74,110 results match your criteria policy makers


Precision cancer medicine: What has translated into clinical use in Belgium?

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium.

Rationale: In 2016, Belgium launched the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) Roadbook, consisting in 10 Actions, across the health care system, to facilitate the uptake of NGS in routine clinical practice. We compiled feedback on deployment of the NGS Roadbook from governmental stakeholders and beneficiaries: health policy makers, insurance providers, pathologists, geneticists, and oncologists.

Main Findings: The Roadbook ensured the establishment of a Commission on Personalized Medicine and NGS testing guidelines. Read More

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A global database of plant services for humankind.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253069. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Wadham College, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Humanity faces the challenge of conserving the attributes of biodiversity that may be essential to secure human wellbeing. Among all the organisms that are beneficial to humans, plants stand out as the most important providers of natural resources. Therefore, identifying plant uses is critical to preserve the beneficial potential of biodiversity and to promote basic and applied research on the relationship between plants and humans. Read More

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The Shadow Pandemic of Alcohol Use during COVID-19: A Canadian Health Leadership Imperative.

Healthc Policy 2021 May;16(4):17-24

Adjunct Professor, Royal Roads University; CEO/Director, Mind Science Consultants Inc., Victoria, BC.

Increased alcohol consumption among Canadians during the COVID-19 pandemic will impact our health systems in the short and longer term, through increased hospitalizations due to alcohol-related illness, addiction, violence and accidents. The increased stress due to involuntary unemployment, confinement and boredom during the pandemic has led to an escalation in alcohol use. It is imperative that policy makers recognize and address the inherently conflicting roles of provincial/territorial governments as regulators/retailers of alcohol and funders of healthcare and prioritize the development and implementation of an evidence-based framework to mitigate the increased population health risks of alcohol-related harms. Read More

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Extent to which COVID-19 will affect future use of the train in Israel.

Transp Policy (Oxf) 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Transportation Research Institute, Technion City, Haifa, 32000, Israel.

Many countries have taken a variety of measures to stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 infections. Among the most important of these involve using social distancing to prevent contact. Restricted social contacts have important effects on activity participation and on travel demand. Read More

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Impacts of COVID-19 lockdown on NO and PM levels in major urban cities of Europe and USA.

Cities 2021 Jun 10:103308. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, -21287, MD, United States of America.

SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) coronavirus has been causing enormous suffering, death, and economic losses worldwide. There are rigorous containment measures on industries, non-essential business, transportation, and citizen mobility to check the spread. The lockdowns may have an advantageous impact on reducing the atmospheric pollutants. Read More

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Expanding the environmental scope: an environment-wide association study for mental well-being.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Biological Psychology, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Identifying modifiable factors associated with well-being is of increased interest for public policy guidance. Developments in record linkage make it possible to identify what contributes to well-being from a myriad of factors. To this end, we link two large-scale data resources; the Geoscience and Health Cohort Consortium, a collection of geo-data, and the Netherlands Twin Register, which holds population-based well-being data. Read More

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Overcoming the Challenges of the Mental Health Care System in United States in the Aftermath of COVID-19.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):176

Western University of Health Sciences, Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, Pomona, CA, USA.

Study Objective(s): The impact of pandemic events such as the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic led to an economic crisis worldwide as well as an increase of mental health problems. In the United States, the gaps in the mental health care system struggle to meet the needs of vulnerable populations and have caused a major public health problem. We aim to increase the awareness of health care professionals, psychiatrists, and policy makers regarding failures and gaps in the mental health care system and suggest new ideas to overcome the growing burden of mental disorders. Read More

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Public support for healthy supermarket initiatives focused on product placement: a multi-country cross-sectional analysis of the 2018 International Food Policy Study.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2021 Jun 14;18(1):78. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Global Obesity Centre (GLOBE), Institute for Health Transformation, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood VIC, Geelong, 3125, Australia.

Background: Food retail environments have an influential role in shaping purchasing behavior and could contribute to improving dietary patterns at a population level. However, little is known about the level of public support for different types of initiatives to encourage healthy food choices in supermarkets, and whether this varies across countries or context. The current study aimed to explore the level of support for three potential supermarket initiatives focused on product placement across five countries, and factors that may influence this support. Read More

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Causal Relationship Between the Risk Factors and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Professional Drivers: A Systematic Review.

Hum Factors 2021 Jun 14:187208211006500. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

26682 Chiang Mai University, Thailand.

Objective: This review evaluates the evidence on the strength of causal relationship between categories of risk factors (RFs) and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) among professional drivers.

Background: A compilation of evidence on the causal relationship between RFs and WRMSDs among professional drivers is lacking.

Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in major electronic data bases that include Medline (1946 + via OvidSP), Embase (1974 + OvidSP), CINAHL (1982+), AMED, and Web of Science. Read More

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Preferences for long-term care insurance in China: Results from a discrete choice experiment.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jun 5;281:114104. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Heidelberg Institute of Global Health, Heidelberg University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

Rapid population aging has led countries to consider the introduction of long-term care insurance (LTCI) as an essential component of a comprehensive social health protection package. Limited evidence, however, exists on people's preferences for such insurance products, especially in countries where their availability is still restricted. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE), we investigated preferences, willingness to pay, and heterogeneity in preferences for attributes of a social LTCI among community members in China. Read More

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Symptoms reported by SARS-CoV-2 seropositive and seronegative healthcare and administrative employees in Denmark from May to August 2020.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

Background: The distribution and nature of symptoms among SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals need to be clarified.

Methods: Between May and August 2020, 11,138 healthcare and administrative personnel from Central Denmark Region were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and subsequently completed a questionnaire. Symptom prevalence and overall duration for symptoms persisting for more than 30 days were calculated. Read More

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How energy insecurity leads to energy poverty? Do environmental consideration and climate change concerns matters.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Finance and Economics, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

The aim of the study is to estimate the nexus between energy insecurity and energy poverty with the role of climate change and other environmental concerns. We used DEA like WP methods and properties of MCDA, a most common form of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate the nexus between constructs. This paper presents a measurement and analysis of G7 countries' energy, economic, social, and environmental performance associated with energy poverty indexes. Read More

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A Determinants-of-Fertility Ontology for Detecting Future Signals of Fertility Issues From Social Media Data: Development of an Ontology.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jun 14;23(6):e25028. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Health Management, Samyook University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: South Korea has the lowest fertility rate in the world despite considerable governmental efforts to boost it. Increasing the fertility rate and achieving the desired outcomes of any implemented policies requires reliable data on the ongoing trends in fertility and preparations for the future based on these trends.

Objective: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a determinants-of-fertility ontology with terminology for collecting and analyzing social media data; (2) determine the description logics, content coverage, and structural and representational layers of the ontology; and (3) use the ontology to detect future signals of fertility issues. Read More

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Access to Care for Mental Health Problems in Afghanistan: A National Challenge.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Mental Health & Substance Abuse, Primary Health Care Directorate, Ministry of Public Health, Kabul, Afghanistan.

Background: This paper describes the access to care for mental health problems in Afghanistan, according to the nature of the mental health problems and the service provider. Following the Andersen model, it evaluates the respective roles in access to care of "predisposing," "needs," "enabling" factors, and other "environmental" factors such as exposure to traumatic events and level of danger of the place of residence.

Methods: Trans-sectional probability survey in general population by multistage sampling in 16 provinces, nationally representative: N=4445 (15 years or older), participation rate of 81%. Read More

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Interpretability of Machine Learning Solutions in Public Healthcare: The CRISP-ML Approach.

Front Big Data 2021 26;4:660206. Epub 2021 May 26.

School of Computer, Data and Mathematical Sciences, Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Public healthcare has a history of cautious adoption for artificial intelligence (AI) systems. The rapid growth of data collection and linking capabilities combined with the increasing diversity of the data-driven AI techniques, including machine learning (ML), has brought both ubiquitous opportunities for data analytics projects and increased demands for the regulation and accountability of the outcomes of these projects. As a result, the area of interpretability and explainability of ML is gaining significant research momentum. Read More

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Promotion of Pre-natal Education Courses Is Associated With Reducing the Rates of Caesarean Section: A Case-Control Study.

Front Public Health 2021 28;9:666337. Epub 2021 May 28.

The Hospital of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The number of women having a caesarean section has significantly increased worldwide, in particular in China. Maternal requestion makes a moderate contribution to this increased rate in China. Reducing the caesarean section rate is now becoming a big challenge to midwives and obstetricians as well as health policymakers in China. Read More

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Optimizing the impact of health and related programmes / policies to address the issue of Childhood Obesity in India----A narrative review.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Apr 29;10(4):1554-1561. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Independent Public Health Researcher, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

Non-communicable diseases are already acknowledged as a double burden, and now childhood obesity is putting extra strain on our health system. The current paper aimed to analyze the ongoing health and related programmes/policies in India, and we discussed the existing opportunities in the programmes to address the issue of childhood obesity in India. We searched the "MEDLINE," "PsycINFO," "Scopus," "Web of Science," and "Google Scholar" databases using the following keywords: ("overweight") and ("obesity"), ("childhood obesity"), ("nutritional programmes in India"), ("Health policies in India"), ("malnourished children in India") in combination with each other and in truncated form. Read More

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Rational use of PPE and preventing PPE related skin damage.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Apr 29;10(4):1547-1553. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

COVID-19 Committee Members: Director and CEO, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Basni, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

On 31 December, 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared in Wuhan, China. On 24 March 2020, there was a nationwide lockdown for 21 days, followed by Janata curfew on 22 March. As the pandemic has developed and spread across continents, everyone including policy makers have realized shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as N95 respirators, coverall, and face shields. Read More

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Suraksha Chakra: A new scoring system to protect the healthcare workers from COVID.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Apr 29;10(4):1512-1514. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Director and CEO, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Basni, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

Doctors, nurses, house cleaning staff and hospital ward attendants are at increased risk of acquiring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) if there is a breach in the personal protection equipment. A new simple, easy to implement scoring system has been developed by our Suraksha Chakra team which can be used by the policy makers and hospital administrators. The scoring system is not to discourage anyone but constantly reinforce the healthcare workers for safe practices during patient care. Read More

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Challenges to COVID-19 vaccine supply chain: Implications for sustainable development goals.

Int J Prod Econ 2021 Sep 8;239:108193. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bangladesh Army University of Science and Technology, Saidpur, Bangladesh.

The COVID-19 outbreak has demonstrated the diverse challenges that supply chains face to significant disruptions. Vaccine supply chains are no exception. Therefore, it is elemental that challenges to the COVID-19 vaccine supply chain (VSC) are identified and prioritized to pave the way out of this pandemic. Read More

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September 2021

Testing for overall and cluster convergence of housing rents using robust methodology: evidence from Polish provincial capitals.

Authors:
Mateusz Tomal

Empir Econ 2021 Jun 6:1-33. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Real Estate and Investment Economics, Cracow University of Economics, Rakowicka 27, 31-510 Cracow, Poland.

The aim of this paper is to test for overall and cluster convergence of housing rents across Polish provincial capitals and to identify drivers of convergence club formation. In order to achieve the goal of the study, several novel convergence tests were used, including the Kong et al. (J Econom 209:185-207, 2019. Read More

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Logistics management provides greater efficiency, governance and compliance.

Int J Clin Pharm 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Pharmaceutical department, Usl Umbria 1, A.Migliorati street, 06132, Perugia, Italy.

During the 2020 Congress of the Italian Society of Hospital Pharmacy (Sifo 2020), there was a heated debate about whether it is more convenient to dispense healthcare directly in hospitals and public facilities, or indirectly, through the use of external private pharmacies. The former solution is called "direct dispensing" (DD), while the latter is called "dispensing on commission" (DPC). The strengths and advantages of DD over DPC are many: greater therapeutic appropriateness due to direct control of treatment plans, cost savings from external commissions, and greater clinical sharing of treatment by all healthcare personnel. Read More

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Nothing so practical as theory: a rapid review of the use of behaviour change theory in family planning interventions involving men and boys.

Reprod Health 2021 Jun 13;18(1):126. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

School of Nursing and Midwifery and Centre for Evidence and Social Innovation, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

Background: There is growing recognition of the need for interventions that effectively involve men and boys to promote family planning behaviours. Evidence suggests that the most effective behavioural interventions in this field are founded on theoretical principles of behaviour change and gender equality. However, there are few evidence syntheses on how theoretical approaches are applied in this context that might guide best practice in intervention development. Read More

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The picture of smoking in my mind: a need for effective anti-smoking public service announcements based on the self-construals of smokers.

Glob Health Promot 2021 Jun 12:17579759211015178. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University, Turkey.

This qualitative study sought to understand the behaviours of smokers with independent and interdependent self-construals to design effective anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs). Findings from the participants' narratives and drawings suggest that individualistic message content (focused on the individual smoker) can be effective for smokers with independent self-construal, while collectivistic message content (focused on a smoker group) can be effective for smokers with interdependent self-construal to increase their quitting intentions. This study also revealed characteristics of the smoker groups in terms of routines, meanings and symbolic values of smoking, which can be used to enrich the contents for anti-smoking PSAs. Read More

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Maximizing the Efficiency of Active Case Finding for SARS-CoV-2 Using Bandit Algorithms.

Med Decis Making 2021 Jun 14:272989X211021603. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Biostatistics, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

Even as vaccination for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) expands in the United States, cases will linger among unvaccinated individuals for at least the next year, allowing the spread of the coronavirus to continue in communities across the country. Detecting these infections, particularly asymptomatic ones, is critical to stemming further transmission of the virus in the months ahead. This will require active surveillance efforts in which these undetected cases are proactively sought out rather than waiting for individuals to present to testing sites for diagnosis. Read More

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Charting mandatory childhood vaccination policies worldwide.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Oxford Vaccine Group and Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford, Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine (CCVTM), Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LE, United Kingdom.

Mandatory childhood vaccination is becoming an increasingly important policy intervention for governments trying to address low vaccination rates. Mandates require vaccination for a certain purpose, most commonly related to school entry for children. However, the discussion surrounding the extent and impact of mandatory vaccination programmes for babies and children have largely been limited to high-income countries. Read More

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Does Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Overvalue Potential Cures? Exploring Alternative Methods for Applying a "Shared Savings" Approach to Cost Offsets.

Value Health 2021 Jun 10;24(6):839-845. Epub 2021 May 10.

The Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate alternative methods to calculate and/or attribute economic surplus in the cost-effectiveness analysis of single or short-term therapies.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature review of articles describing alternative methods for cost-effectiveness analysis of potentially curative therapies whose assessment using traditional methods may suggest unaffordable valuations owing to the magnitude of estimated long-term quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gains or cost offsets. Through internal deliberation and discussion with staff at the Health Technology Assessment bodies in England and Canada, we developed the following 3 alternative methods for further evaluation: (1) capping annual costs in the comparator arm at $150 000 per year; (2) "sharing" the economic surplus with the health sector by apportioning only 50% of cost offsets or 50% of cost offsets and QALY gains to the value of the therapy; and (3) crediting the therapy with only 12 years of the average annual cost offsets or cost offsets and QALY gains over the lifetime horizon. Read More

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A better classification of wet markets is key to safeguarding human health and biodiversity.

Lancet Planet Health 2021 06;5(6):e386-e394

Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Wet markets have been implicated in multiple zoonotic outbreaks, including COVID-19. They are also a conduit for legal and illegal trade in wildlife, which threatens thousands of species. Yet wet markets supply food to millions of people around the world, and differ drastically in their physical composition, the goods they sell, and the subsequent risks they pose. Read More

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Too unwell to trust? The effect of mental health on social trust in Europe.

Econ Hum Biol 2021 Jun 5;42:101021. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Industrial Economics, Nottingham University Business School, University of Nottingham, Jubilee Campus, Wollaton Road, Nottingham NG8 1BB, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Social trust is often thought to be adversely affected by mental health problems. However, rigorous causal evidence required to substantiate this thought is scarce. Here I examine the causal effect of individuals' mental health on social trust using data from the European Social Survey. Read More

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