratised its way to Excellence": A Content Analysis of Comments on a Petition to Streamline Australian Research Ethics and Governance Processes.

J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics 2021 Oct 12:15562646211048268. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Faculty of Health, 1969Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

We created a petition for a national inquiry into the Australian system of research ethics and governance, to inform the politicians about the problems with the existing system. We analyzed the reasons that signatories offered for why signing the petition was important to them. A total of 409 comments (by 805 signatories) focused on five major themes: (1) views on previous changes to the system of research ethics and governance; (2) drawbacks of the existing system; (3) suggested changes to the system; (4) anticipated impacts of changing the system; and (5) miscellaneous/other comments. Read More

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October 2021

The Epidemic Failure Cycle hypothesis: Towards understanding the global community's recent failures in responding to an epidemic.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Oct 5;14(11):1614-1619. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Bern University Hospital for Mental Health, Centre for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, University of Bern, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Switzerland.

Background: Within a few years, the global community has failed twice in responding to large viral infection outbreaks: the Ebola epidemic in 2014 and the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic in 2020. There is, however, no systematic approach or research available that analyses the repeated failures with regard to an adequate response to an epidemic.

Methods: For a better understanding of failing societal responses, we have analysed the available research literature on societal responses to epidemics and we propose a framework called the 'Epidemic Failure Cycle' (EFC). Read More

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October 2021

Prosocial behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. The role of responsibility and vulnerability.

Heliyon 2021 Sep 21;7(9):e08041. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Social Cognition Center Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

In two pre-registered and fully incentivized studies ( = 501), we investigate prosocial behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. Based on a comparison with pre-pandemic data, Study 1 shows that individuals' general prosociality measured with a (context-independent) Social Value Orientation Slider changed significantly before vs. during the early stage of the pandemic towards increased prosociality. Read More

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September 2021

The populist hotbed: How political attitudes, resentment, and justice beliefs predict both exposure to and avoidance of specific populist news features in the United States.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(10):e0258220. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Media and Communication, LMU Munich, Germany.

A politics of resentment has shaped a low-dialogue political environment in the United States, feeding into populism, and characterized by perceived distributive injustice, detachment between politicians and "the people", and political polarization. In this political environment, independent of editorial lines, news can spread based on populist content features and drive the political divide even further. However, we still do not understand well, how the forces of political disconnect as well as potentially unifying elements such as political knowledge and the willingness to connect with the other (political) side predict audience interest in populist news featuring people-centrism, anti-elitism, restoring popular sovereignty, and the exclusion of others. Read More

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October 2021

COVID-19 mitigation policies and psychological distress in young adults.

SSM Ment Health 2021 Sep 30:100027. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, Rutgers University, 152 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854-8020, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has seen an unusually high proportion of the population suffering from mental health difficulties, but of particular concern is the disproportionate increase in psychological distress among younger adults. In this article, we exploit an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design to examine which aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic 18-25-year-olds found most challenging. We report analyses of (AVP) qualitative in-depth interview data, a text-message open-ended survey, and Census Bureau (HPS) data, all collected in 2020. Read More

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September 2021

Nonprofits: A Public Policy Tool for the Promotion of Community Subjective Well-being.

J Public Adm Res Theory 2021 Oct 17;31(4):822-838. Epub 2021 May 17.

Stanford University.

Looking to supplement common economic indicators, politicians and policymakers are increasingly interested in how to measure and improve the subjective well-being of communities. Theories about nonprofit organizations suggest that they represent a potential policy-amenable lever to increase community subjective well-being. Using longitudinal cross-lagged panel models with IRS and Twitter data, this study explores whether communities with higher numbers of nonprofits per capita exhibit greater subjective well-being in the form of more expressions of positive emotion, engagement, and relationships. Read More

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October 2021

Sinophobia during the Covid-19 Pandemic: Identity, Belonging, and International Politics.

Authors:
Zhipeng Gao

Integr Psychol Behav Sci 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Psychology, Health and Gender, The American University of Paris, Paris, France.

In many countries, Sinophobia or discrimination against Chinese has taken place amid the Covid-19 pandemic. While this wave of Sinophobia is popularly understood to be based on a stereotypical association of Chinese with coronavirus, I argue that at a time of international tensions surrounding China, political antipathy toward China and Chinese matters as well. Thus, there is a phenomenon of "triple conflation" in which the health, racial, and political/national statuses of Chinese people become intermingled. Read More

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October 2021

Left, Right, and Gender: Exploring Interaction Traces to Mitigate Human Biases.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Oct 1;PP. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Human biases impact the way people analyze data and make decisions. Recent work has shown that some visualization designs can better support cognitive processes and mitigate cognitive biases (i.e. Read More

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October 2021

Real-Time Visual Analysis of High-Volume Social Media Posts.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Sep 29;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Breaking news and first-hand reports often trend on social media platforms before traditional news outlets cover them. The real-time analysis of posts on such platforms can reveal valuable and timely insights for journalists, politicians, business analysts, and first responders, but the high number and diversity of new posts pose a challenge. In this work, we present an interactive system that enables the visual analysis of streaming social media data on a large scale in real-time. Read More

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September 2021

Toward better births? Political discourses of maternity care in birth practices in Denmark and France.

Health Care Women Int 2021 Sep 29:1-21. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Research Centre for Health Promotion, Department of People & Technology, University of Roskilde, Roskilde, Denmark.

Internationally, politicians and practitioners have focused strongly on humanization of births, to enable fewer medicalized birth care procedures. In this paper, we explore policy efforts to support better births in order to comprehend developments in maternity care in Denmark and France, two countries previously identified as having different birth cultures. Our analysis has been fueled by the question of how birth policies have developed in both countries in an era in which medicalization of birth has been problematized internationally. Read More

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September 2021

Can We Compare the Behaviour of the Zazous in the 1940s and Adolescents during the COVID-19 Crisis?

Psychiatr Danub 2021 Sep;33(Suppl 9):11-13

Catholic University of Louvain, Psychosomatic Medicine Unit, CHU Mont-Godinne, Rue Dr Gaston Therasse 1, 5530 Yvoir, Belgique,

Background: This article provides an insight into the behaviour of adolescents during the COVID-19 crisis through a comparison with the life of young people living in France under German occupation during the Second World War.

Method: We conducted a literature review of articles in the CAIRN, SCOPUS and PsycINFO databases using the keywords zazou, adolescent and COVID-19.

Results: The zazou movement was a manifestation of young people's denial of the war through derision. Read More

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September 2021

Swapping Insults, Neglecting Policy: How U.S. Presidential Candidates Communicate About Mental Health.

Health Commun 2021 Sep 23:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Hussman School of Journalism and Media, The University of North Carolina.

Candidates for high office in the United States play an important role in determining the political agenda and shaping public and mass media understanding of which issues should receive attention. Critics contend politicians rarely address mental health, despite the importance of the federal government in ensuring Americans access to quality care. Two studies sought to understand how candidates for the presidency communicated about mental health using formal (mental, depress, anxiety) and informal (crazy, insane) terminology in social media posts and debates. Read More

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September 2021

International Council of Nurses representing nursing at the World Health Organization: COVID-19, policy and holding politicians to account.

Authors:
Howard Catton

Int Nurs Rev 2021 Sep;68(3):267-269

International Council of Nurses, Geneva, Switzerland.

The International Council of Nurses is in a unique position to represent nurses at the World Health Organization, and its task has never been more urgent than this year. Amid the global COVID-19 pandemic, the death rates of nurses and other health care workers are truly shocking, with around 115 000 deaths. However, many countries do not collect statistics on health and care workers' deaths and infections from COVID-19, so the full extent of this awful situation is not known. Read More

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September 2021

Can citizen pressure influence politicians' communication about climate change? Results from a field experiment.

Clim Change 2021 16;168(1-2). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

The Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC Canada.

Urgent reductions in greenhouse gas emissions depend on governments implementing and enforcing rigorous climate policy. Individuals in democracies seeking to persuade government officials to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can take steps such as voting, protesting, and contacting officials directly, but it is unclear how effective each of these actions is in changing the behavior of elected officials. Here we take advantage of the public nature of social media to evaluate the actual efficacy of climate campaign emails using an original, real-world experiment where 335 Members of Canadian Parliament were asked by constituents to post a pro-climate message to their Twitter account. Read More

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September 2021

Risky business: COVAX and the financialization of global vaccine equity.

Authors:
Felix Stein

Global Health 2021 09 20;17(1):112. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Postdoctoral Researcher, Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM), University of Oslo, Sandakerveien 130, 0484, Oslo, Norway.

Background: During the first year and a half of the COVID-19 pandemic, COVAX has been the world's most prominent effort to ensure equitable access to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Launched as part of the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (Act-A) in June 2020, COVAX suggested to serve as a vaccine buyers' and distribution club for countries around the world. It also aimed to support the pharmaceutical industry in speeding up and broadening vaccine development. Read More

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September 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic: an opportunity to make mental health a higher public health priority.

BJPsych Open 2021 Sep 20;7(5):e172. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Hamad Medical Corporation, and College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first recognised in December 2019. The subsequent pandemic has caused 4.3 million deaths and affected the lives of billions. Read More

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September 2021

Examining trends in the representation of young people and alcohol in Australian newspapers over twenty years (2000-2019).

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Sep 16;99:103461. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083, Australia; National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University, Australia; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.

Background: The news media can reflect and influence public opinion, as well as affect individual practice. In the context of significant changes in alcohol consumption among young people over the past twenty years, we examined Australian newspaper reporting of young people (under 18 years) and alcohol to assess whether there have been changes over time in the content and slant of articles that reflect or elucidate these trends.

Methods: Factiva was used to search newspaper articles from major Australian newspapers over a twenty year period (2000-2019). Read More

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September 2021

Adoption of the concept of person-centred care into discourse in Europe: a systematic literature review.

J Health Organ Manag 2021 Sep;35(9):265-280

Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Goteborg, Sweden.

Purpose: This study aims to describe how person-centred care, as a concept, has been adopted into discourse in 23 European countries in relation to their healthcare systems (Beveridge, Bismarck, out of pocket).

Design/methodology/approach: A literature review inspired by the SPICE model, using both scientific studies (CINHAL, Medline, Scopus) and grey literature (Google), was conducted. A total of 1,194 documents from CINHAL ( = 139), Medline ( = 245), Scopus ( = 493) and Google ( = 317) were analysed for content and scope of person-centred care in each country. Read More

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September 2021

Participation preferences of health service users in health care decision-making regarding rehabilitative care in Germany-A cross-sectional study.

Health Expect 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Health Services Research, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.

Background: Involving patients and citizens in health care decision-making is considered increasingly important in Germany. Participatory structures have been implemented, especially in rehabilitative care. However, it is unknown whether and to what extent German patients and citizens want to participate in decisions that exceed their own medical treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Access to HPV vaccination in Japan: Increasing social trust to regain vaccine confidence.

Vaccine 2021 Oct 8;39(41):6104-6110. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Global Health & Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Vaccine hesitancy is a growing concern in global public health, and illustrates serious problems arising from loss of social trust. Japan is experiencing a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine crisis that started with a rapid decline in the vaccination rate in 2013 from approximately 70% to less than 1% and lasting for 7 years. We analyze Japan's case of vaccine hesitancy for HPV vaccine, using a framework for examining barriers to access and use of health technologies according to four categories: architecture, availability, affordability, and adoption. Read More

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October 2021

Data-driven group comparisons of eye fixations to dynamic stimuli.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Sep 29:17470218211048060. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK.

Recent advances in software and hardware have allowed eye tracking to move away from static images to more ecologically relevant video streams. The analysis of eye tracking data for such dynamic stimuli, however, is not without challenges. The frame-by-frame coding of regions of interest (ROIs) is labour-intensive and computer vision techniques to automatically code such ROIs are not yet mainstream, restricting the use of such stimuli. Read More

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September 2021

Epilepsy and cannabis: so near, yet so far.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK.

Following media attention on children with refractory epilepsies reportedly deriving benefit from cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs), the UK government changed the law in 2018 so that CBMPs could be legally prescribed. Subsequently, a pure cannabidiol (CBD) product has been licensed for two epilepsy syndromes. However, despite pressure from campaign groups and allied politicians, almost no children have received unlicensed CBMPs under the UK NHS. Read More

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September 2021

Global adoption of personal and social mitigation behaviors during COVID-19: The role of trust & confidence.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(9):e0256159. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Nutrition, and Global Public Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

What influences the adoption of SARS-CoV-2 mitigation behaviors-both personal, such as mask wearing and frequent handwashing, and social, such as avoiding large gatherings and physical contact-across countries? Understanding why some individuals are more willing to change their behavior to mitigate the spread of a pandemic will not only help us to address the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic but also to respond to future ones. Researchers have pointed to a variety of factors that may influence individual adoption of personal and social mitigation behaviors, including social inequality, risk perception, personality traits, and government policies. While not denying the importance of these factors, we argue that the role of trust and confidence has received insufficient attention to date. Read More

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September 2021

Who votes for public health? An analysis of Australian politicians' parliamentary voting behaviour.

Public Health Res Pract 2021 Sep 8;31(3). Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia;

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September 2021

A revolt of the deplored? The role of perceived cultural distance in the educational gradient in anti-establishment politics.

Br J Sociol 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Public Administration and Sociology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Anti-establishment politics have become part of contemporary Western democracies. Less-educated citizens in particular have been found to display political distrust and populist attitudes, support populist parties, and abstain from voting. We advance a novel explanation for these patterns, drawing on extant theoretical insights to hypothesize that less- and more-educated citizens differ in the extent to which they perceive politicians to be culturally distant to them. Read More

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September 2021

[Expert committees in German public health policymaking during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: a document analysis].

Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2021 Oct 30;165:1-12. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Pettenkofer School of Public Health, München, Deutschland; Lehrstuhl für Public Health und Versorgungsforschung, Institut für medizinische Informationsverarbeitung, Biometrie und Epidemiologie (IBE), LMU München, München, Deutschland.

Introduction: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, policymakers have to make far-reaching decisions that should be supported by scientific evidence. This presents a major challenge, given the limited availability of evidence, especially in the early phases of the pandemic. Decision-makers thus turned to scientific experts to help to convey and contextualize the evidence for public health policymaking. Read More

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October 2021

Reputational assets for local political leadership.

Authors:
Hilde Bjørnå

Heliyon 2021 Aug 14;7(8):e07800. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

UIT- The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.

In political games, a good reputation is an invaluable asset. Hence, this research intends to expand the current understanding of the determinants of success imperative for the reputation of local political leaders. This article reviews the literature on reputation management, as well as empirical cases, to elucidate the reputational success factors of political leaders. Read More

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