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Clinical Outcomes of Patients Taking First-generation EGFR-TKIs May Predict the Benefits Afforded by Osimertinib in EGFR T790M-mutant NSCLC Patients.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Sep 15:e14877. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Medical Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, China.

Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are widely used to treat patients with EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). The association between the clinical outcomes of patients on first-line EGFR-TKIs and the efficacy of osimertinib as second-line treatment has not been previously assessed. This is our topic here. Read More

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September 2021

Immunotherapy in Gastroesophageal Cancers: Current Evidence and Ongoing Trials.

Curr Treat Options Oncol 2021 Sep 15;22(11):100. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Opinion Statement: Data supporting the use of immunotherapy in the treatment of gastroesophageal cancer continues to evolve. The promising results from adjuvant immunotherapy and trials combining immunotherapy plus chemotherapy in the 1L setting have led to broad US FDA approvals. Among the PD-L1 negative subgroups, the magnitude of benefit is diminished; effective therapy for this population remains an unmet need. Read More

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September 2021

Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α and platelet-rich plasma enhance bone regeneration and angiogenesis simultaneously in situ in rabbit calvaria.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2021 Sep 15;32(9):125. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, PR China.

The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on bone formation and angiogenesis, and to assess whether SDF-1α and PRP could function synergistically. Four evenly distributed defects (8 mm in diameter) were generated in the calvarial bones of New Zealand white rabbits. All rabbits received four treatment regimens containing autogenous bone particles (AB), SDF-1α, or PRP. Read More

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September 2021

Repeated stimulation of the HPA axis alters white blood cell counts without increasing oxidative stress or inflammatory cytokines in fasting elephant seal pups.

J Exp Biol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, USA.

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis controls the release of glucocorticoids, which regulate immune and inflammatory function by modulating cytokines, white blood cells (WBCs), and oxidative stress via glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling. Although the response to HPA activation is well characterized in many species, little is known about the impacts of HPA activation during extreme physiological conditions. Hence, we challenged 18 simultaneously fasting and developing elephant seal pups with daily intramuscular injections of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), a GR antagonist (RU486), or a combination (ACTH+RU486) for four days (4d). Read More

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September 2021

CircRNA MFACR is upregulated in myocardial infarction and downregulates miR-125b to promote cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by hypoxia.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, the Third People's Hospital, Baoji City, Shanxi Province, 721000, PR. China.

Abstract: Circular RNA (circRNA) MFACR promotes cardiomyocyte death that leads to myocardial infarction (MI). This study aimed to explore the role of MFACR in MI.RT-qPCRs were performed to measure the expression levels of MFACR and miR-125b in plasma samples from both MI patients (n = 61) and healthy controls (n = 61). Read More

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September 2021

Consensus statement and recommendations on the treatment of COVID-19: 2021 update.

J Chin Med Assoc 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC College of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Department and Institute of Physiology, College of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Institute of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Many treatments including antiviral and non-antiviral drugs, and critical care are considered for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Practice recommendations need to be updated and graded according to critical evaluation of rapidly emerging literature. In June 2020, Research Center for Epidemic Prevention - National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University formed a task group comprising infectious disease clinicians, pulmonologists, and intensivists with varied areas of expertise. Read More

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September 2021

Elite and viremic HIV-1 controllers in West Africa.

AIDS 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Inserm 1219, University of Bordeaux, IRD, Bordeaux, France PACCI/ANRS Research Center Département de Dermatologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Université Felix Houphouët Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire AP-HP, CHU Necker Enfants Malades, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France CeDReS, CHU de Treichville, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris Descartes, Paris AP-HP Paris Saclay, Hôpital Bicêtre, Clinical Immunology Department Université Paris-Saclay, Inserm, CEA, Center for Immunology of Viral, Auto-immune, Hematological and Bacterial diseases (IDMIT/IMVA-HB), Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.

Background: Data on HIV-1 controllers in Africa are scarce. We report the proportion of HIV-1 controllers in a group of adults prospectively monitored with frequent viral load measurements as part of a clinical trial in West Africa.

Methods: For the Temprano trial, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV-1 infected adults with no criteria for starting ART were randomized to start ART immediately or defer ART until the WHO starting criteria were met. Read More

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September 2021

Variations of plasma levels of insulin, glucagon, amylase and glucose and histopathological lesions of pancreatic tissue after complete elimination of exocrine pancreatic function with surgical ligation versus prolamine occlusion.

Ann Ital Chir 2021 ;92:441-451

Objective: Pancreaticoduodenectomy has been established as the treatment of choice for the management of benign and malignant lesions of the pancreatic head, and pancreaticojejunal or pancreaticogastric anastomosis seems to be the safer choice for the management of the pancreatic duct. However, in certain seldom, but still existing circumstances, pancreatic duct ligation or occlusion with a chemical substance is a valuable and viable alternative. The aim of the current study is to compare these two methods of occlusion of the pancreatic duct regarding the endocrine and exocrine function of the pancreas and its histopathology. Read More

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January 2021

Natural Occurring Polymorphisms in HIV-1 Integrase and RNase H Regulate Viral Release and Autoprocessing.

J Virol 2021 Sep 15:JVI0132321. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Recently, a genome-wide association study using plasma HIV RNA from antiretroviral therapy naïve patients reported that 14 naturally occurring non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HIV derived from anti-retrovirus drugs naïve patients were associated with virus load (VL). Those SNPs were detected in reverse transcriptase, RNase H, integrase, envelope, and Nef. However, the impact of each mutation on viral fitness was not investigated. Read More

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September 2021

[COVID-19 and severe mental illness, especially in clozapine use].

Tijdschr Psychiatr 2021 ;63(7):499-508

Background: The Clozapine Plus Working Group is frequently consulted for advice on measures in case of infection with SARSCoV-2 and on vaccination against COVID-19 in patients receiving clozapine.

AIM: Inform about risks of infection with SARS-CoV-2 in patients with severe mental illness (SMI), patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), and patients treated with clozapine. Advise on monitoring of clozapine plasma levels and white blood cell count and differential in COVID-19 and after vaccination, as well as measures to be taken. Read More

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January 2021

Quantification and Clustering of Inorganic Nanoparticles in Wastewater Treatment Plants across Switzerland.

Chimia (Aarau) 2021 Aug;75(7):642-646

Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, USA.

Single particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (sp-ICP-TOFMS), in combination with online microdroplet calibration, allows the determination of particle number concentrations (PNCs) and the masses of elements in individual particles. Because sp-ICP-TOFMS analyses of environmental samples produce rich datasets composed of both single-metal nanoparticles (smNPs) and many types of multimetal NPs (mmNPs), interpretation of these data is well suited to automated analysis schemes. Here, we present a data analysis approach that includes automatic particle detection and elemental mass determinations based on online microdroplet calibration, and unsupervised clustering analysis of mmNPs to identify unique classes of NPs based on their element compositions. Read More

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Haloperidol and aripiprazole impact on the BDNF and glucocorticoid receptor levels in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex: effect of the chronic mild stress.

Endocr Regul 2021 Sep 13;55(3):153-162. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Biomedical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Changes in the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP) are associated with psychiatric diseases and stress response. Chronic mild stress (CMS) may alter BDNF as well as GR levels in both the PFC and the HIP. The aim of the present study was to find out whether chronic treatment with a typical antipsychotic haloperidol (HAL) and an atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole (ARI) may modify the CMS effect on the BDNF and GR expression in the above-mentioned structures. Read More

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September 2021

Factors associated with fluoxetine and norfluoxetine plasma concentrations and clinical response in Mexican patients with mental disorders.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 Oct;9(5):e00864

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemical Sciences, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, México.

Over the last few years, fluoxetine has been one of the most prescribed medications for the treatment of diverse psychiatric conditions in Mexico. Fluoxetine therapeutic effect is consequence of the joint action of the parent drug and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine. However, the clinical efficacy of fluoxetine, can be affected due to diverse factors, such as drug-drug interactions and the large interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics of this drug. Read More

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October 2021

The association of prothrombin complex concentrates with postoperative outcomes in cardiac surgery: an observational substudy of the FIBRES randomized controlled trial.

Can J Anaesth 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto General Hospital - University Health Network, Sinai Health System, Women's College Hospital,, University of Toronto, 200 Elizabeth Street, 3EN-464, Toronto, ON, M5G 2C4, Canada.

Purpose: The mainstay of therapy for coagulation factor deficiency in cardiac surgical patients is frozen plasma (FP); however, prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) may offer logistical and safety advantages. As there is limited comparative evidence, we conducted this study to explore the association of comparable PCC or FP doses with transfusion and outcomes.

Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of a multicentre randomized trial comparing fibrinogen concentrate with cryoprecipitate (FIBRES trial) in bleeding cardiac surgical patients. Read More

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September 2021

Transformation of hazardous sacred incense sticks ash waste into less toxic product by sequential approach prior to their disposal into the water bodies.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra, 54100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Incense sticks ash is one of the most unexplored by-products generated at religious places and houses obtained after the combustion of incense sticks. Every year, tonnes of incense sticks ash is produced at religious places in India which are disposed of into the rivers and water bodies. The presence of heavy metals and high content of alkali metals challenges a potential threat to the living organism after the disposal in the river. Read More

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September 2021

Review of diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for multiple myeloma and its precursors (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smouldering myeloma).

Skeletal Radiol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital and Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

The last decades, increasing research has been conducted on dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI techniques in multiple myeloma and its precursors. Apart from anatomical sequences which are prone to interpretation errors due to anatomical variants, other pathologies and subjective evaluation of signal intensities, dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI provide additional information on microenvironmental changes in bone marrow and are helpful in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of plasma cell dyscrasias. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides information on diffusion (restriction) of water molecules in bone marrow and in malignant infiltration. Read More

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September 2021

Flavonoids from Pall. fruits prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity and liver injury modulation of the gut microbiota in mice.

Food Funct 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Food and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Pall. (RDP) fruits are popularly consumed as beverages and healthy food in China because of their various beneficial activities. In particular, flavonoids are one of the major active ingredients of RDP fruits with predominant pharmacological effects. Read More

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September 2021

An electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer biosensor for the detection of circulating tumor DNA from blood plasma.

iScience 2021 Sep 21;24(9):103019. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Life Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, PR China.

A liquid biopsy is a noninvasive approach for detecting double-stranded circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) of 90-320 nucleotides in blood plasma from patients with cancer. Most techniques employed for ctDNA detection are time consuming and require expensive DNA purification kits. Electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) biosensors exhibit high sensitivity, a wide response range, and are promising for straightforward sensing applications. Read More

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September 2021

Plasmapheresis as an Early Treatment for Severe Hypertriglyceridemia, Acute Pancreatitis, and Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

AACE Clin Case Rep 2021 Sep-Oct;7(5):315-319. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Objective: Severe hypertriglyceridemia (SHTG; plasma triglycerides >1000 mg/dL) is a rare but serious complication in children who develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) from uncontrolled or new-onset type 1 diabetes.

Methods: We present the case of a severely malnourished 16-year-old with a 10-month history of presumed type 2 diabetes managed with lifestyle modifications and metformin, who presented with SHTG, acute pancreatitis, and DKA. On examination, there was no evidence of lipemia retinalis, cutaneous xanthomas, or xanthelasma. Read More

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Pheochromocytoma Crisis Presenting With ARDS Successfully Treated With ECMO-Assisted Adrenalectomy.

AACE Clin Case Rep 2021 Sep-Oct;7(5):310-314. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Objective: Pheochromocytoma (PCC) crisis caused by acute catecholamine release from an adrenal PCC or extra-adrenal paraganglioma can be difficult to diagnose and may require an unconventional management strategy to achieve good outcomes. We describe a case of PCC crisis presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that resolved with stabilization on veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during adrenalectomy.

Case Description: A 30-year-old man with a history of severe alcohol use disorder and a prior hospital admission for alcohol withdrawal syndrome presented with sudden-onset hemoptysis, altered mental status, and severe dyspnea that rapidly deteriorated to ARDS requiring ECMO support. Read More

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Solitary Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of the Thyroid Gland in a Patient With Subclinical Hyperthyroidism.

AACE Clin Case Rep 2021 Sep-Oct;7(5):303-306. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

General Surgery Department, White Plains Hospital, White Plains, New York.

Objective: Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) of the thyroid is rare, and its clinical and pathologic features are not entirely understood. Generally, patients with SEP of the thyroid also present with Hashimoto thyroiditis. We report, for the first time, a case of SEP of the thyroid in a patient with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Read More

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Influence of food on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 4-phenylbutyrate in patients with urea cycle disorders.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Dec 4;29:100799. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacokinetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

Urea cycle disorders (UCDs), inborn errors of hepatocyte metabolism, cause hyperammonemia and lead to neurocognitive deficits, coma, and even death. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (NaPB), a standard adjunctive therapy for UCDs, generates an alternative pathway of nitrogen deposition through glutamine consumption. Administration during or immediately after a meal is the approved usage of NaPB. Read More

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December 2021

IgG4-Related Disease With Renal and Pulmonary Involvement.

Cureus 2021 Aug 10;13(8):e17071. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Hematology and Oncology, Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine, Las Cruces, USA.

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a rare immune-mediated disease affecting multiple organs and tissues. There is often the presence of elevated serum Ig4 subtype with histological evidence of lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, fibrosis, and phlebitis. The mainstay of treatment is steroids therapy. Read More

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Neuroimmunology and Novel Methods of Treatment for Acute Transverse Myelitis.

Cureus 2021 Aug 9;13(8):e17043. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

College of Arts and Sciences, University of Michigan - Flint, Flint, USA.

Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a rare, immune-mediated pathology that is defined as an adverse inflammatory response in the spinal cord leading to neurologic injury. The pathophysiology of ATM is poorly understood, with no apparent differences in age, ethnicities, or race, along with variable radiographic and clinical presentation. Therefore, in this review, we will characterize what is known about ATM's etiology and diagnostic criteria, and relate it to properties of neuroimmunology. Read More

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3'untranslated regions (3'UTR) of mRNA displays anticancer effects in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(8):3857-3876. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Key Laboratory of Functional Protein Research of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes and MOE Key Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Biology, Institute of Life and Health Engineering, Jinan University Guangzhou 510632, China.

RNA-based therapeutics has attracted substantial interest from both academics and pharmaceutical companies. In this study, we investigated the function and the underlying mechanism of 3'UTR in NSCLC H1299 and A549 cells. We found that transfected plasmids significantly increased the proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells, whereas 3'UTR could suppress the promotional effect of GSN protein on the development of NSCLC . Read More

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Derangement of protein S and C4b-binding protein levels as acquired thrombophilia in HIV-infected adult Nigerians.

South Afr J HIV Med 2021 23;22(1):1253. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: HIV is a chronic inflammatory state with the production of many acute-phase-reactant proteins. Some of these proteins have procoagulant activities that predispose HIV-infected patients to thrombosis.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of HIV infection on the serum levels of C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and protein S as markers of predisposition to thrombosis in HIV-infected adults. Read More

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Efficacy and harms of convalescent plasma for treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Med Sci 2021 18;17(5):1251-1261. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy, Storrs, CT, United States.

Introduction: We systematically reviewed benefits and harms of convalescent plasma (CP) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Material And Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies assessing CP effects on hospitalized, adult COVID-19 patients were searched until November 24, 2020. We assessed risk of bias (RoB) using Cochrane RoB 2. Read More

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February 2021

Monoethanolamine-induced glucose deprivation promotes apoptosis through metabolic rewiring in prostate cancer.

Theranostics 2021 27;11(18):9089-9106. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA-30303.

: Cancer cells rely on glucose metabolism for fulfilling their high energy demands. We previously reported that monoethanolamine (Etn), an orally deliverable lipid formulation, reduced intracellular glucose and glutamine levels in prostate cancer (PCa). Glucose deprivation upon Etn treatment exacerbated metabolic stress in PCa, thereby enhancing cell death. Read More

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Antidiabetic potential of the isolated fractions from the plants of Rosaceae family in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Res Pharm Sci 2021 Oct 19;16(5):505-515. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Medical Biology Research Center, Health Technology Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, I.R. Iran.

Background And Purpose: Diabetes is a group of multifactorial disorders characterized by chronic-elevated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). Natural remedies are used as alternative medications to treat diabetes. Here, we tested the protective effect of the plant extracts of the Rosaceae family on improving insulin secretion and repairing the pancreatic beta cells in diabetic rats. Read More

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October 2021

Hypothesis: Immunotherapy by Selective Convalescent Blood Engineering to Stifle Diseases like COVID-19.

Int J Med Sci 2021 1;18(15):3389-3394. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Greka Engineering and Technology, 28 Landmark Plaza, Outer Ring Road 1, CBD, Zhengzhou, 450000, China.

Current standard vaccine testing protocols take approximately 10-24 months of testing before a vaccine can be declared successful. Sometimes by the time a successful vaccine is out for public use, the outbreak may already be over. With no vaccine or antiviral drug available to treat the infected, we are left with the age-old methods of isolation, quarantine, and rest, to arrest such a viral outbreak. Read More

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