719 results match your criteria pol termination


Regulation of RNA Polymerase II Transcription Initiation and Elongation by Transcription Factor TFII-I.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 13;8:681550. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, UF Health Cancer Center, Genetics Institute, Powell Gene Therapy Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is regulated by different processes, including alterations in chromatin structure, interactions between distal regulatory elements and promoters, formation of transcription domains enriched for Pol II and co-regulators, and mechanisms involved in the initiation, elongation, and termination steps of transcription. Transcription factor TFII-I, originally identified as an initiator (INR)-binding protein, contains multiple protein-protein interaction domains and plays diverse roles in the regulation of transcription. Genome-wide analysis revealed that TFII-I associates with expressed as well as repressed genes. Read More

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RNA polymerase I subunit 12 plays opposite roles in cell proliferation and migration.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 10;560:112-118. Epub 2021 May 10.

College of Life Science and Health, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China. Electronic address:

RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is responsible for the synthesis of the majority of ribosomal RNA molecules in eukaryotes. Pol I subunit 12 (RPA12) is involved in the transcriptional termination and lipid metabolism in yeast. However, its role in human cells hasn't been investigated so far. Read More

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Perinatal outcomes of the antenatally diagnosed omphalocele cases: a single tertiary center experience.

Ginekol Pol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Çukurova University, School of Medicine, Adana, Turkey.

Objectives: To evaluate the perinatal outcomes of antenatally diagnosed omphalocele cases.

Material And Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted between July 2014 and February 2020 at the prenatal diagnosis center of a university clinic. Gestational week of diagnosis, associated anomalies, karyotype analysis results, complications during pregnancy, termination/delivery characteristics, and postnatal results were evaluated. Read More

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RNA Sequence and Structure Determinants of Pol III Transcriptional Termination in Human Cells.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jun 1;433(13):166978. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Center for Synthetic Biology, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208, USA; Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208, USA. Electronic address:

The precise mechanism of transcription termination of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III (Pol III) has been a subject of considerable debate. Although previous studies have clearly shown that multiple uracils at the end of RNA transcripts are required for Pol III termination, the effects of upstream RNA secondary structure in the nascent transcript on transcriptional termination is still unclear. To address this, we developed an in cellulo Pol III transcription termination assay using the recently developed Tornado-Corn RNA aptamer system to create a Pol III-transcribed RNA that produces a detectable fluorescent signal when transcribed in human cells. Read More

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Stress-induced transcriptional memory accelerates promoter-proximal pause release and decelerates termination over mitotic divisions.

Mol Cell 2021 04 29;81(8):1715-1731.e6. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Faculty of Science and Engineering, Cell Biology, Åbo Akademi University, 20520 Turku, Finland; Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, 20520 Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Heat shock instantly reprograms transcription. Whether gene and enhancer transcription fully recover from stress and whether stress establishes a memory by provoking transcription regulation that persists through mitosis remained unknown. Here, we measured nascent transcription and chromatin accessibility in unconditioned cells and in the daughters of stress-exposed cells. Read More

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POINT technology illuminates the processing of polymerase-associated intact nascent transcripts.

Mol Cell 2021 05 17;81(9):1935-1950.e6. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK; Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

Mammalian chromatin is the site of both RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription and coupled RNA processing. However, molecular details of such co-transcriptional mechanisms remain obscure, partly because of technical limitations in purifying authentic nascent transcripts. We present a new approach to characterize nascent RNA, called polymerase intact nascent transcript (POINT) technology. Read More

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Simplicity is the Ultimate Sophistication-Crosstalk of Post-translational Modifications on the RNA Polymerase II.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jul 5;433(14):166912. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, United States; The Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology. University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, United States. Electronic address:

The highly conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II comprises a consensus heptad (YSPTSPS) repeated multiple times. Despite the simplicity of its sequence, the essential CTD domain orchestrates eukaryotic transcription and co-transcriptional processes, including transcription initiation, elongation, and termination, and mRNA processing. These distinct facets of the transcription cycle rely on specific post-translational modifications (PTM) of the CTD, in which five out of the seven residues in the heptad repeat are subject to phosphorylation. Read More

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Tracking Escherichia coli DNA polymerase V to the entire genome during the SOS response.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 May 19;101:103075. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Ribonucleotides are frequently incorporated into DNA and can be used as a marker of DNA replication enzymology. To investigate on a genome-wide scale, how E. coli pol V accesses undamaged chromosomal DNA during the SOS response, we mapped the location of ribonucleotides incorporated by steric gate variants of pol V across the entire E. Read More

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Resistance to a Nucleoside Analog Antiviral Drug from More Rapid Extension of Drug-Containing Primers.

mBio 2021 02 9;12(1). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Blavatnik Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Nucleoside analogs are mainstays of antiviral therapy. Although resistance to these drugs hinders their use, understanding resistance can illuminate mechanisms of the drugs and their targets. Certain nucleoside analogs, such as ganciclovir (GCV), a leading therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), contain the equivalent of a 3'-hydoxyl moiety, yet their triphosphates can terminate genome synthesis (nonobligate chain termination). Read More

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February 2021

Cryo-EM structures of human RNA polymerase III in its unbound and transcribing states.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2021 02 8;28(2):210-219. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Structural and Computational Biology Unit, Heidelberg, Germany.

RNA polymerase III (Pol III) synthesizes transfer RNAs and other short, essential RNAs. Human Pol III misregulation is linked to tumor transformation, neurodegenerative and developmental disorders, and increased sensitivity to viral infections. Here, we present cryo-electron microscopy structures at 2. Read More

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February 2021

The RNA polymerase II subunit RPB-9 recruits the integrator complex to terminate Caenorhabditis elegans piRNA transcription.

EMBO J 2021 Mar 3;40(5):e105565. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are genome-encoded small RNAs that regulate germ cell development and maintain germline integrity in many animals. Mature piRNAs engage Piwi Argonaute proteins to silence complementary transcripts, including transposable elements and endogenous genes. piRNA biogenesis mechanisms are diverse and remain poorly understood. Read More

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LARP1 and LARP4: up close with PABP for mRNA 3' poly(A) protection and stabilization.

RNA Biol 2021 02 31;18(2):259-274. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Division of Intramural Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

La-related proteins (LARPs) share a La motif (LaM) followed by an RNA recognition motif (RRM). Together these are termed the La-module that, in the prototypical nuclear La protein and LARP7, mediates binding to the UUU-3'OH termination motif of nascent RNA polymerase III transcripts. We briefly review La and LARP7 activities for RNA 3' end binding and protection from exonucleases before moving to the more recently uncovered poly(A)-related activities of LARP1 and LARP4. Read More

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February 2021

Placental mesenchymal dysplasia and hepatic cyst.

Ginekol Pol 2020;91(12):779-780

2nd Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare benign vascular anomaly of the placenta. It can be misdiagnosed as a molar pregnancy resulting in unnecessary termination of pregnancy. A 30-year-old woman was referred to our hospital at 18 gestational weeks due to suspicion of molar pregnancy. Read More

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January 2020

Integrator is recruited to promoter-proximally paused RNA Pol II to generate Caenorhabditis elegans piRNA precursors.

EMBO J 2021 Mar 19;40(5):e105564. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, London, UK.

Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play key roles in germline development and genome defence in metazoans. In C. elegans, piRNAs are transcribed from > 15,000 discrete genomic loci by RNA polymerase II (Pol II), resulting in 28 nt short-capped piRNA precursors. Read More

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Causes and consequences of RNA polymerase II stalling during transcript elongation.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2021 01 18;22(1):3-21. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Mechanisms of Transcription Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, London, UK.

The journey of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) as it transcribes a gene is anything but a smooth ride. Transcript elongation is discontinuous and can be perturbed by intrinsic regulatory barriers, such as promoter-proximal pausing, nucleosomes, RNA secondary structures and the underlying DNA sequence. More substantial blocking of Pol II translocation can be caused by other physiological circumstances and extrinsic obstacles, including other transcribing polymerases, the replication machinery and several types of DNA damage, such as bulky lesions and DNA double-strand breaks. Read More

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January 2021

Integrator-Dependent and Allosteric/Intrinsic Mechanisms Ensure Efficient Termination of snRNA Transcription.

Cell Rep 2020 10;33(4):108319

The Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter, Stocker Rd, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK. Electronic address:

Many RNA polymerases terminate transcription using allosteric/intrinsic mechanisms, whereby protein alterations or nucleotide sequences promote their release from DNA. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is somewhat different based on its behavior at protein-coding genes where termination additionally requires endoribonucleolytic cleavage and subsequent 5'→3' exoribonuclease activity. The Pol-II-transcribed small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) also undergo endoribonucleolytic cleavage by the Integrator complex, which promotes their transcriptional termination. Read More

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October 2020

Noncoding RNAs Set the Stage for RNA Polymerase II Transcription.

Trends Genet 2021 03 9;37(3):279-291. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Effective synthesis of mammalian messenger (m)RNAs depends on many factors that together direct RNA polymerase II (pol II) through the different stages of the transcription cycle and ensure efficient cotranscriptional processing of mRNAs. In addition to the many proteins involved in transcription initiation, elongation, and termination, several noncoding (nc)RNAs also function as global transcriptional regulators. Understanding the mode of action of these non-protein regulators has been an intense area of research in recent years. Read More

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Grafting with RAFT-gRAFT Strategies to Prepare Hybrid Nanocarriers with Core-shell Architecture.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Sep 23;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Centro de Química Estrutural and Department of Chemical Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal.

Stimuli-responsive polymer materials are used in smart nanocarriers to provide the stimuli-actuated mechanical and chemical changes that modulate cargo delivery. To take full advantage of the potential of stimuli-responsive polymers for controlled delivery applications, these have been grafted to the surface of mesoporous silica particles (MSNs), which are mechanically robust, have very large surface areas and available pore volumes, uniform and tunable pore sizes and a large diversity of surface functionalization options. Here, we explore the impact of different RAFT-based grafting strategies on the amount of a pH-responsive polymer incorporated in the shell of MSNs. Read More

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September 2020

Integrator Recruits Protein Phosphatase 2A to Prevent Pause Release and Facilitate Transcription Termination.

Mol Cell 2020 10 22;80(2):345-358.e9. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77550, USA. Electronic address:

Efficient release of promoter-proximally paused RNA Pol II into productive elongation is essential for gene expression. Recently, we reported that the Integrator complex can bind paused RNA Pol II and drive premature transcription termination, potently attenuating the activity of target genes. Premature termination requires RNA cleavage by the endonuclease subunit of Integrator, but the roles of other Integrator subunits in gene regulation have yet to be elucidated. Read More

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October 2020

An updated perspective on the polymerase division of labor during eukaryotic DNA replication.

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2020 10 3;55(5):469-481. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Division of Protein and Nucleic Acid Chemistry, Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.

In eukaryotes three DNA polymerases (Pols), α, δ, and ε, are tasked with bulk DNA synthesis of nascent strands during genome duplication. Most evidence supports a model where Pol α initiates DNA synthesis before Pol ε and Pol δ replicate the leading and lagging strands, respectively. However, a number of recent reports, enabled by advances in biochemical and genetic techniques, have highlighted emerging roles for Pol δ in all stages of leading-strand synthesis; initiation, elongation, and termination, as well as fork restart. Read More

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October 2020

Distinct Cdk9-phosphatase switches act at the beginning and end of elongation by RNA polymerase II.

Nat Commun 2020 08 28;11(1):4338. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, 10029-6574, USA.

Reversible phosphorylation of Pol II and accessory factors helps order the transcription cycle. Here, we define two kinase-phosphatase switches that operate at different points in human transcription. Cdk9/cyclin T1 (P-TEFb) catalyzes inhibitory phosphorylation of PP1 and PP4 complexes that localize to 3' and 5' ends of genes, respectively, and have overlapping but distinct specificities for Cdk9-dependent phosphorylations of Spt5, a factor instrumental in promoter-proximal pausing and elongation-rate control. Read More

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Antisense oligonucleotide technology can be used to investigate a circular but not linear RNA-mediated function for its encoded gene locus.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 May 17;64(5):784-794. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

School of Life Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China.

As a class of powerful molecular tool, antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are not only broadly used in protein and RNA biology, but also a highly selective therapeutic strategy for many diseases. Although the concept that ASO reagents only reduce expression of the targeted gene in a post-transcriptional manner has long been established, the effect and mechanism of ASO reagents on RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription are largely unknown. This raised question is particularly important for the appropriate use of ASOs and the valid interpretation of ASO-mediated experiments. Read More

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Alternative splicing of DSP1 enhances snRNA accumulation by promoting transcription termination and recycle of the processing complex.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 08 3;117(33):20325-20333. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, College of Life Science and Technology, Guangxi University, 530004 Nanning, Guangxi, China;

Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are the basal components of the spliceosome and play crucial roles in splicing. Their biogenesis is spatiotemporally regulated. However, related mechanisms are still poorly understood. Read More

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Immediate transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis leaves to heat shock.

J Integr Plant Biol 2021 Mar 28;63(3):468-483. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Innovative Center of Molecular Genetics and Evolution, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Plants have evolved efficient mechanisms for adapting to temperature fluctuations, known as heat stress response and heat stress memory. Although the transcriptional regulatory network of plant heat stress response has been established, little is known about the genome-wide transcriptional changes occurring within the first several minutes after heat shock. Here, we investigated the nascent RNA and mature messenger RNA (mRNA) from plant leaf tissues exposed to 5 min of heat shock treatment using global run-on sequencing and RNA sequencing methods. Read More

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The development of postural control in 6-17 old years healthy children. Part II Postural control evaluation - Limits of Stability Test (LOS) in 6-17 old year children.

Otolaryngol Pol 2020 Feb;74(4):18-24

Katedra i Klinika Otolaryngologii, Chirurgii Głowy i Szyi Uniwersytetu Medycznego we Wrocławiu.

<b>Introduction</b>: The ability to Reach quickly to changing external stimuli, to move the body quickly and precisely in any direction and to maintain the centre of gravity above the support base, all contribute to maintaining balance in dynamic conditions. The Limits of Stability Test (LOS) provides information on the state of dynamic equilibrium in a standing position.<br> <b>Aim</b> : Assessment of dynamic postural control in developmental age. Read More

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February 2020

Termination of Transcription by RNA Polymerase II: BOOM!

Trends Genet 2020 09 8;36(9):664-675. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

The Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK. Electronic address:

RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribes hundreds of thousands of transcription units - a reaction always brought to a close by its termination. Because Pol II transcribes multiple gene types, its termination occurs in a variety of ways, with the polymerase being responsive to different inputs. Moreover, it is not just a default process occurring at the end of genes. Read More

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September 2020

The yeast exoribonuclease Xrn1 and associated factors modulate RNA polymerase II processivity in 5' and 3' gene regions.

J Biol Chem 2020 08 9;295(33):11435-11454. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel

mRNA levels are determined by the balance between mRNA synthesis and decay. Protein factors that mediate both processes, including the 5'-3' exonuclease Xrn1, are responsible for a cross-talk between the two processes that buffers steady-state mRNA levels. However, the roles of these proteins in transcription remain elusive and controversial. Read More

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Mind the Gapmer: Implications of Co-transcriptional Cleavage by Antisense Oligonucleotides.

Mol Cell 2020 03;77(5):932-933

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Electronic address:

While gapmers efficiently knock down as well as terminate transcription of nascent lncRNAs and mRNAs, Lee and Mendell (2020) and Lai et al. (2020) also demonstrate that Pol II termination is not observed with gapmers targeting the 3' terminal portions of the transcript. Read More

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Termination of non-coding transcription in yeast relies on both an RNA Pol II CTD interaction domain and a CTD-mimicking region in Sen1.

EMBO J 2020 04 28;39(7):e101548. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Université de Paris, CNRS, Institut Jacques Monod, Paris, France.

Pervasive transcription is a widespread phenomenon leading to the production of a plethora of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) without apparent function. Pervasive transcription poses a threat to proper gene expression that needs to be controlled. In yeast, the highly conserved helicase Sen1 restricts pervasive transcription by inducing termination of non-coding transcription. Read More

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The role of Mediator and Little Elongation Complex in transcription termination.

Nat Commun 2020 02 26;11(1):1063. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 15, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8638, Japan.

Mediator is a coregulatory complex that regulates transcription of Pol II-dependent genes. Previously, we showed that human Mediator subunit MED26 plays a role in the recruitment of Super Elongation Complex (SEC) or Little Elongation Complex (LEC) to regulate the expression of certain genes. MED26 plays a role in recruiting SEC to protein-coding genes including c-myc and LEC to small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes. Read More

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February 2020