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Right ventricular undersizing is associated with increased 1-year mortality.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 03 11;161(3):1048-1059.e3. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, CardioVascular Center, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Mass.

Objectives: Right heart hemodynamic management is critical, because many post-heart transplantation (HTx) complications are related to right ventricular (RV) failure. However, current guidelines on size and sex matching rely primarily on weight matching, with recent literature using total ventricular mass (TVM), which places less emphasis on the impact of RV mass (RVM) matching. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship of RVM matching and survival after HTx. Read More

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Low fundamental and formant frequencies predict fighting ability among male mixed martial arts fighters.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):905. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, 409 Carpenter Building, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

Human voice pitch is highly sexually dimorphic and eminently quantifiable, making it an ideal phenotype for studying the influence of sexual selection. In both traditional and industrial populations, lower pitch in men predicts mating success, reproductive success, and social status and shapes social perceptions, especially those related to physical formidability. Due to practical and ethical constraints however, scant evidence tests the central question of whether male voice pitch and other acoustic measures indicate actual fighting ability in humans. Read More

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January 2021

Factors associated with unplanned reinterventions and their relation to early mortality after pediatric cardiac surgery.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 03 27;161(3):1155-1166.e9. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom; Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Bristol, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objective: Unplanned reintervention (uRE) is used as an indicator of patient morbidity and quality of care in pediatric cardiac surgery. We investigated associated factors and early mortality after uREs.

Methods: Morbidity data were prospectively collected in 5 UK centers between 2015 and 2017; uRE included surgical cardiac, interventional transcatheter cardiac, permanent pacemaker, and diaphragm plication procedures. Read More

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The role of self-efficacy and information processing in weight loss during an mHealth behavioral intervention.

Digit Health 2020 Jan-Dec;6:2055207620976755. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Holcombe Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, USA.

Self-efficacy (SE) and information processing (IP) may be important constructs to target when designing mHealth interventions for weight loss. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between SE and IP with weight loss at six-months as part of the Dietary Interventions Examining Tracking with mobile study, a six-month randomized trial with content delivered remotely via twice-weekly podcasts. Participants were randomized to self-monitor their diet with either a mobile app (n = 42) or wearable Bite Counter device (n = 39). Read More

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November 2020

Hemodynamic and transcriptomic studies suggest early left ventricular dysfunction in a preclinical model of severe mitral regurgitation.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 03 8;161(3):961-976.e22. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Structural Heart Research and Innovation Laboratory, Carlyle Fraser Heart Center at Emory University Hospital Midtown, Atlanta, Ga; Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Ga. Electronic address:

Objective: Primary mitral regurgitation is a valvular lesion in which the left ventricular ejection fraction remains preserved for long periods, delaying a clinical trigger for mitral valve intervention. In this study, we sought to investigate whether adverse left ventricular remodeling occurs before a significant fall in ejection fraction and characterize these changes.

Methods: Sixty-five rats were induced with severe mitral regurgitation by puncturing the mitral valve leaflet with a 23-G needle using ultrasound guidance. Read More

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Readmissions Within 48 Hours of Discharge: Reasons, Risk Factors, and Potential Improvements.

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 08;63(8):1142-1150

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Hospital readmission rate is an important quality metric and has been recognized as a key measure of hospital value-based purchasing programs.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factors for hospital readmission with a focus on potentially preventable early readmissions within 48 hours of discharge.

Design: This is a retrospective cohort study. Read More

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A Clinical Trial to Increase Self-Monitoring of Physical Activity and Eating Behaviors Among Adolescents: Protocol for the ImPACT Feasibility Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2020 Jun 5;9(6):e18098. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Biostatistics & Data Science, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, United States.

Background: Severe obesity among youths (BMI for age≥120th percentile) has been steadily increasing. The home environment and parental behavioral modeling are two of the strongest predictors of child weight loss during weight loss interventions, which highlights that a family-based treatment approach is warranted. This strategy has been successful in our existing evidence-based pediatric weight management program, Brenner Families in Training (Brenner FIT). Read More

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Optimal Operative Strategy for Hinchey III Sigmoid Diverticulitis: A Decision Analysis.

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 08;63(8):1108-1117

Institute of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Operative approaches for Hinchey III diverticulitis include the Hartmann procedure, primary resection and anastomosis, and laparoscopic lavage. Several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have compared these approaches; however, results are conflicting and previous studies have not captured the complexity of balancing surgical risks and quality of life.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the optimal operative strategy for patients with Hinchey III sigmoid diverticulitis. Read More

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The Nutritious Eating with Soul (NEW Soul) Study: Study design and methods of a two-year randomized trial comparing culturally adapted soul food vegan vs. omnivorous diets among African American adults at risk for heart disease.

Contemp Clin Trials 2020 01 16;88:105897. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Prevention Research Center, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, 921 Assembly Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

Background: Previous research has found that African American (AA) vegetarians/vegans have a significantly lower body mass index and risk of hypertension compared to omnivores.

Objectives: The Nutritious Eating with Soul (NEW Soul) study partnered with local soul food restaurants/chefs to deliver two behavioral nutrition interventions to AA adults. NEW Soul examines the impact of two different culturally tailored diets (vegan and omnivorous low-fat) on changes in risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Read More

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January 2020

Factors Predicting Operative Difficulty of Laparoscopic Total Mesorectal Excision.

Dis Colon Rectum 2019 12;62(12):1467-1476

Department of General Surgery, Yeovil District Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Higher Kingston, Yeovil, United Kingdom.

Background: Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision is a challenging procedure requiring high-quality surgery for optimal outcomes. Patient, tumor, and pelvic factors are believed to determine difficulty, but previous studies were limited to postoperative data.

Objective: This study aimed to report factors predicting laparoscopic total mesorectal excision performance by using objective intraoperative assessment. Read More

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December 2019

The Wire and Beyond: Recent Advances in Breast Imaging Preoperative Needle Localization.

Radiographics 2019 Nov-Dec;39(7):1886-1906. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

From the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1350, Houston, TX 77030.

Many patients with breast cancer are candidates for breast conservation therapy. This group includes individuals with small nonpalpable tumors detected at screening mammography and those with sufficient tumor shrinkage after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Breast conservation surgery often requires the use of an imaging-guided preoperative localization procedure, during which a device is placed within or adjacent to the target lesion to guide the surgeon intraoperatively. Read More

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Advantages of developing clinical practice guidelines using international standards.

Psychotherapy (Chic) 2019 09;56(3):340-346

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia.

The American Psychological Association (APA) recently adopted three clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), including one on the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder that engendered considerable controversy because it recommended several trauma-focused therapies that have been extensively tested but not that widely practiced and not other forms of treatment that are widely practiced but not extensively tested. Concerns have been raised that the guideline hewed too closely to procedures established by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and relied too exclusively on efficacy data from randomized controlled trials. Both the IOM model and the APA's evidence-based practice model recommend basing treatment decisions on the best available scientific evidence as channeled through clinical expertise in a manner consistent with patient values and preferences. Read More

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September 2019

Dietary Self-Monitoring Through Calorie Tracking but Not Through a Digital Photography App Is Associated with Significant Weight Loss: The 2SMART Pilot Study-A 6-Month Randomized Trial.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2019 09 30;119(9):1525-1532. Epub 2019 May 30.

Background: Dietary self-monitoring (DSM) of foods and beverages is associated with weight loss in behavioral interventions; however, DSM may be burdensome, and adherence may decrease over time. Novel methods of DSM, including apps that track food using photographs, may decrease burden, increase DSM adherence, and improve weight loss.

Objective: The objective was to test a mobile photo DSM app compared to a calorie-tracking DSM app on tracking frequency and weight loss in a remotely delivered behavioral weight-loss intervention. Read More

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September 2019

Defining Adherence to Mobile Dietary Self-Monitoring and Assessing Tracking Over Time: Tracking at Least Two Eating Occasions per Day Is Best Marker of Adherence within Two Different Mobile Health Randomized Weight Loss Interventions.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2019 09 30;119(9):1516-1524. Epub 2019 May 30.

Background: Mobile dietary self-monitoring methods allow for objective assessment of adherence to self-monitoring; however, the best way to define self-monitoring adherence is not known.

Objective: The objective was to identify the best criteria for defining adherence to dietary self-monitoring with mobile devices when predicting weight loss.

Design: This was a secondary data analysis from two 6-month randomized trials: Dietary Intervention to Enhance Tracking with Mobile Devices (n=42 calorie tracking app or n=39 wearable Bite Counter device) and Self-Monitoring Assessment in Real Time (n=20 kcal tracking app or n=23 photo meal app). Read More

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September 2019

A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet induces transgenerational cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction independently of maternal mitochondrial inheritance.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2019 05 22;316(5):H1202-H1210. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Center for Reproductive Health Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine , Saint Louis, Missouri.

Maternal obesity is correlated with cardiovascular disease in offspring, with a 1.3-fold increase in events observed in offspring of obese women. We have observed that obesity-exposed oocytes demonstrate impaired mitophagy and transmit damaged mitochondria to the offspring. Read More

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A combined mindfulness-prolonged chewing intervention reduces body weight, food craving, and emotional eating.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2019 Jan;87(1):106-111

Department of Psychology and Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Salzburg.

Objective: Conventional weight-loss programs that induce a calorie deficit mostly fail in long-term weight reduction and disadvantageous eating styles often remain unchanged. Mindfulness interventions therefore redirect the focus away from the weight-loss goal and toward the process of eating itself. By eating more mindfully, at a slower pace, and with an enhanced focus on bodily sensations, participants might not only indirectly reduce their daily calorie intake but also eat less craving and stress driven. Read More

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January 2019

Meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychological and medical treatments for binge-eating disorder.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2019 Jan;87(1):91-105

Integrated Research and Treatment Center Adiposity Diseases, Department of Medical Psychology, University of Leipzig.

Objective: To provide a comprehensive meta-analysis on the efficacy of psychological and medical treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED), including those targeting weight loss.

Method: Through a systematic search before March 2018, 81 published and unpublished randomized-controlled trials (RCTs), totaling 7,515 individuals with BED (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition [DSM-IV] and Fifth Edition [DSM-5]), were retrieved and analyzed using random-effect modeling.

Results: In RCTs with inactive control groups, psychotherapy, mostly consisting of cognitive-behavioral therapy, showed large-size effects for the reduction of binge-eating episodes and abstinence from binge eating, followed by structured self-help treatment with medium-to-large effects when compared with wait-list. Read More

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January 2019

Enacting rituals to improve self-control.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Jun;114(6):851-876

Negotiation, Organizations & Markets Unit, Harvard Business School, Harvard University.

Rituals are predefined sequences of actions characterized by rigidity and repetition. We propose that enacting ritualized actions can enhance subjective feelings of self-discipline, such that rituals can be harnessed to improve behavioral self-control. We test this hypothesis in 6 experiments. Read More

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Height alone, rather than body surface area, suffices for risk estimation in ascending aortic aneurysm.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018 05 6;155(5):1938-1950. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Aortic Institute at Yale-New Haven Hospital, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn. Electronic address:

Background: In international guidelines, risk estimation for thoracic ascending aortic aneurysm (TAAA) is based on aortic diameter. We previously introduced the aortic size index (ASI), defined as aortic size/body surface area (BSA), as a predictor of aortic dissection, rupture, and death. However, weight might not contribute substantially to aortic size and growth. Read More

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A randomized controlled trial to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss in overweight and obese women: Health In Pregnancy and Postpartum (HIPP).

Contemp Clin Trials 2018 03 31;66:51-63. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Prevention Research Center, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States; Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

Background: Interventions to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss have yielded modest results, particularly in overweight and obese women.

Objectives: To examine the impact of a theory-based lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain, postpartum weight loss, and related maternal and child outcomes and to examine race differences in these outcomes.

Design: A randomized controlled trial (target N=400; 200 intervention, 200 standard care; 200 African American, 200 white). Read More

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IFCC Working Group Recommendations for Assessing Commutability Part 2: Using the Difference in Bias between a Reference Material and Clinical Samples.

Clin Chem 2018 03 18;64(3):455-464. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Department of Pathology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.

A process is described to assess the commutability of a reference material (RM) intended for use as a calibrator, trueness control, or external quality assessment sample based on the difference in bias between an RM and clinical samples (CSs) measured using 2 different measurement procedures (MPs). This difference in bias is compared with a criterion based on a medically relevant difference between an RM and CS results to make a conclusion regarding commutability. When more than 2 MPs are included, the commutability is assessed pairwise for all combinations of 2 MPs. Read More

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IFCC Working Group Recommendations for Assessing Commutability Part 3: Using the Calibration Effectiveness of a Reference Material.

Clin Chem 2018 03 18;64(3):465-474. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Department of Pathology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.

A process is described to assess the commutability of a reference material (RM) intended for use as a calibrator based on its ability to fulfill its intended use in a calibration traceability scheme to produce equivalent clinical sample (CS) results among different measurement procedures (MPs) for the same measurand. Three sources of systematic error are elucidated in the context of creating the calibration model for translating MP signals to measurand amounts: calibration fit, calibrator level trueness, and commutability. An example set of 40 CS results from 7 MPs is used to illustrate estimation of bias and variability for each MP. Read More

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IFCC Working Group Recommendations for Assessing Commutability Part 1: General Experimental Design.

Clin Chem 2018 03 18;64(3):447-454. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Commutability is a property of a reference material (RM) that relates to the closeness of agreement between results for an RM and results for clinical samples (CSs) when measured by ≥2 measurement procedures (MPs). Commutability of RMs used in a calibration traceability scheme is an essential property for them to be fit for purpose. Similarly, commutability of trueness controls or external quality assessment samples is essential when those materials are used to assess trueness of results for CSs. Read More

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The Biological Variation Data Critical Appraisal Checklist: A Standard for Evaluating Studies on Biological Variation.

Clin Chem 2018 03 8;64(3):501-514. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Norwegian Porphyria Centre, Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Concern has been raised about the quality of available biological variation (BV) estimates and the effect of their application in clinical practice. A European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Task and Finish Group has addressed this issue. The aim of this report is to () describe the Biological Variation Data Critical Appraisal Checklist (BIVAC), which verifies whether publications have included all essential elements that may impact the veracity of associated BV estimates, () use the BIVAC to critically appraise existing BV publications on enzymes, lipids, kidney, and diabetes-related measurands, and () apply metaanalysis to deliver a global within-subject BV (CV) estimate for alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Read More

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Byte by Bite: Use of a mobile Bite Counter and weekly behavioral challenges to promote weight loss.

Smart Health (Amst) 2017 Sep 26;3-4:20-26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Professor, Psychology, Clemson University, Clemson, SC USA.

The goal of this study was to examine the usability and feasibility of the mobile Bite Counter (a watch-like device that detects when a user consumes food or beverage) and the impact of weekly behavioral challenges on diet and physical activity outcomes. Overweight (mean BMI 31.1±4. Read More

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September 2017

[Triple arthrodesis for correction of cavovarus deformity].

Oper Orthop Traumatol 2017 Dec 20;29(6):461-472. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Klinik für Orthopädie und Traumatologie des Bewegungsapparates, Kantonsspital Baselland, Liestal, Schweiz.

Objective: The aim is to correct the underlying cavovarus deformity and to achieve a pain-free and stable hindfoot.

Indications: Rigid neurologic, posttraumatic, congenital, and idiopathic cavovarus deformities.

Contraindications: General surgical or anesthesiological risks, infections, critical soft tissue conditions, neurovascular impairment of the lower extremity, noncompliance, patients with severely reduced bone quality, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, smoking. Read More

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December 2017

The potential role of sleep in obesity prevention and management: a virtual workshop (webinar).

Authors:
Amanda M Nguyen

Sleep Health 2017 10 4;3(5):379-380. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Research Associate at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in Washington, D.C.. Electronic address:

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October 2017

The HAT TRICK programme for improving physical activity, healthy eating and connectedness among overweight, inactive men: study protocol of a pragmatic feasibility trial.

BMJ Open 2017 Sep 6;7(9):e016940. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Department of Urology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Introduction: Physical activity, healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer and with improved mental health. Despite these benefits, many men do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and have poor eating behaviours. Many health promotion programmes hold little appeal to men and consequently fail to influence men's health practices. Read More

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September 2017

The Dietary Intervention to Enhance Tracking with Mobile Devices (DIET Mobile) Study: A 6-Month Randomized Weight Loss Trial.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 08 10;25(8):1336-1342. Epub 2017 Jun 10.

Holcombe Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA.

Objective: To examine the use of two different mobile dietary self-monitoring methods for weight loss.

Methods: Adults with overweight (n = 81; mean BMI 34.7 ± 5. Read More

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EET intervention on Wnt1, NOV, and HO-1 signaling prevents obesity-induced cardiomyopathy in obese mice.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2017 Aug 2;313(2):H368-H380. Epub 2017 Jun 2.

Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York;

We have previously reported that epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) has multiple beneficial effects on vascular function; in addition to its antiapoptotic action, it increases insulin sensitivity and inhibits inflammation. To uncover the signaling mechanisms by which EET reduces cardiomyopathy, we hypothesized that EET infusion might ameliorate obesity-induced cardiomyopathy by improving heme oxygenase (HO)-1, Wnt1, thermogenic gene levels, and mitochondrial integrity in cardiac tissues and improved pericardial fat phenotype. EET reduced levels of fasting blood glucose and proinflammatory adipokines, including nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) signaling, while increasing echocardiographic fractional shortening and O consumption. Read More

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