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Sign language, like spoken language, promotes object categorization in young hearing infants.

Cognition 2021 Jul 14;215:104845. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States of America.

The link between language and cognition is unique to our species and emerges early in infancy. Here, we provide the first evidence that this precocious language-cognition link is not limited to spoken language, but is instead sufficiently broad to include sign language, a language presented in the visual modality. Four- to six-month-old hearing infants, never before exposed to sign language, were familiarized to a series of category exemplars, each presented by a woman who either signed in American Sign Language (ASL) while pointing and gazing toward the objects, or pointed and gazed without language (control). Read More

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Transcriptional Profiling of Monocytes Deficient in Nuclear Orphan Receptors and Reveals Distinct Signalling Roles Related to Antigen Presentation and Viral Response.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:676644. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

The nuclear receptor sub-family 4 group A (NR4A) family are early response genes that encode proteins that are activated in several tissues/cells in response to a variety of stressors. The NR4A family comprises , and of which and are under researched and less understood, particularly in the context of immune cells. NR4A expression is associated with multiple diseases e. Read More

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Severe multiorgan toxicity after first dose of Capizzi methotrexate in a young adult patient with acute lymphocytic leukaemia.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jul 8;14(7). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Medicine, John H Stroger Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Methotrexate is a versatile antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent. We report a case of a young adult on the Cancer and Leukaemia Group B 10403 treatment protocol for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. She has previously completed the induction and consolidation phases with good tolerance then started on Capizzi methotrexate during the interim maintenance phase. Read More

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Inflexibly sustained negative affect and rumination independently link default mode network efficiency to subclinical depressive symptoms.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jun 25;293:347-354. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Belgium.

Aberrant DMN connectivity and activity have been robustly linked to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and risk for depression. This link has mostly been explained in terms of rumination, a form of negative, repetitive cognitive processing. Yet, accumulating findings are indicating altered DMN dynamics during emotional processing in MDD, pointing at a potential emotion-related DMN pathology in depression linked to inflexibly sustained emotional responses. Read More

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Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme on antimicrobial utilization and the prevalence of MDR in an acute care hospital in Qatar.

JAC Antimicrob Resist 2020 Sep 7;2(3):dlaa050. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Departments of Infectious Diseases, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Background: The excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics is universal across all healthcare facilities. In Qatar there has been a substantial increase in antimicrobial consumption coupled with a significant rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) have become a standard intervention for effective optimization of antimicrobial prescribing. Read More

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September 2020

Adducted Thumb and Peripheral Polyneuropathy: Diagnostic Supports in Suspecting White-Sutton Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Jun 22;12(7). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Medical Genetics Unit, Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy.

One of the recently described syndromes emerging from the massive study of cohorts of undiagnosed patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and syndromic intellectual disability (ID) is White-Sutton syndrome (WHSUS) (MIM #616364), caused by variants in the gene (MIM *614787), located on the long arm of chromosome 1 (1q21.3). So far, more than 50 individuals have been reported worldwide, although phenotypic features and natural history have not been exhaustively characterized yet. Read More

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Activating Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells Induces a Broad Antitumor Response.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Gastrointestinal Malignancy Section, Thoracic and Gastrointestinal Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are MR1-restricted innate-like T cells that recognize non-peptide antigens including riboflavin derivates. Although -activated MAIT cells show antitumor activity, the role of MAIT cells in cancer is still unclear. Here, we have shown that MAIT cells have antitumor function when activated by a combination of the synthetic riboflavin synthesis pathway-derived antigen 5-OP-RU [5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-D-ribitylaminouracil] and the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist CpG. Read More

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System Thinking and Citizen Participation Is Still Missing in One Health Initiatives - Lessons From Fifteen Evaluations.

Front Public Health 2021 4;9:653398. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Section of Epidemiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Tackling complex public health challenges requires integrated approaches to health, such as One Health (OH). A key element of these approaches is the integration of knowledge across sectors, disciplines and stakeholders. It is not yet clear which elements of knowledge integration need endorsement to achieve best outcomes. Read More

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Asymmetric response of interfacial water to applied electric fields.

Nature 2021 06 2;594(7861):62-65. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Our understanding of the dielectric response of interfacial water, which underlies the solvation properties and reaction rates at aqueous interfaces, relies on the linear response approximation: an external electric field induces a linearly proportional polarization. This implies antisymmetry with respect to the sign of the field. Atomistic simulations have suggested, however, that the polarization of interfacial water may deviate considerably from the linear response. Read More

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Thermoelectric properties of CZTS thin films: effect of Cu-Zn disorder.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jun;23(23):13148-13158

Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

Cu-Zn disorder is known to deeply affect kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4, CZTS) due to the low temperature order-disorder phase transition, leading to a random occupation of the two cations in the shared crystallographic planes. This defect complex has been extensively studied in the thin film photovoltaic sector, with considerable efforts in developing methods to quantify disorder. In this study, a preliminary investigation of thermoelectric properties in temperature for thin film CZTS is presented. Read More

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Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of subsp. (Brot.) H.Wolff Essential Oil.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 May 17;10(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal.

Fungal infections remain a major health concern with aromatic plants and their metabolites standing out as promising antifungal agents. The present study aims to assess, for the first time, the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of subsp. (Brot. Read More

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A metabolomic endotype of bioenergetic dysfunction predicts mortality in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure.

Sci Rep 2021 May 18;11(1):10515. Epub 2021 May 18.

Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Acute respiratory failure (ARF) requiring mechanical ventilation, a complicating factor in sepsis and other disorders, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite its severity and prevalence, treatment options are limited. In light of accumulating evidence that mitochondrial abnormalities are common in ARF, here we applied broad spectrum quantitative and semiquantitative metabolomic analyses of serum from ARF patients to detect bioenergetic dysfunction and determine its association with survival. Read More

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hu.MAP 2.0: integration of over 15,000 proteomic experiments builds a global compendium of human multiprotein assemblies.

Mol Syst Biol 2021 05;17(5):e10016

Department of Molecular Biosciences, Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA.

A general principle of biology is the self-assembly of proteins into functional complexes. Characterizing their composition is, therefore, required for our understanding of cellular functions. Unfortunately, we lack knowledge of the comprehensive set of identities of protein complexes in human cells. Read More

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IFN-γ-dependent NK cell activation is essential to metastasis suppression by engineered Salmonella.

Nat Commun 2021 05 5;12(1):2537. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Metastasis accounts for 90% of cancer-related deaths and, currently, there are no effective clinical therapies to block the metastatic cascade. A need to develop novel therapies specifically targeting fundamental metastasis processes remains urgent. Here, we demonstrate that Salmonella YB1, an engineered oxygen-sensitive strain, potently inhibits metastasis of a broad range of cancers. Read More

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Three-Finger Toxins from Brazilian Coral Snakes: From Molecular Framework to Insights in Biological Function.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratório de Hemostase e Venenos-Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, Leopoldo de Meis (IBqM) and Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Biologia Estrutural e Bioimagem (Inbeb)-Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil.

Studies on 3FTxs around the world are showing the amazing diversity in these proteins both in structure and function. In Brazil, we have not realized the broad variety of their amino acid sequences and probable diversified structures and targets. In this context, this work aims to conduct an in silico systematic study on available 3FTxs found in Micrurus species from Brazil. Read More

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New perspectives on natural flavonoids on COVID-19-induced lung injuries.

Phytother Res 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Center of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Federal University of ABC, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for COVID-19, spread rapidly worldwide and became a pandemic in 2020. In some patients, the virus remains in the respiratory tract, causing pneumonia, respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and sepsis, leading to death. Natural flavonoids (aglycone and glycosides) possess broad biological activities encompassing antiinflammatory, antiviral, antitumoral, antiallergic, antiplatelet, and antioxidant effects. Read More

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Functional endurance capacity is associated with multiple other physical fitness components in 7-14-year-olds: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 7;21(1):669. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Primary Teacher Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Pula, Pula, Croatia.

Background: Although evidence suggests that functional endurance capacity is the most important component associated with future health, little is known of how it is associated with multiple other physical fitness components. Since various physical fitness aspects do not change the same as functional endurance capacity during childhood, it is necessary to establish possible associations between functional endurance capacity and other physical fitness components in children. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to test the associations between functional endurance capacity with other physical fitness components in 7-14-year-old children, stratified by gender. Read More

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Thermal Traits of MNPs under High-Frequency Magnetic Fields: Disentangling the Effect of Size and Coating.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2, Czech Republic.

We investigated the heating abilities of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a high-frequency magnetic field (MF) as a function of surface coating and size. The cobalt ferrite MNPs were obtained by a hydrothermal method in a water-oleic acid-ethanol system, yielding MNPs with mean diameter of about 5 nm, functionalized with the oleic acid. By applying another cycle of hydrothermal synthesis, we obtained MNPs with about one nm larger diameter. Read More

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A highly homogeneous polymer composed of tetrahedron-like monomers for high-isotropy expansion microscopy.

Nat Nanotechnol 2021 Jun 29;16(6):698-707. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

McGovern Institute for Brain Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Expansion microscopy (ExM) physically magnifies biological specimens to enable nanoscale-resolution imaging using conventional microscopes. Current ExM methods permeate specimens with free-radical-chain-growth-polymerized polyacrylate hydrogels, whose network structure limits the local isotropy of expansion as well as the preservation of morphology and shape at the nanoscale. Here we report that ExM is possible using hydrogels that have a more homogeneous network structure, assembled via non-radical terminal linking of tetrahedral monomers. Read More

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The deubiquitinase Usp9x regulates PRC2-mediated chromatin reprogramming during mouse development.

Nat Commun 2021 03 25;12(1):1865. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Pluripotent cells of the mammalian embryo undergo extensive chromatin rewiring to prepare for lineage commitment after implantation. Repressive H3K27me3, deposited by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), is reallocated from large blankets in pre-implantation embryos to mark promoters of developmental genes. The regulation of this global redistribution of H3K27me3 is poorly understood. Read More

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Development and Evolution of Energetic Cocrystals.

Acc Chem Res 2021 04 16;54(7):1699-1710. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Chemistry and the Macromolecular Science and Engineering Program, University of Michigan, 930 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055, United States.

In spite of the importance of energetic materials to a broad range of military (munitions, missiles) and civilian (mining, space exploration) technologies, the introduction of new chemical entities in the field occurs at a very slow pace. This situation is understandable considering the stringent requirements for cost and safety that must be met for new chemical entities to be fielded. If existing manufacturing infrastructure could be leveraged, then this would offer a fundamental shift in the discovery paradigm. Read More

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X Chromosome Contribution to the Genetic Architecture of Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jun 4;160(7):2483-2495.e26. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

University of California-Davis, Davis, California.

Background & Aims: Genome-wide association studies in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) have failed to find X chromosome (chrX) variants associated with the disease. Here, we specifically explore the chrX contribution to PBC, a sexually dimorphic complex autoimmune disease.

Methods: We performed a chrX-wide association study, including genotype data from 5 genome-wide association studies (from Italy, United Kingdom, Canada, China, and Japan; 5244 case patients and 11,875 control individuals). Read More

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A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Efficacy Study of a Prime Boost Therapeutic Vaccination Strategy in HIV-1-Infected Individuals: VRI02 ANRS 149 LIGHT Phase II Trial.

J Virol 2021 04 12;95(9). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Vaccine Research Institute-VRI, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil, France.

In this placebo-controlled phase II randomized clinical trial, 103 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients under cART (combined antiretroviral treatment) were randomized 2:1 to receive either 3 doses of DNA GTU-MultiHIV B (coding for Rev, Nef, Tat, Gag, and gp160) at week 0 (W0), W4, and W12, followed by 2 doses of LIPO-5 vaccine containing long peptides from Gag, Pol, and Nef at W20 and W24, or placebo. Analytical treatment interruption (ATI) was performed between W36 to W48. At W28, vaccinees experienced an increase in functional CD4 T-cell responses ( < 0. Read More

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Development of a potent and selective chemical probe for the pleiotropic kinase CK2.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 04 22;28(4):546-558.e10. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Electronic address:

Building on the pyrazolopyrimidine CK2 (casein kinase 2) inhibitor scaffold, we designed a small targeted library. Through comprehensive evaluation of inhibitor selectivity, we identified inhibitor 24 (SGC-CK2-1) as a highly potent and cell-active CK2 chemical probe with exclusive selectivity for both human CK2 isoforms. Remarkably, despite years of research pointing to CK2 as a key driver in cancer, our chemical probe did not elicit a broad antiproliferative phenotype in >90% of >140 cell lines when tested in dose-response. Read More

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Liver manifestations in a cohort of 39 patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation: pin-pointing the characteristics of liver injury and proposing recommendations for follow-up.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 01 7;16(1):20. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Clinical Genomics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: The congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a heterogeneous group of rare metabolic diseases with multi-system involvement. The liver phenotype of CDG varies not only according to the specific disorder, but also from patient to patient. In this study, we sought to identify common patterns of liver injury among patients with a broad spectrum of CDG, and to provide recommendations for follow-up in clinical practice. Read More

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January 2021

Autism Spectrum Disorder Genetics and the Search for Pathological Mechanisms.

Am J Psychiatry 2021 01;178(1):30-38

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Neuroscience Graduate Program, and Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco.

Recent progress in the identification of genes and genomic regions contributing to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has had a broad impact on our understanding of the nature of genetic risk for a range of psychiatric disorders, on our understanding of ASD biology, and on defining the key challenges now facing the field in efforts to translate gene discovery into an actionable understanding of pathology. While these advances have not yet had a transformative impact on clinical practice, there is nonetheless cause for real optimism: reliable lists of risk genes are large and growing rapidly; the identified encoded proteins have already begun to point to a relatively small number of areas of biology, where parallel advances in neuroscience and functional genomics are yielding profound insights; there is strong evidence pointing to mid-fetal prefrontal cortical development as one nexus of vulnerability for some of the largest-effect ASD risk genes; and there are multiple plausible paths forward toward rational therapeutics development that, while admittedly challenging, constitute fundamental departures from what was possible prior to the era of successful gene discovery. Read More

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January 2021

Synchronization Dynamics in Non-Normal Networks: The Trade-Off for Optimality.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Dec 29;23(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Mathematics and naXys, Namur Institute for Complex Systems, University of Namur, rue Grafé 2, 5000 Namur, Belgium.

Synchronization is an important behavior that characterizes many natural and human made systems that are composed by several interacting units. It can be found in a broad spectrum of applications, ranging from neuroscience to power-grids, to mention a few. Such systems synchronize because of the complex set of coupling they exhibit, with the latter being modeled by complex networks. Read More

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December 2020

Role of Notch Receptors in Hematologic Malignancies.

Cells 2020 12 24;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

MASVE Interdepartmental Hepatology Center, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine,University of Florence, Center for Research and Innovation CRIA-MASVE, 50134 Firenze, Italy.

Notch receptors are single-pass transmembrane proteins that play a critical role in cell fate decisions and have been implicated in the regulation of many developmental processes. The human Notch family comprises of four receptors (Notch 1 to 4) and five ligands. Their signaling can regulate extremely basic cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation and death. Read More

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December 2020

Long-term effects of stress early in life on microRNA-30a and its network: Preventive effects of lurasidone and potential implications for depression vulnerability.

Neurobiol Stress 2020 Nov 23;13:100271. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, via Balzaretti 9, 20133, Milan, Italy.

Exposure to early life stress can interfere with neurodevelopmental trajectories to increase the vulnerability for psychiatric disorders later in life. With this respect, epigenetic mechanisms play a key role for the long-lasting changes in brain functions that may elicit and sustain psychopathologic outcomes. Here, we investigated DNA methylation changes as possible epigenetic mechanism mediating the effect of prenatal stress (PNS), an experimental paradigm associated with behavioral and molecular alterations relevant for psychiatric disorders. Read More

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November 2020

Systematic Raman Spectroscopic Study of the Isomorphy Between the Arsenate Minerals Roselite, Wendwilsonite, Zincroselite, Brandtite, and Rruffite.

Authors:
J Theo Kloprogge

Appl Spectrosc 2021 Jul 21;75(7):846-856. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, 54730University of the Philippines Visayas, Miagao, Philippines.

In nature, numerous minerals are known with the general formula XM(TO)·2(HO) and an important group is formed by minerals with T = As. Most of these occur as minor or trace minerals in environments such as hydrothermal alterations of primary sulfides and arsenides. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been utilized to study the chemistry and crystal structure of the roselite subgroup minerals, CaM(AsO)·2HO (with M = Co, Mg, Mn, Zn, and Cu). Read More

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