194 results match your criteria pneumococcus exists

Effects of nasopharyngeal microbiota in respiratory infections and allergies.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

The human microbiome, which consists of a collective cluster of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms living in the human body, plays a key role in host health and immunity. The human nasal cavity harbors commensal bacteria that suppress the colonization of opportunistic pathogens. However, dysbiosis of the nasal microbial community is associated with many diseases, such as acute respiratory infections including otitis media, sinusitis and bronchitis and allergic respiratory diseases including asthma. Read More

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Structural Insights into a Bifunctional Peptide Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase MsrA/B Fusion Protein from .

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) is a family of enzymes that reduces oxidized methionine and plays an important role in the survival of bacteria under oxidative stress conditions. MsrA and MsrB exist in a fusion protein form (MsrAB) in some pathogenic bacteria, such as (), , and . To understand the fused form instead of the separated enzyme at the molecular level, we determined the crystal structure of MsrAB at 2. Read More

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Dryocrassin ABBA ameliorates Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced infection in vitro through inhibiting Streptococcus pneumoniae growth and neutralizing pneumolysin activity.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jan 9;150:104683. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA. Electronic address:

To explore the role of dryocrassin ABBA (ABBA) in the prevention and treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) infections in vitro, a minimal inhibitory concentration test, growth curve assay, hemolysis assay, BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining experiments, oligomerization inhibition assay, time-killing test, LDH release detection assay and cytotoxicity test were performed to evaluate the efficacy of ABBA against S. pneumoniae infections in vitro. Read More

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January 2021

Estradiol resolves pneumonia via ERβ in regulatory T cells.

JCI Insight 2021 02 8;6(3). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Current treatments for pneumonia (PNA) are focused on the pathogens. Mortality from PNA-induced acute lung injury (PNA-ALI) remains high, underscoring the need for additional therapeutic targets. Clinical and experimental evidence exists for potential sex differences in PNA survival, with males having higher mortality. Read More

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February 2021

Enabling Lyophilized Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Through Formulation Design and Excipient Selection Suitable for A Multivalent Adjuvanted Vaccine.

J Pharm Sci 2021 01 23;110(1):97-107. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Vaccine Drug Product Development, MRL, Merck & Co., Inc., West Point, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Despite a consistent benefit of existing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia across different epidemiological settings a tremendous gap exists towards global PCV coverage. Currently, no lyophilized dosage form exists in the PCV global vaccine marketplace and currently licensed vaccines target some, but not all relevant serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The development of lyophilized presentations of an adjuvanted multivalent vaccine formulation that aligns with the evolving epidemiological assessment of the pneumococcal disease offers broader coverage with distinct cold chain and thermostability advantages. Read More

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January 2021

Vocal Fold Immobility Following Vaccination.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2021 Jun 16;130(6):609-613. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.

Objective: Vocal fold immobility (VFI) may severely affect quality of life due to dysphonia and respiratory distress. Many etiologies of this disorder have been evaluated, however the relationship between VFI and vaccination has yet to be explored. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between VFI and vaccine administration. Read More

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The threshold of a deterministic and a stochastic SIQS epidemic model with varying total population size.

Appl Math Model 2021 Mar 8;91:749-767. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Applied Mathematics, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, People's Republic of China.

In this paper, a stochastic and a deterministic SIS epidemic model with isolation and varying total population size are proposed. For the deterministic model, we establish the threshold . When is less than 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable, which means the disease will die out. Read More

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ClpL is a functionally active tetradecameric AAA+ chaperone, distinct from hexameric/dodecameric ones.

FASEB J 2020 11 10;34(11):14353-14370. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea.

AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) chaperones are involved in a plethora of cellular activities to ensure protein homeostasis. The function of AAA+ chaperones is mostly modulated by their hexameric/dodecameric quaternary structures. Here we report the structural and biochemical characterizations of a tetradecameric AAA+ chaperone, ClpL from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Read More

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November 2020

Comparative Analysis of Type I Restriction-Modification Loci: Variation in Gene Target Recognition Domains.

Pathogens 2020 Aug 29;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, 35294 AL, USA.

(pneumococcus) is a respiratory commensal pathogen that causes a range of infections, particularly in young children and the elderly. Pneumococci undergo spontaneous phase variation in colony opacity phenotype, in which DNA rearrangements within the Type I restriction-modification (R-M) system specificity gene can potentially generate up to six different alleles with differential DNA methylation activity, resulting in changes in gene expression. To gain a broader perspective of this system, we performed bioinformatic analyses of Type I R-M loci from 18 published pneumococcal genomes, and one R-M locus sequenced for this study, to compare genetic content, organization, and homology. Read More

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Structural insights into the formation of oligomeric state by a type I Hsp40 chaperone.

Biochimie 2020 Sep 2;176:45-51. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China; Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Division of Molecular and Cellular Biophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China. Electronic address:

Molecular chaperones can prevent and repair protein misfolding and aggregation to maintain protein homeostasis in cells. Hsp40 chaperones interact with unfolded client proteins via the dynamic multivalent interaction (DMI) mechanism with their multiple client-binding sites. Here we report that a type I Hsp40 chaperone from Streptococcus pneumonia (spHsp40) forms a concentration-independent polydispersity oligomer state in solution. Read More

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September 2020

Humoral response to a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in kidney transplant recipients.

Vaccine 2020 04 13;38(17):3339-3350. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: Vaccination against S. pneumoniae is recommended by national guidelines. Moderate immunogenicity of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been reported in adult kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Read More

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Virus Pre-Infection Exacerbates -Mediated Lung Damage Through Increased MMP-9 Expression, Decreased Elafin Production and Tissue Resilience.

Front Immunol 2020 13;11:117. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Inserm, UMR1152, Laboratoire d'Excellence Inflamex, Département Hospitalo-Universtaire FIRE (Fibrosis, Inflammation and Remodeling), Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Individuals with impaired immune responses, such as ventilated and cystic fibrosis patients are often infected with () bacteria, and a co-infection with the virus (IAV) is often present. It has been known for many years that infection with IAV predisposes the host to secondary bacterial infections (such as or ), and there is an abundance of mechanistic studies, including those studying the role of desensitization of TLR signaling, type I IFN- mediated impairment of neutrophil chemokines and antimicrobial production, attenuation of IL1β production etc., showing this. Read More

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A SYBR Green based multiplex Real-Time PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of ocular bacterial pathogens.

J Microbiol Methods 2020 04 19;171:105875. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Biotechnology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Purpose: Ocular bacterial pathogenesis is a serious sight threatening infection due to several bacterial species like Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which are predominant. It is necessary to expedite diagnosis of pathogens for early treatment. Hence, a SYBR Green based multiplex Real-Time PCR assay coupled with melting curve analysis has been developed for rapid detection and differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a single reaction. Read More

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The Best of All Worlds: Conjunctivitis through the Lens of Community Ecology and Microbial Biogeography.

Microorganisms 2019 Dec 25;8(1). Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

The study of the forces which govern the geographical distributions of life is known as biogeography, a subject which has fascinated zoologists, botanists and ecologists for centuries. Advances in our understanding of community ecology and biogeography-supported by rapid improvements in next generation sequencing technology-have now made it possible to identify and explain where and why life exists as it does, including within the microbial world. In this review, we highlight how a unified model of microbial biogeography, one which incorporates the classic ecological principles of selection, diversification, dispersion and ecological drift, can be used to explain community dynamics in the settings of both health and disease. Read More

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December 2019

The Modified Surface Killing Assay Distinguishes between Protective and Nonprotective Antibodies to PspA.

mSphere 2019 12 11;4(6). Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) elicits antibody protective against lethal challenge by and is a candidate noncapsular antigen for inclusion in vaccines. Evaluation of immunity to PspA in human trials would be greatly facilitated by an functional assay able to distinguish protective from nonprotective antibodies to PspA. Mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to PspA can mediate killing by human granulocytes in the modified surface killing assay (MSKA). Read More

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December 2019

Multilaboratory Comparison of Pneumococcal Multiplex Immunoassays Used in Immunosurveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae across Europe.

mSphere 2019 11 27;4(6). Epub 2019 Nov 27.

National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

Surveillance studies are required to estimate the impact of pneumococcal vaccination in both children and the elderly across Europe. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends use of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) as standard methods for immune surveillance of pneumococcal antibodies. However, as levels of antibodies to multiple serotypes are monitored in thousands of samples, a need for a less laborious and more flexible method has evolved. Read More

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November 2019

Commentary: Why Has Uptake of Pneumococcal Vaccines for Children Been So Slow? The Perils of Undervaluation.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 02;39(2):145-156

JD Candidate, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Pediatric pneumococcal disease exacts a substantial burden on global health, much of which is vaccine-preventable. Despite this considerable burden and the demonstrably high efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), the overall level of PCV uptake remains concerningly low, especially compared with that of other childhood-recommended vaccines, such as tuberculosis and polio. A broad set of plausible explanations exists for this low uptake, including logistical challenges, psychosocial factors and affordability. Read More

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February 2020

Meningitis vaccines in children: what have we achieved and where next?

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 10;32(5):510-516

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia.

Purpose Of Review: This review highlights the recent impacts of vaccines against the major bacterial causes of meningitis in children, and the challenges for further prevention of bacterial meningitis, with a focus on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and group B Streptococcus.

Recent Findings: Conjugate vaccines against S. pneumoniae and N. Read More

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October 2019

Oral Antibiotics for Treating Children With Community-Acquired Pneumonia Complicated by Empyema.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2019 11 23;58(13):1401-1408. Epub 2019 May 23.

CHOC Children's Hospital, Orange, CA, USA.

No consensus exists on management of children with community-acquired pneumonia complicated by empyema (CAP-Em). We evaluated outpatient oral (O-Abx) compared with parenteral antibiotics (OPAT) in children with CAP-Em. We also evaluated inflammatory markers to guide length of treatment. Read More

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November 2019

A Retrospective Forensic Review of Unexpected Infectious Deaths.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Apr 15;6(4):ofz081. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Epidemiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Canada.

Background: There exists a knowledge gap in identifying the spectrum of infectious pathogens and syndromes that lead to fulminant decline and death. The aim of this study was to better characterize patient-, pathogen-, and disease-related factors in the phenomenon of unexpected infectious deaths.

Methods: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all community-based, unexpected infectious deaths in Ontario, Canada between January 2016 and December 2017. Read More

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, and Strains With Highly Similar Loci and Antigenic Relatedness to Serotype 5 Pneumococci.

Front Microbiol 2018 8;9:3199. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.

is a highly impactful bacterial pathogen on a global scale. The principal pneumococcal virulence factor and target of effective vaccines is its polysaccharide capsule, of which there are many structurally distinct forms. Here, we describe four distinct strains of three Mitis group commensal species (, , and ) recovered from upper respiratory tract specimens from adults in Kenya and the United States that were PCR-positive for the pneumococcal serotype 5 specific gene, . Read More

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January 2019

Age-related differences in IL-1 signaling and capsule serotype affect persistence of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization.

PLoS Pathog 2018 10 31;14(10):e1007396. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.

Young age is a risk factor for prolonged colonization by common pathogens residing in their upper respiratory tract (URT). Why children present with more persistent colonization is unknown and there is relatively little insight into the host-pathogen interactions that contribute to persistent colonization. To identify factors permissive for persistent colonization during infancy, we utilized an infant mouse model of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in which clearance from the mucosal surface of the URT requires many weeks to months. Read More

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October 2018

Outpacing the pneumococcus: Antibody dynamics in the first few days following pneumococcal capsular antigen stimulation.

Sci Rep 2018 10 18;8(1):15376. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Kenya Medical Research Institute - Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.

Children in developing countries are frequently exposed to the pneumococcus, but few develop invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We test the hypothesis that natural variation exists in the rapidity of IgG responses following exposure to pneumococcal polysaccharides, and that these differences are sufficiently great to affect susceptibility to and outcome of IPD. We recruited children aged 24-36 months, who had recovered from IPD, and age-matched healthy controls and vaccinated them with 1 dose of the 23-valent PPV to mimic natural exposure. Read More

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October 2018

Aluminum in vaccines: Does it create a safety problem?

Vaccine 2018 09 20;36(39):5825-5831. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

For almost a century, aluminum (Al) in the form of Al oxyhydroxide (a crystalline compound), Al hydroxyphosphate (an amorphous Al phosphate hydroxide), Al phosphate, and Al potassium sulfate has been used to improve the immunogenicity of vaccines. Al is currently included in vaccines against tetanus, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Official health authorities consider the inclusion of Al in most of the presently recommended vaccines to be extremely effective and sufficiently safe. Read More

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September 2018

Pneumococcal vaccine impacts on the population genomics of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

Microb Genom 2018 09 6;4(9). Epub 2018 Aug 6.

2​NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton Foundation NHS Trust, Southampton, UK.

The implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has led to a decline in vaccine-type disease. However, there is evidence that the epidemiology of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) carriage and disease can be altered as a consequence of PCV introduction. We explored the epidemiological shifts in NTHi carriage using whole genome sequencing over a 5-year period that included PCV13 replacement of PCV7 in the UK's National Immunization Programme in 2010. Read More

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September 2018

In vitro detection of common rhinosinusitis bacteria by the eNose utilising differential mobility spectrometry.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Sep 24;275(9):2273-2279. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, PL 2000, 33521, Tampere, Finland.

Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is a sudden, symptomatic inflammation of the nasal and paranasal mucosa. It is usually caused by respiratory virus infection, but bacteria complicate for a small number of ARS patients. The differential diagnostics between viral and bacterial pathogens is difficult and currently no rapid methodology exists, so antibiotics are overprescribed. Read More

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September 2018

Sinus bacteriology in patients with cystic fibrosis or primary ciliary dyskinesia: A systematic review.

Am J Rhinol Allergy 2017 Sep;31(5):293-298

Department of Otorhinolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery and Audiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: A correlation exists between the microbial flora of the upper and lower airways in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) or with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The sinuses can function as a bacterial reservoir where gram-negative bacteria adapt to the airways and repeatedly are aspirated to and colonize the lungs according to the theory of the united (unified) airways. Whereas the pattern of bacterial flora in the lower airways has been extensively studied, the upper airways have drawn limited attention. Read More

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September 2017

Advances in Vaccines to Prevent Viral Respiratory Illnesses in Children.

Paediatr Drugs 2017 Dec;19(6):523-531

Department of Infectious Diseases, Princess Margaret Hospital, Roberts Rd, Subiaco, WA, Australia.

Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease. Read More

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December 2017

Liver Abscess Caused by : Case Report and Literature Review.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2017 25;4:48. Epub 2017 Apr 25.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Background: Bacterial hepatic abscess is a common occurrence in developing countries, which is mostly caused by and . is a Gram-negative alkali-tolerant bacillus that exists in the natural environment. Human infection by this bacterium is rare, with only four cases reported. Read More

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Implications of Antibiotic Resistance for Patients' Recovery From Common Infections in the Community: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Aug;65(3):371-382

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford.

Background: Antibiotic use is the main driver for carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The perception exists that failure of antibiotic treatment due to antibiotic resistance has little clinical impact in the community.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science from inception to 15 April 2016 without language restriction. Read More

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