228,462 results match your criteria plant species

Widespread lateral gene transfer among grasses.

New Phytol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.

Lateral gene transfer (LGT) occurs in a broad range of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, occasionally promoting adaptation. LGT of functional nuclear genes has been reported among some plants, but systematic studies are needed to assess the frequency and facilitators of LGT. We scanned the genomes of a diverse set of 17 grass species that span more than 50 Ma of divergence and include major crops to identify grass-to-grass protein-coding LGT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of rangeland condition in miombo woodlands in eastern Tanzania in relation to season and distance from settlements.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 19;290:112635. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7024, SE, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.

Miombo woodlands sustainability in east and south-central Africa is threatened by human activities, including overgrazing. This study investigated seasonal variations in rangeland condition in three grazed areas in miombo woodlands in eastern Tanzania. Transect lines were established across the grazing areas, sampling points were identified and marked at every 10% of the length of transect line. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Identifying optimized on-the-ground priority areas for species conservation in a global biodiversity hotspot.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 19;290:112630. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Conservation Biogeography Research Group, Institute of International Rivers and Ecosecurity, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650091, China; Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Transboundary Ecosecurity, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650091, China. Electronic address:

Threatened species are inadequately represented within protected areas (PAs) across the globe. Species conservation planning may be improved by using public species-occurrence databases, but empirical evidence is limited of how that may be accomplished at local scales. We used the Three Parallel Rivers Region of China as a case to investigate the utility of public species data in improvement in conservation planning. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Toxicity of the swainsonine-containing plant Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa for goats and sheep.

Toxicon 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Veterinary Hospital, Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Patos, Paraíba 58700-000, Brazil; Programa de pós-graduação em Ciência Animal nos Trópicos, Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil. Electronic address:

In order to determine the toxicity of swainsonine present in Ipomoea carnea for goats and sheep, 12 goats and 12 sheep were divided into 3 groups of 4 goats (G1, G2 and G3) and 3 groups of 4 sheep (S4, S5 and S6) each. Groups G1 and S4 were used as controls; G2 and S5 received 1mg/kg body weight of swainsonine from plant material and G3 and S6 received 3mg/kg. Groups G2 and G3 presented the first clinical signs, on average, after the 54th and 39th days of ingestion of the plant, respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Isolation, structural characterization, biological activity, and application of Glycyrrhiza polysaccharides: Systematic review.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Food Science and Pharmacy, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, PR China.

Glycyrrhiza, one of the most widely used Chinese herbal medicines, is a perennial plant with good medicinal value. Polysaccharides as one of the main bioactive components of Glycyrrhiza, mainly composed of arabinose, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose, xylose, and galacturonic acid in different proportions and types of glycosidic bonds. Glycyrrhiza polysaccharides (GP) have many pharmacological activities, such as anti-oxidation, immune regulation, anti-tumor, apoptosis, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and regulation of intestinal flora. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Safety aspects of kraft lignin fractions: Discussions on the in chemico antioxidant activity and the induction of oxidative stress on a cell-based in vitro model.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Graduate Program in Genetics, Department of Genetics - Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:

Lignin is a complex phenolic biopolymer present in plant cell walls and a by-product of the cellulose pulping industry. Lignin has functional properties, such as antioxidant activity, that make it a potential natural active ingredient for health-care products. However, not all safety aspects of lignin fractions have been adequately investigated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plant epigenetics: phenotypic and functional diversity beyond the DNA sequence.

Am J Bot 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSIC, Sevilla, Spain.

Phenotypic variation determines the capacity of plants to adapt to changing environments and to colonize new habitats. Deciphering the mechanisms contributing to plant phenotypic variation and their effects on plant ecological interactions and evolutionary dynamics is thus central to all biological disciplines. In the past few decades, research on plant epigenetics is showing that (1) epigenetic variation is related to phenotypic variation and that some epigenetic marks drive major phenotypic changes in plants; (2) plant epigenomes are highly diverse, dynamic, and can respond rapidly to a variety of biotic and abiotic stimuli; (3) epigenetic variation can respond to selection and therefore play a role in adaptive evolution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Silicon modulates nitro-oxidative homeostasis along with the antioxidant metabolism to promote drought stress tolerance in lentil plants.

Physiol Plant 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Agriculture and Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.

Lentil is the fifth most important grain legume growing in arid/semi-arid regions of the world. Drought is one of the major constraints leading up to 50 % of production losses just in lentil. Application of silicon (Si) has been shown to be a promising solution to improve drought tolerance; however, the biochemical mechanisms and interactions involved are not fully understood, especially in legumes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Occurrence and Functions of m6A and Other Covalent Modifications in Plant mRNA1[OPEN].

Plant Physiol 2020 Jan;182(1):79-96

University of Copenhagen, Department of Biology, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is indispensable for the execution of developmental programs and environmental adaptation. Among the many cellular mechanisms that regulate mRNA fate, covalent nucleotide modification has emerged as a major way of controlling the processing, localization, stability, and translatability of mRNAs. This powerful mechanism is conserved across eukaryotes and controls the cellular events that lead to development and growth. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2020

Exchange of Small Regulatory RNAs between Plants and Their Pests1[OPEN].

Plant Physiol 2020 Jan;182(1):51-62

Department of Biology, Intercollege Ph.D. Program in Plant Biology, and Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802.

Regulatory small RNAs are well known as antiviral agents, regulators of gene expression, and defenders of genome integrity in plants. Several studies over the last decade have also shown that some small RNAs are exchanged between plants and their pathogens and parasites. Naturally occurring trans-species small RNAs are used by host plants to silence mRNAs in pathogens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2020

Paving the Way for C4 Evolution: Study of C3-C4 Intermediate Species in Grasses.

Yunqing Yu

Plant Physiol 2020 Jan;182(1):453-454

Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, Missouri 63132.

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2020

Next-Generation Sequence Databases: RNA and Genomic Informatics Resources for Plants1[OPEN].

Plant Physiol 2020 Jan;182(1):136-146

Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, Missouri 63132.

We developed public web sites and resources for data access, display, and analysis of plant small RNAs. These web sites are interconnected with related data types. The current generation of these informatics tools was developed for Illumina data, evolving over more than 15 years of improvements. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2020

Medicinal plants from the Himalayan region for potential novel antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory skin treatments.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute of Anatomy, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background And Objectives: Adequate treatment of wounds remains one of the major medical needs globally, most notably in the regions with poor or limited access to health care. In many local and traditional systems of medicine, plants are often widely used for treating infected wounds.

Aim And Objectives: The overarching aim of this project was selection of potential species for use in a future treatment by combining with plant resources with aspects of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Worldwide epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in humans, ticks and other animal species, a systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 22;15(4):e0009299. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Virology Department, Centre Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

There are uncertainties about the global epidemiological data of infections due to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). We estimated the global case fatality rate (CFR) of CCHFV infections and the prevalence of CCHFV in humans, ticks and other animal species. We also explored the socio-demographic and clinical factors that influence these parameters. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

sp. nov., a -like fungus from North America.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Apr;71(4)

The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Valley Laboratory, 153 Cook Hill Road, Windsor, CT 06095, USA.

Two isolates from Canada and the USA (UAMH 7122 and UAMH 7211, respectively) previously identified as were studied by morphology and six-locus phylogeny (, ITS, , , and ). UAMH 7122 and UAMH 7211 are morphologically related but phylogenetically distinct from (≡) and . Hence, UAMH 7122 and UAMH 7211 are described as a new species, sp. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

sp. nov., sp. nov., sp. nov., sp. nov., sp. nov. and sp. nov., isolated from the phyllosphere.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Apr;71(4)

Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Ghent University, K. L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Six endospore-forming, Gram-stain-positive or variable, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria with different MALDI-TOF mass spectra (MS) were isolated from the phyllosphere of plants grown in plant chambers after inoculation of surface sterilized seeds with a top soil microbial cell suspension. They were identified as members of the genus through comparison with a commercial MALDI-TOF MS database and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Their genome sequences comprised multiple biosynthetic gene clusters and suggested they have unexplored biotechnological potential. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Environment, phylogeny, and photosynthetic pathway as determinants of leaf traits in savanna and forest graminoid species in central Brazil.

Oecologia 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Graduate Program in Ecology, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, 70910-900, Brazil.

Leaf traits are closely linked to plant responses to the environment and can provide important information on adaptation and evolution. These traits may also result from common ancestry, so phylogenetic relationships also play an important role in adaptive evolution. We evaluated the effects of the closed forest environment (gallery forest) and the open savanna environment (cerrado) on the selection of leaf traits of graminoid species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

MdUGT88F1-Mediated Phloridzin Biosynthesis Regulates Apple Development and Valsa Canker Resistance.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jul;180(4):2290-2305

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas/Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Apple, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

In apple (Malus domestica), the polyphenol profile is dominated by phloridzin, but its physiological role remains largely elusive. Here, we used MdUGT88F1 (a key UDP-glucose:phloretin 2'-O-glucosyltransferase gene) transgenic apple lines and Malus spp. germplasm to gain more insight into the physiological role of phloridzin in apple. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

PuHSFA4a Enhances Tolerance To Excess Zinc by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Root Development in Populus.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jul;180(4):2254-2271

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China.

Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient but in excess is highly toxic to plants. Plants regulate Zn homeostasis and withstand excess Zn through various pathways; these pathways are generally tightly regulated by a specific set of genes. However, the transcription factors involved in excess Zn tolerance have yet to be identified. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Carbohydrate Metabolism and Signaling in Squash Nectaries and Nectar Throughout Floral Maturation.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jul;180(4):1930-1946

Department of Plant & Microbial Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Floral nectar is a sugary solution produced by plants to entice pollinator visitation. A general mechanism for nectar secretion has been established from genetic studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana); however, supporting metabolic and biochemical evidence for this model is scarce in other plant species. We used squash (Cucurbita pepo) to test whether the genetic model of nectar secretion in Arabidopsis is supported at the metabolic level in other species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Generic Repeat Finder: A High-Sensitivity Tool for Genome-Wide De Novo Repeat Detection.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jul;180(4):1803-1815

Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056.

Comprehensive and accurate annotation of the repeatome, including transposons, is critical for deepening our understanding of repeat origins, biogenesis, regulatory mechanisms, and roles. Here, we developed Generic Repeat Finder (GRF), a tool for genome-wide repeat detection based on fast, exhaustive numerical calculation algorithms integrated with optimized dynamic programming strategies. GRF sensitively identifies terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), terminal direct repeats (TDRs), and interspersed repeats that bear both inverted and direct repeats. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Triazine Probes Target Ascorbate Peroxidases in Plants.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jul;180(4):1848-1859

Plant Chemetics Laboratory, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, United Kingdom.

Though they are rare in nature, anthropogenic 1,3,5-triazines have been used in herbicides as chemically stable scaffolds. Here, we show that small 1,3,5-triazines selectively target ascorbate peroxidases (APXs) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha), and other plant species. The alkyne-tagged 2-chloro-4-methyl-1,3,5-triazine probe KSC-3 selectively binds APX enzymes, both in crude extracts and in living cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Circumvents Flavonoid Defenses by Catabolizing Flavonol Glycosides and Aglycones.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jul;180(4):1975-1987

Department of Zoology and Entomology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa.

Flavonols are widely distributed plant metabolites that inhibit microbial growth. Yet many pathogens cause disease in flavonol-containing plant tissues. We investigated how Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes disease in a range of economically important crop species, is able to successfully infect flavonol-rich tissues of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CRISPR-Based Assessment of Gene Specialization in the Gibberellin Metabolic Pathway in Rice.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jul;180(4):2091-2105

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Gibberellin (GA) functions as an essential natural regulator of growth and development in plants. For each step of the GA metabolic pathway, different copy numbers can be found in different species, as is the case with the 13 genes across four enzymatic steps in rice (Oryza sativa). A common view is that such gene duplication creates homologs that buffer organisms against loss-of-function (LOF) mutations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

NF-YB2 and NF-YB3 Have Functionally Diverged and Differentially Induce Drought and Heat Stress-Specific Genes.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jun;180(3):1677-1690

Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

Functional diversification of transcription factors allows the precise regulation of transcriptomic changes under different environmental conditions. The NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factor comprises three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC, and is broadly diversified in plant species, whereas Humans (Homo sapiens) have one protein for each subunit. However, there remains much to be learned about the diversified functions of each subunit in plants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Zinc Excess Induces a Hypoxia-Like Response by Inhibiting Cysteine Oxidases in Poplar Roots.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jun;180(3):1614-1628

PlantLab, Institute of Life Sciences, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 56127 Pisa, Italy.

Poplar (Populus spp.) is a tree species considered for the remediation of soil contaminated by metals, including zinc (Zn). To improve poplar's capacity for Zn assimilation and compartmentalization, it is necessary to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable these features as well as their regulation at the molecular level. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gibberellins Act Downstream of Arabis PERPETUAL FLOWERING1 to Accelerate Floral Induction during Vernalization.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jun;180(3):1549-1563

Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D50829 Cologne, Germany.

Regulation of flowering by endogenous and environmental signals ensures that reproduction occurs under optimal conditions to maximize reproductive success. Involvement of the growth regulator gibberellin (GA) in the control of flowering by environmental cues varies among species. Arabis alpina Pajares, a model perennial member of the Brassicaceae, only undergoes floral induction during vernalization, allowing definition of the role of GA specifically in this process. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Expression of a Lychee PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE:DIACYLGLYCEROL CHOLINEPHOSPHOTRANSFERASE with an Escherichia coli CYCLOPROPANE SYNTHASE Enhances Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Accumulation in Camelina Seeds.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jun;180(3):1351-1361

Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973.

Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPAs) are useful feedstocks for biofuels and bioproducts such as lubricants and biodiesel. Our goal is to identify factors that can facilitate the accumulation of CPA in seed triacylglycerol (TAG) storage oil. We hypothesized that the poor metabolism of CPA through the TAG biosynthetic network could be overcome by the addition of enzymes from species that naturally accumulate CPA in their seed oil, such as lychee (Litchi chinensis), which contains approximately 40% CPA in TAG. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Thylakoid Protein Phosphorylation Dynamics in a Moss Mutant Lacking SERINE/THREONINE PROTEIN KINASE STN8.

Plant Physiol 2019 Jun;180(3):1582-1597

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Plant Biology, University of Turku, Turku 20014, Finland.

In all eukaryotes, protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism in several cellular processes, including the acclimation of photosynthesis to environmental cues. Despite being a well-conserved regulatory mechanism in the chloroplasts of land plants, distinct differences in thylakoid protein phosphorylation patterns have emerged from studies on species of different phylogenetic groups. Here, we analyzed thylakoid protein phosphorylation in the moss Physcomitrella patens, assessing the thylakoid phospho-protein profile and dynamics in response to changes in white light intensity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Alternative Formulations of Trap Lures for Operational Detection, Population Monitoring, and Outbreak Forecasting of Southern Pine Beetle in the United States.

J Econ Entomol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.

The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a major destructive pest of Pinus L. In the southeastern United States, numbers of this species and a major predator, Thanasimus dubius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cleridae), captured during an annual springtime trapping survey are used to make forecasts of the likelihood and severity of an outbreak during the following summer. We investigated responses by both species to six lure formulations to evaluate their suitability for the survey and allow integration of historical data sets produced with differing lure compositions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF