968,727 results match your criteria plants

Polymorphisms in plants to restrict losses to pathogens: From gene family expansions to complex network evolution.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2021 Apr 18;62:102040. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354, Freising, Germany. Electronic address:

Genetic polymorphisms are the basis of the natural diversity seen in all life on earth, also in plant-pathogen interactions. Initially, studies on plant-pathogen interaction focused on reporting phenotypic variation in resistance properties and on the identification of underlying major genes. Nowadays, the field of plant-pathogen interactions is moving from focusing on families of single dominant genes involved in gene-for-gene interactions to an understanding of the plant immune system in the context of a much more complex signaling network and quantitative resistance. Read More

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A participatory method for prioritizing invasive species: Ranking threats to Minnesota's terrestrial ecosystems.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 18;290:112556. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Minnesota Invasive Terrestrial Plants and Pests Center, University of Minnesota, 1992 Folwell Ave., St. Paul, MN, 55108-6125, USA; USDA, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 1561 Lindig Street, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6125, USA. Electronic address:

Terrestrial invasive species threaten the integrity of diverse and highly-valued ecosystems. The Minnesota Invasive Terrestrial Plants and Pests Center (MITPPC) was established by the state of Minnesota to fund research projects aimed at minimizing harms posed by the most threatening terrestrial invasive species to the state's prairies, wetlands, forests, and agriculture. MITPPC used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to identify and prioritize diverse invasive species threats. Read More

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Investigating the cell and developmental biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

Fungal Genet Biol 2021 Apr 18:103562. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

The Sainsbury Laboratory, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR47UH, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, the most widespread and serious disease of cultivated rice. Live cell imaging and quantitative 4D image analysis have provided new insight into the mechanisms by which the fungus infects host cells and spreads rapidly in plant tissue. In this video review article, we apply live cell imaging approaches to understanding the cell and developmental biology of rice blast disease. Read More

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First mitogenome of subfamily Langiinae (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) with its phylogenetic implications.

Gene 2021 Apr 18:145667. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Recovery and Reconstruction of Degraded Ecosystem in Wanjiang Basin Co-founded by Anhui Province and Ministry of Education, School of Ecology and Environment, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000, China. Electronic address:

To date, a relatively complete classification of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) has been generated, but the phylogeny of the family remains need to be fully resolved. Some phylogenetic relationships within Sphingidae still remains uncertain, especially the taxonomic status of the subfamily Langiinae and its sole included genus and species, Langia zenzeroides. To begin to address this problem, we generated nine new complete mitochondrial genomes, including that of Langia, and together with that of Theretra oldenlandiae from our previous study and 25 other Sphingidae mitogenomes downloaded from GenBank, analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of Sphingidae and investigated the mitogenomic differences among members of the Langiinae, Sphinginae, Smerinthinae and Macroglossinae. Read More

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First Report of Colletotrichum karstii Causing Anthracnose on Strawberry in Brazil.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Rod. Admar Gonzaga 1346, Depto de Fitotecnia, CCA-UFSC, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, 88034-130;

Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. With increasing cultivated area in the last decades, Brazil has become the largest strawberry producer in South America. Read More

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Litchi anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum karstii in Guangxi, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

University of Guelph, Environmental Sciences, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G2W1;

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), a native fruit tree from southern China, has been planted in many subtropical and tropical countries for its fruit which are considered delicious and of medicinal value (Anderson et al. 2013). Read More

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Metabolic patterns in Septoria canker resistant and susceptible Populus trichocarpa genotypes 24 hours post-inoculation.

Phytopathology 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

2062 Cordely HallCorvallis, Oregon, United States, 97331;

Sphaerulina musiva is an economically and ecologically important fungal pathogen that causes Septoria stem canker and leaf spot disease of Populus species. To bridge the gap between genetic markers and structural barriers previously found to be linked to Septoria (Sphaerulina musiva) canker disease resistance in poplar, we employed hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to identify and quantify metabolites involved with signaling and cell wall re-modelling. Fluctuations in signaling molecules, organic acids, amino acids, sterols, phenolics, and saccharides in resistant and susceptible Populus trichocarpa inoculated with Sphaerulina musiva, were observed. Read More

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Hypermoins A-D: Rearranged Nor-Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinols from the Flowers of .

J Org Chem 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550014, China.

Hypermonins A-D (-), four rearranged nor-polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) with unprecedented skeletons, together with two new biosynthesis related PPAPs ( and ) were isolated and identified from the flowers of . Hypermoins A-D represented the first examples of highly modified norPPAPs characterized by a rare 7/6/6/5-tetracyclic system. From the biogenic synthesis pathway analysis, all isolates shared the same biosynthetic intermediate, and the addition of two methyls or one methyl to this intermediate through methyltranferase could generate different types of PPAPs (-). Read More

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Hormesis-Inducing Essential Oil Nanodelivery System Protects Plants against Broad Host-Range Necrotrophs.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States.

, a broad host-range necrotrophic (BHN) phytopathogen, establishes compatible interactions with hosts by deploying multigene infection strategies, rendering simply inherited resistance ineffective to fight off this pathogen. Since essential oils (EOs) serve as intermediators during phytobiome communication, we hypothesize that they have the potential to enhance the quantitative disease resistance against BHN by eliciting the adaptive stress response (hormesis) in plants. However, using EOs is challenging due to their poor solubility in water. Read More

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Comparative analysis of spatial genetic structures in sympatric populations of two riparian plants, Saxifraga acerifolia and Saxifraga fortunei.

Am J Bot 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida Nihonmatsu-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.

Premise: The genetic structure between plant populations is facilitated by the spatial population arrangement and limited dispersal of seed and pollen. Saxifraga acerifolia, a local endemic species in Japan, is a habitat specialist that is confined to waterfalls in riparian environments. Its sister species, Saxifraga fortunei, is a generalist that is widely distributed along riverbanks. Read More

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Environmental Change in Southern Appalachia: Local Ecological Knowledge across Residential Groups.

Ambio 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Rutherford County, 142 E. Main Street, Ste 100, Forest City, NC, 28043, USA.

This paper examines how residents of Southern Appalachia observe changes in their natural environment, the values that they assign to plants and animals in that environment, and their understandings and explanations of environmental change. We use semi-structured interviews and participant observation to determine that multigenerational residents and newcomers to the region are observing and noting change in different components of the environment and that they have different determinations of both the causes and likely consequences of that change. While multigenerational residents focus their observation and commentary on staple crops and culturally-important species, newcomers to the area concentrate on species related to recreational pursuits, giving each group insights into different aspects of environmental change. Read More

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Latex Metabolome of Euphorbia Species: Geographical and Inter-Species Variation and its Proposed Role in Plant Defense against Herbivores and Pathogens.

J Chem Ecol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Sylviusweg 72, 2333 BE, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Based on the hypothesis that the variation of the metabolomes of latex is a response to selective pressure and should thus be affected differently from other organs, their variation could provide an insight into the defensive chemical selection of plants. Metabolic profiling was used to compare tissues of three Euphorbia species collected in diverse regions. The metabolic variation of latexes was much more limited than that of other organs. Read More

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Antioxidative response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to carbamazepine-induced stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

LEAF - Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017, Lisboa, Portugal.

Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a widely used anti-epileptic drug that has been detected in wastewaters from sewage treating plants and thus appears in rivers, streams and other water bodies. As plants can absorb this compound, it can also appear in edible plants like lettuce, entering the food chain. In this study, the effect of carbamazepine in lettuce plants grown in hydroponic solution is analyzed. Read More

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Genome characterization of parsley severe stunt-associated virus in Iran.

Virus Genes 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

The Biodesign Center of Fundamental and Applied Microbiomics, School of Life Sciences, Center for Evolution and Medicine, Arizona State University, 1001 S. McAllister Ave, Tempe, AZ, 85287-5001, USA.

Parsley severe stunt-associated virus (PSSaV) is a recently identified nanovirus first reported in Germany. During a survey for identification of nanoviruses infecting apiaceous plants in south-eastern Iran, PSSaV was identified and characterized using a combination of rolling circle amplification (RCA) and high-throughput sequencing. Parsley plant samples were collected from vegetable production farms in Kerman province. Read More

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Determinant Factors and Regulatory Systems for Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Rice Apiculi and Stigmas.

Rice (N Y) 2021 Apr 21;14(1):37. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences/National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Beijing, 100081, China.

Anthocyanins cause purple, brown or red colors in various tissues of rice plants, but the specific determinant factors and regulatory systems for anthocyanin biosynthesis in almost all tissues remain largely unknown. In the present study, we mapped and isolated two complementary genes, OsC1 encoding a R2R3-MYB transcriptional factor and OsDFR encoding a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, which are responsible for the purple coloration of apiculi and stigmas in indica cultivar Xieqingzao by the map-based cloning strategy. We also identified two tissue-specific pigmentation genes, OsPa for apiculi and OsPs for stigmas, by phylogenetic analysis of all anthocyanin biosynthesis-associated bHLH transcriptional factors in maize and rice, CRISPR/Cas9 knockout and transcriptional expression analysis. Read More

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Single-Laboratory Validation of an Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup LC Method for the Analysis of Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A in Cannabis Plant Material, Resins, Vapes, Isolates and Edible Products.

J AOAC Int 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Canopy Growth Corporation, 1 Hershey Drive, Smiths Falls, ON, Canada, K7A 0A8.

Background: Potential fungal infection of cannabis plants during drying has raised concerns of resulting mycotoxin contamination in leaves and flowers and subsequent contamination of derived products including cannabis containing edible products. Validated routine methods are essential to monitor cannabis and cannabis products to ensure consumer safety consistent with long-standing controls for mycotoxins such as aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in foodstuffs.

Objective: To provide single laboratory validation data to demonstrate the suitability of a method for determining aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in cannabis plant material, resins, vapes, isolates and edible products such as chocolate. Read More

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Pyrophosphate as an alternative energy currency in plants.

Biochem J 2021 Apr;478(8):1515-1524

Department of Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

In the conditions of [Mg2+] elevation that occur, in particular, under low oxygen stress and are the consequence of the decrease in [ATP] and increase in [ADP] and [AMP], pyrophosphate (PPi) can function as an alternative energy currency in plant cells. In addition to its production by various metabolic pathways, PPi can be synthesized in the combined reactions of pyruvate, phosphate dikinase (PPDK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) by so-called PK/PPDK substrate cycle, and in the reverse reaction of membrane-bound H+-pyrophosphatase, which uses the energy of electrochemical gradients generated on tonoplast and plasma membrane. The PPi can then be consumed in its active forms of MgPPi and Mg2PPi by PPi-utilizing enzymes, which require an elevated [Mg2+]. Read More

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Urinary tract infections: Can we prevent uropathogenic infection with dietary intervention?

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2021 Apr 21:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

San Raffaele Roma Open University, Rome, Italy.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common causes of infections in women. Via the fecal-perineal-urethral route, uropathogenic (UPEC) can cause ascending urinary tract infections, including cystitis and pyelonephritis. These infections re-occur within six months or they account for, at least, three episodes within a year of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs). Read More

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Comparative transcriptome combined with biochemical and physiological analyses provide new insights towards cadmium accumulation with two contrasting Nicotiana species.

Physiol Plant 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tobacco Biology and Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Qingdao, China.

Cadmium (Cd) is known as one of the most hazardous elements in the environment and a persistent soil constraint toxic to all flora and fauna. In this study, we conducted physiological, biochemical, and transcriptomic analyses of Nicotiana rustica (N. rustica) and Nicotiana tabacum (N. Read More

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Traditional Uses and Pharmacologically Active Constituents of Dendrobium Plants for Dermatological Disorders: A Review.

Yue-Hu Wang

Nat Prod Bioprospect 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, The Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources, and Bio-Innovation Center of DR PLANT, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, 650201, People's Republic of China.

Dendrobium Sw. is one of the largest genera in the orchidaceous family and includes 900-2000 species. Among them, more than 80 Dendrobium species have been reported in China. Read More

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Timely gene detection assay and reliable screening of genetically engineered plants using an improved direct PCR-based technology.

Transgenic Res 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Plant Molecular Physiology, Centre of Biotechnology of Borj Cedria, Science and Technology Park, P.O. Box. 901, 2050, Hammam-Lif, Tunisia.

Engineered plants have been widely produced for fundamental and practical use. Several methods have been developed for genetically modified crop detection and quantification; however; they still laborious and expensive. Efforts are needed to set-up diagnosis-oriented techniques as alternatives to overcome DNA extraction which remains a tedious and time-consuming procedure. Read More

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Towards understanding Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) development: effects of microhabitat variability in naturally growing horse-chestnut tree canopy.

Int J Biometeorol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology Team, University of Silesia in Katowice, PL 40-007, Katowice, Bankowa 9, Poland.

Dwelling intensity of horse-chestnut miner (Cameraria ohridella) larvae in various leaves insolation and temperature was measured to determine whether this pest's development follows a predictable pattern or depends more on local microenvironment conditions. Mines growing on leaves of mature host plants (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in their natural conditions were photographed for two consecutive generations of the pest and in two separated vegetation periods. Read More

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Protein expression plasticity contributes to heat and drought tolerance of date palm.

Oecologia 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Research Unit Environmental Simulation, Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany.

Climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of warming and drought periods around the globe, currently representing a threat to many plant species. Understanding the resistance and resilience of plants to climate change is, therefore, urgently needed. As date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) evolved adaptation mechanisms to a xeric environment and can tolerate large diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuations, we studied the protein expression changes in leaves, volatile organic compound emissions, and photosynthesis in response to variable growth temperatures and soil water deprivation. Read More

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Effects of Medicinal Plants and Flavonoids on Parkinson's Disease: A Review on Basic and Clinical Evidences.

Adv Pharm Bull 2021 Feb 1;11(2):224-232. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder which is characterized by typical symptoms including gradual progressive muscle rigidity, tremor and loss of motor skills. Although there is no definitive cure for PD, the extract of some medicinal plants and their ingredients have been suggested to relieve its symptoms and to prevent disability in patients. This review is focused on therapeutic effects of some medicinal plants and their ingredients on PD. Read More

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February 2021

Bioactive Compounds and Traditional Herbal Medicine: Promising Approaches for the Treatment of Dementia.

Degener Neurol Neuromuscul Dis 2021 12;11:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pharmacology, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (HIMSR), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Dementia is a term that encompasses a group of clinical symptoms affecting memory, thinking and social abilities, characterized by progressive impairment of memory performance and cognitive functions. There are several factors involved in the pathogenesis and progression of dementia, such as old age, brain ischemia, toxin exposure, and oxidative stress. There are extensive similarities between dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) either in clinical manifestations or experimental animal models. Read More

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Evaluation of clinical trials for natural products used in diabetes: An evidence-based systemic literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(16):e25641

First Health Cluster in Eastern Province, Dammam Medical Complex, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Background Relevance: A plethora of literature is available regarding the clinical trials for natural products however; no information is available for critical assessments of the quality of these clinical trials.

Aim Of Study: This is a first time report to critically evaluate the efficacy, safety and large scale applications of up-to-date clinical trials for diabetes, based on the three scales of Jadad, Delphi, and Cochrane.

Methodology: An in-depth and extensive literature review was performed using various databases, journals, and books. Read More

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Antagonistic activities of cotranscriptional regulators within an early developmental window set expression level.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, NR4 7UH Norwich, United Kingdom;

Quantitative variation in expression of the floral repressor influences whether plants overwinter before flowering, or have a rapid cycling habit enabling multiple generations a year. Genetic analysis has identified activators and repressors of expression but how they interact to set expression level is poorly understood. Here, we show that antagonistic functions of the activator FRIGIDA (FRI) and the repressor FCA, at a specific stage of embryo development, determine expression and flowering. Read More

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A unique AtSar1D-AtRabD2a nexus modulates autophagosome biogenesis in .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

School of Life Sciences, Centre for Cell & Developmental Biology, State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China;

In eukaryotes, secretory proteins traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus via coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles. Intriguingly, during nutrient starvation, the COPII machinery acts constructively as a membrane source for autophagosomes during autophagy to maintain cellular homeostasis by recycling intermediate metabolites. In higher plants, essential roles of autophagy have been implicated in plant development and stress responses. Read More

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Peptidoglycan Contribution to the B Cell Superantigen Activity of Staphylococcal Protein A.

mBio 2021 Apr 20;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Howard Taylor Ricketts Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois, USA

causes reiterative and chronic persistent infections. This can be explained by the formidable ability of this pathogen to escape immune surveillance mechanisms. Cells of display the abundant staphylococcal protein A (SpA). Read More

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Fungal-Bacterial Cooccurrence Patterns Differ between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Nonmycorrhizal Fungi across Soil Niches.

mBio 2021 Apr 20;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA

Soil bacteria and fungi are known to form niche-specific communities that differ between actively growing and decaying roots. Yet almost nothing is known about the cross-kingdom interactions that frame these communities and the environmental filtering that defines these potentially friendly or competing neighbors. We explored the temporal and spatial patterns of soil fungal (mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal) and bacterial cooccurrence near roots of wild oat grass, , growing in its naturalized soil in a greenhouse experiment. Read More

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