1,926 results match your criteria polarised cell


Navigation and orientation in Coleoptera: a review of strategies and mechanisms.

Anim Cogn 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand.

Spatial orientation is important for animals to forage, mate, migrate, and escape certain threats, and can require simple to complex cognitive abilities and behaviours. As these behaviours are more difficult to experimentally test in vertebrates, considerable research has focussed on investigating spatial orientation in insects. However, the majority of insect spatial orientation research tends to focus on a few taxa of interest, especially social insects. Read More

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Heusler alloys for spintronic devices: review on recent development and future perspectives.

Sci Technol Adv Mater 2021 Mar 29;22(1):235-271. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Electronic Engineering, University of York, York, UK.

Heusler alloys are theoretically predicted to become half-metals at room temperature (RT). The advantages of using these alloys are good lattice matching with major substrates, high Curie temperature above RT and intermetallic controllability for spin density of states at the Fermi energy level. The alloys are categorised into half- and full-Heusler alloys depending upon the crystalline structures, each being discussed both experimentally and theoretically. Read More

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Orientation and Alignment dynamics of polar molecule driven by shaped laser pulses.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Mar 11;256:119663. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Physics, Swami Shradhanand College, University of Delhi, Delhi, Delhi 110036, India. Electronic address:

We review the theoretical status of intense laser induced orientation and alignment-a field of study which lies at the interface of intense laser physics and chemical dynamics and having potential applications such as high harmonic generation, nano-scale processing and control of chemical reactions. The evolution of the rotational wave packet and its dynamics leading to orientation and alignment is the topic of the present discussion. The major part of this article primarily presents an overview of recent theoretical progress in controlling the orientation and alignment dynamics of a molecule by means of shaped laser pulses. Read More

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Phenotypic Modulation of Macrophages and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Atherosclerosis-Nitro-Redox Interconnections.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

CITHEFOR, Université de Lorraine, F-54000 Nancy, France.

Monocytes/macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are the main cell types implicated in atherosclerosis development, and unlike other mature cell types, both retain a remarkable plasticity. In mature vessels, differentiated vSMCs control the vascular tone and the blood pressure. In response to vascular injury and modifications of the local environment (inflammation, oxidative stress), vSMCs switch from a contractile to a secretory phenotype and also display macrophagic markers expression and a macrophagic behaviour. Read More

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Spontaneous bilateral peri-orbital purpura: an important clinical sign of primary systemic amyloidosis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 1;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Dermatology, Tallaght University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

A 69-year-old woman presented with an 18-month history of recurrent bruising of the eyelids. She was otherwise asymptomatic and systems review was unremarkable. On examination, she had peri-orbital purpura and waxy papules at the inner canthus of both eyes. Read More

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3D reconstruction and morphological analysis of electrostimulated hyperthermophile biofilms of Thermotoga neapolitana.

Biotechnol Lett 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B. 5025, Awka, Nigeria.

In this study, the morphological characteristics of the T. neapolitana biofilms on a ceramic carrier, stainless steel, graphite foil, carbon paper, carbon felt and carbon cloth using 3D reconstruction technology was investigated. This was based on the micrographs available in Squadrito et al. Read More

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Atypical Nodular Pulmonary Kappa Light-Chain Deposition.

Case Rep Pathol 2021 10;2021:5578885. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Flinders Medical Centre, Southern Adelaide Local Health Network, South Australia, Australia.

We report a case of an incidental positron emission tomography avid right middle lobe lesion which was increasing in size. Due to concerns regarding malignancy, the patient underwent right middle lobectomy. Microscopic examination showed a 12 × 10 × 10 mm poorly circumscribed lesion composed of eosinophilic material. Read More

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Indentation Stiffness Measurement by an Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Air-Jet Indentation System Can Reflect Type I Collagen Abundance and Organisation in Diabetic Wounds.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 4;9:648453. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

There is a lack of quantitative and non-invasive clinical biomechanical assessment tools for diabetic foot ulcers. Our previous study reported that the indentation stiffness measured by an optical coherence tomography-based air-jet indentation system in a non-contact and non-invasive manner may reflect the tensile properties of diabetic wounds. As the tensile properties are known to be contributed by type I collagen, this study was aimed to establish the correlations between the indentation stiffness, and type I collagen abundance and organisation, in order to further justify and characterise the indentation stiffness measurement in diabetic wounds. Read More

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Polarised maintenance of cytoophidia in Drosophila follicle epithelia.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Mar 16;402(2):112564. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China; MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The metabolic enzyme CTP synthase (CTPS) can form filamentous structures named cytoophidia in numerous types of cells, including follicle cells. However, the regulation of cytoophidium assembly remains elusive. The apicobasal polarity, a defining characteristic of Drosophila follicle epithelium, is established and regulated by a variety of membrane domains. Read More

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Water oxidation by P25 TiO photoanodes in acidic solution.

Chemosphere 2021 May 5;271:129847. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Queens University Belfast, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast, BT9 5AG, UK. Electronic address:

P25 TiO photoanodes are used to photo-oxidise water in two different acids, 0.5 M HSO and 1 M HClO. In the former acid, the linear sweep voltammogram, LSV, appears to exhibit two photocurrent waves, whilst only one in the latter. Read More

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Sophoridine Inhibits the Tumour Growth of Non-Small Lung Cancer by Inducing Macrophages M1 Polarisation MAPK-Mediated Inflammatory Pathway.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:634851. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Putuo Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Lung cancer is one of the most common and lethal neoplasms for which very few efficacious treatments are currently available. M1-like polarised tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are key mediators to modulate the tumour microenvironment, which play a key role in inhibiting cancer cell growth. Sophoridine, a naturally occurring alkaloid, exerts multiple pharmacological activities including anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory activities, but it has not been characterised as a regulator of tumour microenvironment towards NSCLC. Read More

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February 2021

The blood-brain barrier studied in vitro across species.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(3):e0236770. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Health Science and Technology, Neurobiology Research and Drug Delivery, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by brain capillary endothelial cells (BECs) supported by pericytes and astrocytes. The BBB maintains homeostasis and protects the brain against toxic substances circulating in the blood, meaning that only a few drugs can pass the BBB. Thus, for drug screening, understanding cell interactions, and pathology, in vitro BBB models have been developed using BECs from various animal sources. Read More

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Sign dependence of MCPL spectra on type and position of substituent groups of pyrene and phenanthrene derivatives.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan.

Diamagnetic achiral pyrene and phenanthrene derivatives substituted with electron-donating hydroxyl/methoxy groups and electron-withdrawing carboxylic acid groups exhibited clear magnetic circularly polarised luminescence (MCPL) spectra at 360-460 nm in dilute solvents upon the application of N-up and S-up Faraday geometries under an external magnetic field of 1.6 T. Their MCPL signs were also susceptible upon application of the same Faraday geometry. Read More

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Sign inversion of magnetic circularly polarized luminescence in Iridium(iii) complexes bearing achiral ligands.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Mar 22;23(9):5074-5078. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kindai University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan.

Optically inactive, paramagnetic Ir(iii)(ppy) and Ir(iii)(ppy)(acac) (ppy: 2-phenylpyridinate and acac: acetylacetonate) showed nearly mirror-symmetric magnetic circularly polarised luminescence (MCPL) spectra in dilute dichloromethane and dimethyl sulfoxide under N-up and S-up geometries in a 1.6-T magnetic field. However, the MCPL signs of Ir(iii)(ppy) and Ir(iii)(ppy)(acac) under the same N-up (or S-up) Faraday geometry were opposite to each other when one ppy was replaced with an acac. Read More

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Hyperpolarised gas filling station for medical imaging using polarised Xe and He.

Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Feb 15;79:112-120. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Monash Biomedical Imaging, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia.

We report the design, construction, and initial tests of a hyperpolariser to produce polarised Xe and He gas for medical imaging of the lung. The hyperpolariser uses the Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping method to polarise the nuclear spins of the isotopic gas. Batch mode operation was chosen for the design to produce polarised Xe and polarised He. Read More

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February 2021

Evidence use in E-cigarettes debates: scientific showdowns in a 'wild west' of research.

BMC Public Health 2021 Feb 16;21(1):362. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Berkeley Square, 99 Berkeley Street, Glasgow, G3 7HR, UK.

Background: Against a backdrop of declining tobacco use, e-cigarette markets are growing. The UK now has a higher percentage of e-cigarette users than any other European country. These developments have prompted fierce discussions in scientific, advocacy and policy communities about how best to respond. Read More

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February 2021

Assessing heart disease using a novel magnetocardiography device.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, West Yorkshire, LS2 9JT, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

The aim of this paper is to present the use of a portable, unshielded magnetocardiograph (MCG) and identify key characteristics of MCG scans that could be used in future studies to identify parameters that are sensitive to cardiac pathology. We recruited 50 patients with confirmed myocardial infarction (MI) within the past 12 weeks and 46 volunteers with no history of cardiac disease. A set of 38 parameters were extracted from MCG features including both signals from the sensor array and from magnetic images obtained from the device and principal component analysis was used to concentrate the information contained in these parameters into uncorrelated predictors. Read More

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February 2021

The Sexual Politics of Anti-Trafficking Discourse.

Fem Leg Stud 2021 Feb 1:1-23. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Dickson Poon School of Law, King's College London, Somerset House East Wing, Strand, WC2R 2LS UK.

20 years since the negotiation of the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in 2000, the anti-trafficking field has gone from an early, almost exclusive preoccupation with sex work to addressing extreme exploitation in a range of labour sectors. While this might suggest a reduced focus on the nature of the work performed and a greater focus on the conditions under which it is performed, in reality, anti-trafficking discourse remains in the grip of polarised positions on sex work even as the carceral effects of anti-trafficking law become evident and the Swedish model of criminalising the purchase of sexual services spreads. In this article, I demonstrate how despite the recent discursive shifts to 'modern slavery' and 'forced labour', the anti-trafficking transnational legal order itself reinforces, rather than diffuses cultures of sex work exceptionalism. Read More

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February 2021

Concentrations of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine in the follicular fluid of women with endometriosis: the role of M1 polarised macrophages.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2021 Feb;33(4):270-278

UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Laboratório de Bioquímica, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira no. 228 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

Although N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA; also known as anandamide) is present in human follicular fluid (FF), its regulation remains unknown. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to: (1) investigate the relationships between FF AEA concentrations in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology and their age, body mass index, ART characteristics and fertility treatment outcomes; and (2) assess how different inflammatory patterns may trigger AEA production by human granulosa cells (hGCs). FF AEA concentrations were higher in women undergoing IVF than in those undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection group. Read More

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February 2021

Intrapulmonary vaccination with delta-inulin adjuvant stimulates non-polarised chemotactic signalling and diverse cellular interaction.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Discipline of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

There is an urgent need for novel vaccination strategies to combat respiratory pathogens. Mucosal vaccine delivery is an attractive option as it directly targets the site of infection; however, preclinical development has been hindered by a lack of suitable mucosal adjuvants and a limited understanding of their immune effects in the lung environment. Herein, we define the early immune events following the intrapulmonary delivery of a vaccine incorporating the adjuvant delta-inulin. Read More

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February 2021

Visco- and poroelastic contributions of the zona pellucida to the mechanical response of oocytes.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2021 Apr 3;20(2):751-765. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Institute for Mechanical Systems, ETH Zurich, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland.

Probing mechanical properties of cells has been identified as a means to infer information on their current state, e.g. with respect to diseases or differentiation. Read More

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Morphine Dreams: Auguste Laurent and the Active Principles of Organised Matter.

Authors:
Theresa Levitt

Ambix 2021 Feb 29;68(1):97-115. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS, USA.

Auguste Laurent began his work on morphine, nicotine, and other intoxicating alkaloids hopeful that he could reproduce them artificially from the byproducts of coal tar. After successfully creating artificial alkaloids, he collaborated with Jean-Baptiste Biot to determine that while plant-derived alkaloids were optically active, his artificial ones were not, further establishing a link between the action of molecules upon polarised light and their action upon the animal economy, and a firm line between natural and artificial products later taken up in the work of Louis Pasteur. This paper places this work in the context of a long tradition in which chemists, naturalists, and pharmacists variously used "active principles" to refer both to the particular living nature of substances, and to their ability to act on the human body. Read More

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February 2021

Disclosure of disability or misconduct in veterinary graduate registration: balancing confidentiality, equity and stakeholder interests.

Aust Vet J 2021 Apr 27;99(4):93-107. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Australasian Veterinary Boards Council (AVBC), Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Veterinary registration processes, including disclosure of disability or misconduct, vary across jurisdictions in Australasia, and there is currently no clear mechanism for the communication of registration requirements to prospective or current students. Procedures for registration of graduating students are evolving but are not necessarily responsive to conflicting imperatives for confidentiality, protection of stakeholder interests and graduate support.

Objective: To obtain opinions from members of the veterinary profession in Australasia on issues relating to graduate registration, including communication between veterinary schools and registration bodies. Read More

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An Optical Planar Waveguide-Based Immunosensors for Determination of Mycotoxin Zearalenone.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Jan 25;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Agro-Environmental Research Institute, National Research and Innovation Centre, Herman Ottó út 15, H-1022 Budapest, Hungary.

A planar waveguide (PW) immunosensor working as a polarisation interferometer was developed for the detection of mycotoxin zearalenone (ZON). The main element of the sensor is an optical waveguide consisting of a thin silicon nitride layer between two thicker silicon dioxide layers. A combination of a narrow waveguiding core made by photolithography with an advanced optical set-up providing a coupling of circular polarised light into the PW via its slanted edge allowed the realization of a novel sensing principle by detection of the phase shift between the p- and s-components of polarised light propagating through the PW. Read More

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January 2021

Commercial Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) Products on Caries Lesion Progression in Primary Enamel: An In Vitro Study.

Oral Health Prev Dent 2020 ;18(1):1025-1029

Purpose: Evidence has shown that silver diamine fluoride (SDF) at 30-38% has the potential to control and revert caries lesions. However, SDF can be found at lower concentrations on the market. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different commercially available SDF products on the progression of non-cavitated caries lesion in primary teeth assessed by a pH-cycling model. Read More

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January 2021

Frugoside delays osteoarthritis progression via inhibiting miR-155-modulated synovial macrophage M1 polarisation.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of Ministry of Education & Hainan Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicine, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Objectives: Direct inhibition of M1 polarisation of synovial macrophages may be a useful therapeutic treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) and OA-associated synovitis. Frugoside (FGS) is a cardiac glycoside compound isolated and extracted from Calotropis gigantea. Cardiac glycosides possess interesting anti-inflammatory potential. Read More

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January 2021

Agglomeration structure of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal medium: Image analysis datasets based on cryo-electron microscopy and polarised optical microscopy techniques.

Data Brief 2021 Feb 11;34:106716. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

KIST Europe Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.

This dataset shows the agglomerate dimension and structure of oleic acid-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs), which are dispersed in the nematic fluid of a thermotropic liquid crystal (LC), 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB). The analysed datasets were acquired from the raw images of the SPION-5CB mixtures obtained using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and polarised optical microscopy. The image data were quantitatively analysed to extract statistical information on the sizes of SPIONs and their agglomerates and the inter-particle spacing of the agglomerated SPIONs. Read More

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February 2021

Stochastic events can explain sustained clustering and polarisation of opinions in social networks.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 14;11(1):1355. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia.

Understanding the processes underlying development and persistence of polarised opinions has been one of the key challenges in social networks for more than two decades. While plausible mechanisms have been suggested, they assume quite specialised interactions between individuals or groups that may only be relevant in particular contexts. We propose that a more broadly relevant explanation might be associated with the influence of external events. Read More

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January 2021

A comparison between visual, digital photography and polarizing filter photography for shade selection.

Indian J Dent Res 2020 Sep-Oct;31(5):712-717

Department of Prosthodontics, A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, NITTE (Deemed to be University), Deralakatte, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Aim: There is an increased awareness for aesthetically pleasing restorations among patients in current practice. Due to variability in the natural tooth colour, shade selection becomes an intricate procedure. The aim of this study is to determine which of the three named methods is more accurate for shade selection in aesthetic dentistry. Read More

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January 2021