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Distinctive features of the Gac-Rsm pathway in plant-associated Pseudomonas.

Environ Microbiol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Soil Microbiology and Symbiotic Systems, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (EEZ-CSIC), Granada, Spain.

Productive plant-bacteria interactions, either beneficial or pathogenic, require that bacteria successfully sense, integrate and respond to continuously changing environmental and plant stimuli. They use complex signal transduction systems that control a vast array of genes and functions. The Gac-Rsm global regulatory pathway plays a key role in controlling fundamental aspects of the apparently different lifestyles of plant beneficial and phytopathogenic Pseudomonas as it coordinates adaptation and survival while either promoting plant health (biocontrol strains) or causing disease (pathogenic strains). Read More

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The Redox-Active Tyrosine Is Essential for Proton Pumping in Cytochrome c Oxidase.

Front Chem 2021 14;9:640155. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Arrhenius Laboratory, Department of Organic Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Cellular respiration involves electron transport via a number of enzyme complexes to the terminal Cytochrome oxidase (CO), in which molecular oxygen is reduced to water. The free energy released in the reduction process is used to establish a transmembrane electrochemical gradient, via two processes, both corresponding to charge transport across the membrane in which the enzymes are embedded. First, the reduction chemistry occurring in the active site of CO is electrogenic, which means that the electrons and protons are delivered from opposite sides of the membrane. Read More

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Transcriptome profile analysis reveals KLHL30 as an essential regulator for myoblast differentiation.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 29;559:84-91. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong Province, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, and Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affair, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

Skeletal muscle development is a sophisticated multistep process orchestrated by diverse myogenic transcription factors. Recent studies have suggested that Kelch-like genes play vital roles in muscle disease and myogenesis. However, it is still unclear how Kelch-like genes impact myoblast physiology. Read More

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Cell-cell and cell-substratum contacts in the regulation of MAPK and Akt signalling: Importance in therapy, biopharmacy and bioproduction.

Cell Signal 2021 Apr 29:110034. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Dept. of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry, Life Sciences Centre, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio al. 7, LT-10257, Lithuania. Electronic address:

The use of cultured cells as a tool for research, precision medicine, biopharmacy, and biomanufacturing is constantly increasing. In parallel, the role of cell-cell and cell-substratum contacts in cell functioning is increasingly validated. Adhesion signalling plays a key role here. Read More

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The rice RNase P protein subunit Rpp30 confers broad-spectrum resistance to fungal and bacterial pathogens.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, China.

RNase P functions either as a catalytic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) or as an RNA-free polypeptide to catalyze RNA processing, primarily tRNA 5' maturation. To the growing evidence of non-canonical roles for RNase P RNP subunits including regulation of chromatin structure and function, we add here a role for the rice RNase P Rpp30 in innate immunity. This protein (encoded by LOC_Os11g01074) was uncovered as the top hit in yeast two-hybrid assays performed with the rice histone deacetylase HDT701 as bait. Read More

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LPS-induced SOCS3 antagonizes the JAK2-STAT5 pathway and inhibits β-casein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 27;278:119547. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, No. 2 Xinyang Road, Sartu District, Daqing 163319, PR China.; Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Bovine Diseases, No. 2 Xinyang Road, Sartu District, Daqing 163319, PR China.. Electronic address:

Bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) are essential for lactation in the dairy cow mammary gland, and are often used as a cellular model to study changes in inflammatory responses and lactation functions with exogenous stimuli. Prolactin (PRL) promotes milk protein synthesis by continuously activating the Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (JAK2-STAT5) pathway. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) activates inflammatory responses in cells and inhibits casein synthesis, but the exact mechanism is still unclear. Read More

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Cortical tracking of a background speaker modulates the comprehension of a foreground speech signal.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Bioengineering and Centre for Neurotechnology, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, SW7 2AZ, London, U.K.

Understanding speech in background noise is a difficult task. The tracking of speech rhythms such as the rate of syllables and words by cortical activity has emerged as a key neural mechanism for speech-in-noise comprehension. In particular, recent investigations have used transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) with the envelope of a speech signal to influence the cortical speech tracking, demonstrating that this type of stimulation modulates comprehension and therefore evidencing a functional role of the cortical tracking in speech processing. Read More

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Bone Marrow Adipocytes-Role in Physiology and Various Nutritional Conditions in Human and Animal Models.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 22;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Physiology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, al. Powstancow Wlkp.72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland.

In recent years, adipose tissue has attracted a lot of attention. It is not only an energy reservoir but also plays important immune, paracrine and endocrine roles. BMAT (bone marrow adipose tissue) is a heterogeneous tissue, found mostly in the medullary canal of the long bones (tibia, femur and humerus), in the vertebrae and iliac crest. Read More

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Identification of Root Extract as a Liver Cancer Cell-Normal Keratinocyte Dual-Selective NRF2 Regulator.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Ph.D. Program in Environmental and Occupational Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.

Transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a crucial role in regulating the expression of genes participating in cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative or xenobiotic insults. However, there is increasing evidence showing that hyperactivation of NRF2 is associated with chemoresistance in several cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), thus making NRF2 an attractive target for cancer therapy. Another important issue in cancer medication is the adverse effects of these substances on normal cells. Read More

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The MdMYB16/MdMYB1-miR7125-MdCCR module regulates the homeostasis between anthocyanin and lignin biosynthesis during light induction in apple.

New Phytol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, 102206, China.

Light induces anthocyanin accumulation and hence decides the coloration of apple fruit. It also plays a key role in regulating the biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites. However, the crosstalk between anthocyanin and lignin metabolism during light induction, which affects the edible quality and visual quality of apple fruit, respectively, have rarely been characterized. Read More

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The Role of miR-34c-5p in Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Int J Stem Cells 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Pharmacy, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui People's Hospital, Lishui, China.

Background And Objectives: Osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) plays a critical role in the success of lumbar spinal fusion with autogenous bone graft. This study aims to explore the role and specific mechanism of miR-34c-5p in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs.

Methods And Results: Rabbit model of lumbar fusion was established by surgery. Read More

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Neuronal activation of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in female and male rats during copulation and its sex differences.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Apr 24;755:135915. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama, 338-8570, Japan. Electronic address:

The medial preoptic area, which plays an essential role in the control of sexual behavior in rats, contains a sexually dimorphic nucleus that consists of neurons expressing calbindin-D28 K (Calb) that is referred to as the CALB-SDN. The CALB-SDN is larger and contains more Calb neurons in males than in females. The physiological functions of the CALB-SDN are not fully understood; however, CALB-SDN neurons are activated during sexual behavior in males, suggesting that the male CALB-SDN is involved in regulation of sexual behavior. Read More

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Roles of Bak and Sirt3 in Paraquat-Induced Cochlear Hair Cell Damage.

Neurotox Res 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Center for Hearing and Deafness, State University of New York at Buffalo, 137 Cary Hall, Buffalo, NY, 14214, USA.

Paraquat, a superoxide generator, can damage the cochlea causing an ototoxic hearing loss. The purpose of the study was to determine if deletion of Bak, a pro-apoptotic gene, would reduce paraquat ototoxicity or if deletion of Sirt3, which delays age-related hearing loss under caloric restriction, would increase paraquat ototoxicity. We tested these two hypotheses by treating postnatal day 3 cochlear cultures from Bak, Bak, Sirt3, Sirt3, and WT mice with paraquat and compared the results to a standard rat model of paraquat ototoxicity. Read More

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Cross Inhibition of MPK10 and WRKY10 Participating in the Growth of Endosperm in .

Front Plant Sci 2021 9;12:640346. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, China.

The product of double fertilization produces seed, which contains three components: triploid endosperm, diploid embryo, and maternal seed coat. Amongst them, the endosperm plays a crucial role in coordinating seed growth. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are conserved in eukaryotes and involved in signal transduction of plant development. Read More

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EZH2 Promotes Extracellular Matrix Degradation via Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) and p38 Signaling Pathways in Pulpitis.

Inflammation 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Central Laboratory, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Center of Stomatology &National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, No.22, Zhongguancun South Avenue, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081, PR, China.

Pulpitis is a complicated chronic inflammatory process which can be in a dynamic balance between damage and repair. The extracellular matrix plays an important regulatory role in wound healing and tissue repair. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the epigenetic mark, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) on the degradation of extracellular matrix during pulpitis. Read More

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Expression and functional characterization of INPP4B in gallbladder cancer patients and gallbladder cancer cells.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 20;21(1):433. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of General Surgery, the Armed Police Corps Hospital of Anhui, Hefei, 230041, People's Republic of China.

Background: Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) is a negative regulator of the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway and plays a contradictory role in different types of cancers. However, the its biological role played by INPP4B in human gallbladder cancer (GBC) has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the expression, clinical significance and biological function of INPP4B in GBC patients and cell lines. Read More

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Opposite roles of transcription elongation factors Spt4/5 and Elf1 in RNA polymerase II transcription through B-form versus non-B DNA structures.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Transcription elongation can be affected by numerous types of obstacles, such as nucleosome, pausing sequences, DNA lesions and non-B-form DNA structures. Spt4/5 and Elf1 are conserved transcription elongation factors that promote RNA polymerase II (Pol II) bypass of nucleosome and pausing sequences. Importantly, genetic studies have shown that Spt4/5 plays essential roles in the transcription of expanded nucleotide repeat genes associated with inherited neurological diseases. Read More

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MiR-181b suppresses angiogenesis by directly targeting cellular communication network factor 1.

Lab Invest 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Clinic Center of Human Gene Research, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Angiogenesis is essential for various physiological and pathological processes. Previous studies have shown that miRNAs play an important role in blood vessel development and angiogenesis. Recent studies have suggested that miR-181b might be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in tumors. Read More

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Moderate mechanical stimulation rescues degenerative annulus fibrosus by suppressing caveolin-1 mediated pro-inflammatory signaling pathway.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 3;17(5):1395-1412. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Mechanical loading can induce or antagonize the extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis, proliferation, migration, and inflammatory responses of annulus fibrosus cells (AFCs), depending on the loading mode and level. Caveolin-1 (Cav1), the core protein of caveolae, plays an important role in cellular mechanotransduction and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we presented that AFCs demonstrated different behaviors when subjected to cyclic tensile strain (CTS) for 24 h at a magnitude of 0%, 2%, 5% and 12%, respectively. Read More

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Exposure to constant light impairs cognition with FTO inhibition and mA-dependent TrκB repression in mouse hippocampus.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 30;283:117037. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health & Food Safety, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, PR China; Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, PR China. Electronic address:

N6-methyladenosine (mA) mRNA methylation plays a role in various brain functions. Exposure to chronic constant light (CCL) has been reported to impair cognition, yet whether the underlying mechanism involves mA remains unknown. In this study, mice exposed to CCL for 3 weeks show impaired cognitive behavior, which was associated with increased mA level in hippocampus. Read More

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ESR1 as a recurrence-related gene in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a weighted gene coexpression network analysis.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Apr 17;21(1):225. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Hepatic Surgery (II) of the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Navy Medical University, (Second Military Medical University), #225 Changhai Road, Shanghai, 200438, China.

Background: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is the second most common malignant hepatic tumor and has a high postoperative recurrence rate and a poor prognosis. The key roles of most tumor recurrence-associated molecules in iCCA remain unclear. This study aimed to explore hub genes related to the postsurgical recurrence of iCCA. Read More

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Pyruvate kinase M2 in chronic inflammations: a potpourri of crucial protein-protein interactions.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad, Opposite Air Force Station, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382355, India.

Chronic inflammation (CI) is a primary contributing factor involved in multiple diseases like cancer, stroke, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, coeliac disease, glomerulonephritis, sepsis, hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, reperfusion injury, and transplant rejections. Despite several expansions in our understanding of inflammatory disorders and their mediators, it seems clear that numerous proteins participate in the onset of CI. One crucial protein pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) much studied in cancer is also found to be inextricably woven in the onset of several CI's. Read More

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Absent in melanoma 2 suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration via inactivation of AKT signaling pathway.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8235. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, No.2 Zheshan West Road, Jinghu District, Wuhu, 241000, Anhui Provinc, China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and poses a great threat to public health. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), a member of the pyrin-HIN family proteins, plays various roles across different types of cancers. However, the possible role of AIM2 in GC, as well as the underling mechanisms, are equivocal and need to be further explored. Read More

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Association between cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer sidedness: A multi-center big-data platform-based analysis.

J Transl Med 2021 04 15;19(1):150. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, 651 Dong Feng Road East, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Background: Sidedness (right/left) of colorectal cancer (CRC) is essential for treatment. Whether carcinogenesis of tobacco varies by sidedness remains unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the sidedness tendency of cigarette smoking and to explore its impact on prognosis. Read More

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Descending and Ascending Signals That Maintain Rhythmic Walking Pattern in Crickets.

Front Robot AI 2021 29;8:625094. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

The cricket is one of the model animals used to investigate the neuronal mechanisms underlying adaptive locomotion. An intact cricket walks mostly with a tripod gait, similar to other insects. The motor control center of the leg movements is located in the thoracic ganglia. Read More

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CSE1L, as a novel prognostic marker, promotes pancreatic cancer proliferation by regulating the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

J Cancer 2021 14;12(10):2797-2806. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Department of Oncology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive tumors with poor prognosis and new targetable therapies are urgently required. CSE1L (chromosome segregation 1 like) is thought to play an important role in tumorigenesis and acts as a cancer therapeutic target. However, the biological function and the underlying mechanism of CSE1L in pancreatic cancer are still not fully explicit. Read More

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A QTL for conformation of back and croup influences lateral gait quality in Icelandic horses.

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 14;22(1):267. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: The back plays a vital role in horse locomotion, where the spine functions as a spring during the stride cycle. A complex interaction between the spine and the muscles of the back contribute to locomotion soundness, gait ability, and performance of riding and racehorses. Conformation is commonly used to select horses for breeding and performance in multiple horse breeds, where the back and croup conformation plays a significant role. Read More

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Individual reversible plasticity as a genotype-level bet-hedging strategy.

J Evol Biol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, 7044, Trondheim, Norway.

Reversible plasticity in phenotypic traits allows organisms to cope with environmental variation within lifetimes, but costs of plasticity may limit just how well the phenotype matches the environmental optimum. An additional adaptive advantage of plasticity might be to reduce fitness variance, in other words: bet-hedging to maximize geometric (rather than simply arithmetic) mean fitness. Here we model the evolution of plasticity in the form of reaction norm slopes, with increasing costs as the slope or degree of plasticity increases. Read More

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Opposite Effects of Potassium Ions on the Thermal Stability of i-Motif DNA in Different Buffer Systems.

Authors:
Bo Gao Xi-Miao Hou

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 24;6(13):8976-8985. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

i-motifs are noncanonical DNA structures formed the stack of intercalating hemi-protonated C: C base pairs in C-rich DNA strands and play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we systematically investigated the impacts of K on i-motif DNA folding using different buffer systems. We found that i-motif structures display very different values at the same pH and ion strength in different buffer systems. Read More

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NET1 promotes HCC growth and metastasis and via activating the Akt signaling pathway.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 11;13(7):10672-10687. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Hepatic Surgery VI, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Neuroepithelial cell transforming gene 1 (NET1), a member of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor family, is involved in various cancers, including gastric cancer, breast cancer and glioma. However, the role of NET1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely uncovered. In this study, we found that NET1 expression was upregulated in HCC, and that upregulated NET1 expression was closely associated with poor prognosis and some clinical characteristics in HCC patients. Read More

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