8,410 results match your criteria plasma csf

Cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA escape symptomatology.

AIDS 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Mildmay Hospital, London, UK Unit of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy Section of Retrovirology, Department of Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Department of HIV Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK Unit of Neuroradiology, ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy University of Bari, Bari, Italy Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Department of Neurology, St. Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK Neurosciences, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK Grahame Hayton Unit, I&I and Neurology Department, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK.

Objective: To characterise the clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of persons with HIV (PWH) presenting with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV RNA escape.

Design: Retrospective case review of PWH presenting with symptomatic CSF HIV RNA escape at seven tertiary HIV clinical sites in UK and Italy.

Method: PWH with symptomatic CSF HIV RNA escape episodes were identified and data obtained from medical records. Read More

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A Higher Dose of Dasatinib May Increase the Possibility of Crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier in the Treatment of Patients With Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Clin Ther 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Dasatinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor with higher central nervous system (CNS) penetration compared with imatinib and nilotinib in in vitro studies. However, limited clinical data are available regarding the dosage and CNS penetration of dasatinib. The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual ability of dasatinib to cross the blood-brain barrier in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph ALL). Read More

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Choroid plexus epithelial cells as a model to study nongenomic steroid signaling and its effect on ion channel function.

Methods Enzymol 2021 7;654:297-314. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States. Electronic address:

The choroid plexus (CP) is an epithelial tissue primarily responsible for the secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Choroid plexuses are found in each of the four brain ventricles: two laterals, third and fourth. They ensure continuous production of CSF to provide nutrients, remove waste products and provide a mechanical buffer to protect the brain. Read More

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Evaluation of carbon-11 labeled 5-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-N-(2-methyl-5-(3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamido)phenyl)nicotinamide as PET tracer for imaging of CSF-1R expression in the brain.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 May 30;42:116245. Epub 2021 May 30.

Stanford University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), 1201 Welch Road, PS049, Stanford, CA 94305-5484, USA. Electronic address:

Pharmacological targeting of tumor associated macrophages and microglia in the tumor microenvironment is a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. As such, the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) has been identified as a druggable target. However, no validated companion diagnostic marker for these therapies exists to date. Read More

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HER2 exon 20 insertion mutations in lung adenocarcinoma with leptomeningeal metastasis: a case report and response to poziotinib.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Diagnosis & Treatment Technology on Thoracic Oncology (lung and esophagus), Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Hangzhou, China; Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Hangzhou, China; Institute of Basic Medicine and Cancer (IBMC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China; The First Clinical Medical College, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is associated with poor prognosis and represents a terminal event of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). In previous studies, most of LM-patients have detected epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and responded to the third generation of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). This study aimed to report a case of ERBB2 (HER2) exon 20 insertion mutations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of LM-patient which response to poziotinib. Read More

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Increased immune activation and signs of neuronal injury in HIV-negative people on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

AIDS 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Region Västra Götaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Gothenburg, Sweden Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, United Kingdom Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: Persistent immune activation in the central nervous system and systemically are common in people living with HIV (PLHIV) despite antiretroviral therapy. It is not known whether this is generated by HIV replication or other components such as coinfections and lifestyle-related factors.

Design: To determine the importance of different factors, it is crucial to find well-matched HIV-negative controls. Read More

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Detection of cytokine storm in patients with achalasia using ELISA.

Biomed Rep 2021 Jul 31;15(1):62. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori 683-8504, Japan.

Esophageal achalasia is characterized by abnormal peristaltic movements of the esophageal body and impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). However, its etiology remains unknown. In our previous study, it was shown that in the LES of patients with achalasia, hsv1-miR-H1 was overexpressed, ATG16L1 expression was downregulated and interleukin (IL)-1β levels were upregulated. Read More

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Levels of bioactive adrenomedullin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in relation to delayed cerebral ischemia in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A prospective observational study.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 5;427:117533. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

Objectives: Adrenomedullin (ADM) has been identified as a promising biomarker of mortality and outcome in sepsis, heart failure and after major surgery. A recently developed assay specific for bioactive adrenomedullin (bio-ADM) has not yet been assessed in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The objective of this prospective trial was to assess the time course of bio-ADM after aSAH in relation to the development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and its association with clinical outcome. Read More

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The CNS-Penetrant Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator CY6463 Reveals its Therapeutic Potential in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:656561. Epub 2021 May 24.

Cyclerion Therapeutics, Cambridge, MA, United States.

Effective treatments for neurodegenerative diseases remain elusive and are critically needed since the burden of these diseases increases across an aging global population. Nitric oxide (NO) is a gasotransmitter that binds to soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Impairment of this pathway has been demonstrated in neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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Apple consumption reduces markers of postprandial inflammation following a high fat meal in overweight and obese adults: A randomized, crossover trial.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2 W1, Canada.

High fat meal-induced postprandial inflammation is exacerbated in overweight and obesity and may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study aimed to determine the effects of apples, rich in anti-inflammatory polyphenols, on biomarkers of postprandial inflammation in individuals with overweight and obesity. A randomized, crossover trial was conducted with n = 26 participants (17 female/9 male; mean age 45. Read More

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Use of plasma biomarkers for AT(N) classification of neurodegenerative dementias.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurology, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques Sant Pau - Hospital de Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain.

Objectives: All categories included in the AT(N) classification can now be measured in plasma. However, their agreement with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers is not fully established. A blood signature to generate the AT(N) classification would facilitate early diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) through an easy and minimally invasive approach. Read More

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Anti-Alpha-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor Encephalitis: A Review.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:652820. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital School of Medicine Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Anti-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) encephalitis, a rare subtype of autoimmune encephalitis, was first reported by Lai et al. The AMPAR antibodies target against extracellular epitopes of the GluA1 or GluA2 subunits of the receptor. AMPARs are expressed throughout the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus and other limbic regions. Read More

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BNP and NT-proBNP concentrations in paired cerebrospinal fluid and plasma samples of patients with traumatic brain injury.

J Surg Res 2021 Jun 1;266:353-360. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the secretion patterns of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal-proBNP (NT-proBNP) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to analyze the source of them in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Materials And Methods: We synchronously measured BNP and NT-proBNP concentrations in paired CSF and plasma samples from 22 moderate to severe TBI patients and 40 healthy control patients. The CSF and/or plasma ratio of albumin (Q) was calculated daily. Read More

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Translational CNS Steady-State Drug Disposition Model in Rats, Monkeys, and Humans for Quantitative Prediction of Brain-to-Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid-to-Plasma Unbound Concentration Ratios.

AAPS J 2021 Jun 3;23(4):81. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Global DMPK, Preclinical and Translational Sciences, Research, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Shonan Health Innovation Park (iPark), 26-1, Muraoka-Higashi 2-Chome, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 251-8555, Japan.

Capturing unbound drug exposure in the brain is crucial to evaluate pharmacological effects for drugs acting on the central nervous system. However, to date, there are no reports of validated prediction models to determine the brain-to-plasma unbound concentration ratio (K) as well as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-plasma unbound concentration ratio (K) between humans and other species. Here, we developed a translational CNS steady-state drug disposition model to predict K and K across rats, monkeys, and humans by estimating the relative activity factors (RAF) for MDR1 and BCRP in addition to scaling factors (γ and σ) using the molecular weight, logD, CSF bulk flow, and in vitro transport activities of these transporters. Read More

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Bone Marrow Soluble Mediator Signatures of Patients With Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

Front Oncol 2021 18;11:665037. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Science, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Background: Essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are clonal hematological diseases classified as Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). MPN pathogenesis is associated with the presence of somatic driver mutations, bone marrow (BM) niche alterations, and tumor inflammatory status. The relevance of soluble mediators in the pathogenesis of MPN led us to analyze the levels of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors related to inflammation, angiogenesis and hematopoiesis regulation in the BM niche of MPN patients. Read More

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Association of Variants in FCGR2A, PTPN2 and GM-CSF with Cerebral Cavernous Malformation: Potential Biomarkers for Symptomatic Disease.

Curr Neurovasc Res 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Departamento de Neurocirurgia Rio de Janeiro RJ. Brazil.

Backgrounds: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) predispose patients to a lifetime risk of seizures and symptomatic hemorrhage. Only a small percentage of affected people will develop clinical symptoms, and molecular mechanisms underlying lesional activity remain unclear. We have analyzed a panel of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in CCM patients and looked for plasmatic inflammatory cytokines checking for a pattern of plasmatic expression heterogeneity and any correlation with the genetic variation identified with different CCM clinical phenotypes. Read More

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MLKL promotes cellular differentiation in myeloid leukemia by facilitating the release of G-CSF.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Medical Department III for Hematology and Oncology, School of Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

The blockade of cellular differentiation represents a hallmark of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which is largely attributed to the dysfunction of lineage-specific transcription factors controlling cellular differentiation. However, alternative mechanisms of cellular differentiation programs in AML remain largely unexplored. Here we report that mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) contributes to the cellular differentiation of transformed hematopoietic progenitor cells in AML. Read More

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Dose selection for intracerebroventricular cerliponase alfa in children with CLN2 disease, translation from animal to human in a rare genetic disease.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., Novato, California, USA.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2 disease) is an ultra-rare pediatric neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1). In the absence of adequate TPP1, lysosomal storage material accumulation occurs in the central nervous system (CNS) accompanied by neurodegeneration and neurological decline that culminates in childhood death. Cerliponase alfa is a recombinant human TPP1 enzyme replacement therapy administered via intracerebroventricular infusion and approved for the treatment of CLN2 disease. Read More

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Tocilizumab is safe and tolerable and reduces C-reactive protein concentrations in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of ALS patients.

Muscle Nerve 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Neurology, Gregory W. Fulton ALS Center, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona.

Introduction/aims: We tested safety, tolerability, and target engagement of tocilizumab in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients.

Methods: Twenty-two participants, whose peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression profile reflected high messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of inflammatory markers, were randomized 2:1 to 3 tocilizumab or placebo treatments (weeks 0, 4, and 8; 8 mg/kg intravenous). Participants were followed every 4 weeks in a double-blind fashion for 16 weeks and assessed for safety, tolerability, plasma inflammatory markers, and clinical measures. Read More

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Plasma microRNAs are associated with domain-specific cognitive function in people with HIV.

AIDS 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics at The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore MD Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada Southern Alberta Clinic, Calgary, AB, Canada Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, AB, Canada Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Objective: Cognitive impairment remains common in people with HIV (PWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The clinical presentation and severity are highly variable in PWH suggesting that the pathophysiological mechanisms of cognitive complications are likely complex and multifactorial. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression changes may be linked to cognition as they are gene regulators involved in immune and stress responses as well as the development, plasticity, and differentiation of neurons. Read More

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NADomics: Measuring NAD and Related Metabolites Using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry.

Life (Basel) 2021 May 31;11(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its metabolome (NADome) play important roles in preserving cellular homeostasis. Altered levels of the NADome may represent a likely indicator of poor metabolic function. Accurate measurement of the NADome is crucial for biochemical research and developing interventions for ageing and neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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Response of Severe EV71-Infected Patients to Hyperimmune Plasma Treatment: A Pilot Study.

Pathogens 2021 May 19;10(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Center of Research Excellence in Immunoregulation, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is highly prevalent in East and Southeast Asia. It particularly affects children under five years of age. The most common causative agents are coxsackieviruses A6 and A16, and enterovirus A71 (EV71). Read More

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Long-Term Anti-Bacterial Immunity against Systemic Infection by Serovar Typhimurium Elicited by a GMMA-Based Vaccine.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 12;9(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Typhimurium (STm) represents the most prevalent cause of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease, and currently no licensed vaccine is available. In this work we characterized the long-term anti-bacterial immunity elicited by a STm vaccine based on Generalized Modules of Membrane Antigens (GMMA) delivering O:4,5 antigen, using a murine model of systemic infection. Subcutaneous immunization of mice with STmGMMA/Alhydrogel elicited rapid, high, and persistent antigen-specific serum IgG and IgM responses. Read More

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Sex-Related Differences in Cerebrospinal Fluid Plasma-Derived Proteins of Neurological Patients.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 May 16;11(5). Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

Background And Aims: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein content presents a sexual dimorphism in humans. We investigated sex-related differences in CSF IgG levels and in the quantification of intrathecal IgG synthesis (IIS).

Methods: CSF, serum albumin and IgG were measured in 1519 neurological patients and both linear and hyperbolic formulas were used for the quantification of IIS. Read More

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The Association of Essential Metals with APOE Genotype in Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Neuroscience, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.

Background: The major confirmed genetic risk factor for late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is variant ɛ4 of apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). It is proposed that ApoE, a protein involved in transport of cholesterol to neurons can cause neurodegeneration in AD through interaction with metals. Previous studies mostly associated copper, iron, zinc, and calcium with ApoE4-mediated toxicity. Read More

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Diagnosing Mitochondrial Disorders Remains Challenging in the Omics Era.

Neurol Genet 2021 Jun 25;7(3):e597. Epub 2021 May 25.

Mitochondrial Research Group (P.F., S.R.), UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health; Metabolic Medicine Department (P.F., E.F., J.E.D., S. Batzios, A.C., M.C., P.G., S.G., S.R.), Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust; Neurometabolic Unit (A.L., S.H.), National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery; Department of Chemical Pathology (A.L., S.H.), Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust; Neurogenetics Unit (C.E.W.), National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery; Department of Neurology (S. Bhate), Department of Clinical Genetics (J.A.H., R.S.), North East Thames Regional Genetics Service, DBC Programme (T.S.J.), UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health and Department of Histopathology, and London North Genomic Laboratory Hub (T.C.), Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom.

Objective: We hypothesized that novel investigative pathways are needed to decrease diagnostic odysseys in pediatric mitochondrial disease and sought to determine the utility of clinical exome sequencing in a large cohort with suspected mitochondrial disease and to explore whether any of the traditional indicators of mitochondrial disease predict a confirmed genetic diagnosis.

Methods: We investigated a cohort of 85 pediatric patients using clinical exome sequencing and compared the results with the outcome of traditional diagnostic tests, including biochemical testing of routine parameters (lactate, alanine, and proline), neuroimaging, and muscle biopsy with histology and respiratory chain enzyme activity studies.

Results: We established a genetic diagnosis in 36. Read More

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A Highly Predictive MicroRNA Panel for Determining Delayed Cerebral Vasospasm Risk Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 14;8:657258. Epub 2021 May 14.

Anesthesiology Critical Care Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

Approximately one-third of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients develop delayed cerebral vasospasm (DCV) 3-10 days after aneurysm rupture resulting in additional, permanent neurologic disability. Currently, no validated biomarker is available to determine the risk of DCV in aSAH patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in virtually all human diseases, including aSAH, and are found in extracellular biofluids including plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

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Preclinical Characterization of the Selective JAK1 Inhibitor LW402 for Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

J Inflamm Res 2021 21;14:2133-2147. Epub 2021 May 21.

Longwood Biopharmaceuticals, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background: Research on JAK family members as therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases has brought tofacitinib and baricitinib into clinical for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Despite the potent efficacy of these first-generation JAK inhibitors, their broad-spectrum JAK inhibition and adverse events warrant development of a JAK1-specific inhibitor to improve their safety profile.

Methods: In this study, we characterized a JAK1-specific inhibitor, LW402, on biochemical and human whole-blood assays. Read More

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