281,721 results match your criteria plant growth


Mechanical buckling can pattern the light-diffracting cuticle of Hibiscus trionum.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(11):109715

Sainsbury Laboratory Cambridge University, Bateman Street, Cambridge, CB2 1LR, UK. Electronic address:

Many species have cuticular striations that play a range of roles, from pollinator attraction to surface wettability. In Hibiscus trionum, the striations span multiple cells at the base of the petal to form a pattern that produces a type of iridescence. It is postulated, using theoretical models, that the pattern of striations could result from mechanical instabilities. Read More

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September 2021

Genome- and transcriptome-wide association studies reveal the genetic basis and the breeding history of seed glucosinolate content in Brassica napus.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

A high content of seed glucosinolates (GSLs) and their degradation products impose anti-nutritional effects on livestock; therefore, persistent efforts are made to reduce the seed GSL content to increase the commercial value of rapeseed meal. Here, we dissected the genetic structure of SGC by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) combined with transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS). Fifteen reliable QTLs were identified to be associated with the reduced SGC in modern B. Read More

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September 2021

Strigolactone biosynthesis catalyzed by cytochrome P450 and sulfotransferase in sorghum.

New Phytol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biological Production Science, United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan.

・Root parasitic plants such as Striga, Orobanche, and Phelipanche spp., cause serious damage to crop production worldwide. Deletion of the Low Germination Stimulant 1 (LGS1) gene gives a Striga-resistance trait in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Read More

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September 2021

Development of non-transgenic glyphosate tolerant wheat by TILLING.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0245802. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Arcadia Biosciences, Davis, California, United States of America.

Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is the world's most widely used broad spectrum, post-emergence herbicide. It inhibits the chloroplast-targeted enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC 2.5. Read More

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September 2021

Efficient Conversion of Glycerol to Ethanol by an Engineered Strain.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Sep 15:AEM0026821. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Japan.

Glycerol is an eco-friendly solvent that enhances plant biomass decomposition via glycerolysis in many pretreatment methods. Nonetheless, inefficient conversion of glycerol to ethanol by natural limits its use in these processes. Here, we have developed an efficient glycerol-converting yeast strain by genetically modifying the oxidation of cytosolic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by an O-dependent dynamic shuttle and abolishing both glycerol phosphorylation and biosynthesis in D452-2 strain, as well as vigorous expression of whole genes in the DHA-pathway ( glycerol facilitator, glycerol dehydrogenase, endogenous dihydroxyacetone kinase, and triosephosphate isomerase). Read More

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September 2021

First Report of Post-Harvest Gray Mold on Hyacinth bean () Caused by in Korea.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

National Academy of Agricultural Science, Crop Protection Division, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 55365, Korea, Wanju, Korea (the Republic of), 55365;

Hyacinth bean ( L.) is a highly proteineous legume under the family . It is native to Africa, cultivated throughout the world, and recently introduced vegetable in Korea. Read More

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September 2021

Comparing the Fungicide Sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Using Mycelial Growth and Ascospore Germination Assays.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Cornell University, Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, 630 West North Street, 211 Barton Laboratory, Geneva, New York, United States, 14456;

The infection of the floral tissues of snap bean and other crops by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causative agent of white mold, is by ascospores. Irrespective of the fungicide mode of action being evaluated, in vitro fungicide sensitivity tests are conducted almost exclusively using mycelial growth assays. This is likely due to difficulties and time involved in sclerotial conditioning required to produce apothecia and ascospores. Read More

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September 2021

First Report of Onion ( L.) Bulb Rot Caused by Pantoea agglomerans in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Lanzhou Jiaotong University, 88 West Road, Anning District, lanzhou, China, 730070;

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most cultivated vegetables throughout the world. With an average annual production quantity of 18 million kg in recent 21 years, China is the world's biggest onion producer (Hanci F. Read More

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September 2021

First Report of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris Causing Marginal Leaf Necrosis of Arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) in Serbia.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Phytomedicine, Plant Pathology, Nemanjina 6, Belgrade, Serbia, 11080;

Arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa (Miller) Thell., syn. Read More

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September 2021

Light signals counteract alterations caused by simulated microgravity in proliferating plant cells.

Am J Bot 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas Margarita Salas - CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, Madrid, 28040, Spain.

Premise: Light and gravity are fundamental cues for plant development. Our understanding of the effects of light stimuli on plants in space, without gravity, is key to providing conditions for plants to acclimate to the environment. Here we tested the hypothesis that the alterations caused by the absence of gravity in root meristematic cells can be counteracted by light. Read More

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September 2021

Morphological, Biochemical, and Proteomic Studies Revealed Impact of Fe and P Crosstalk on Root Development in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Agricultural Statistics, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

Mineral stress is one of the major abiotic stresses faced by crop plants. The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of mineral stress (iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P)) on various morphological and biochemical responses of the shoot and root tissues and root architecture of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Read More

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September 2021

Transporters and transcription factors gene families involved in improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and assimilation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Transgenic Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, 230027, Anhui, China.

Nitrogen (N) as a macronutrient is an important determinant of plant growth. The excessive usage of chemical fertilizers is increasing environmental pollution; hence, the improvement of crop's nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is imperative for sustainable agriculture. N uptake, transportation, assimilation, and remobilization are four important determinants of plant NUE. Read More

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September 2021

Genome characterization of fig umbra-like virus.

Virus Genes 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA.

The complete genome of a new umbra-like virus from edible fig (Ficus carica) was identified by high-throughput sequencing. Based on its similarity to umbra-like virus genome sequences available in GenBank, the proposed name of this new virus is "fig umbra-like virus" (FULV). The genome of full-length FULV-1 consists of 3049 nucleotides organized into three open reading frames (ORFs). Read More

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September 2021

Glycinebetaine: a versatile protectant to improve rice performance against aluminium stress by regulating aluminium uptake and translocation.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, 271018, Shandong, China.

Key Message: Glycinebetaine alleviates the detrimental effects of aluminium stress by regulating aluminium uptake and translocation, maintaining PSII activity, and activating the oxidative defence, thereby maintaining the growth and development of rice. Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the primary growth-limiting factors that limits plant growth and crop productivity in acidic soils. Rice (Oryza sativa L. Read More

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September 2021

Genome-wide high-resolution mapping of DNA methylation reveals epigenetic variation in the offspring of sexual and asexual propagation in Robinia pseudoacacia.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, College of Biological Science and Technology, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Engineering Technology Research Center of Black Locust of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, People's Republic of China.

Key Message: We detected the genome-wide pattern of DNA methylation and its association with gene expression in sexual and asexual progenies of mature Robinia pseudoacacia trees. DNA methylation plays an important role in plant reproduction and development. Although some studies on sexual reproduction have been carried out in model plants, little is known about the dynamic changes in DNA methylation and their effect on gene expression in sexual and asexual progeny of woody plants. Read More

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September 2021

Feruloyl esterase Fae1 is required specifically for host colonisation by the rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

Curr Genet 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Bharat Chattoo Genome Research Centre, Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology Centre, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India, 390002.

Plant cell wall acts as a primary barrier for microbial pathogens during infection. A cell wall-degrading enzyme thus may be a crucial virulence factor, as it may aid the pathogen in successful host invasion. Nine genes coding for feruloyl esterases (Fae), likely involved in plant cell wall degradation, have been annotated in the genome of the cereal-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Read More

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September 2021

Super-resolution imaging illuminates new dynamic behaviors of cellulose synthase.

Plant Cell 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA.

Confocal imaging has shown that CELLULOSE SYNTHASE (CESA) particles move through the plasma membrane as they synthesize cellulose. However, the resolution limit of confocal microscopy circumscribes what can be discovered about these tiny biosynthetic machines. Here, we applied Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM), which improves resolution two-fold over confocal or widefield imaging, to explore the dynamic behaviors of CESA particles in living plant cells. Read More

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September 2021

A Rich and Bountiful Harvest: Key Discoveries in Plant Cell Biology.

Plant Cell 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708WE Wageningen, the Netherlands.

The field of plant cell biology has a rich history of discovery, going back to Robert Hooke's discovery of cells themselves. The development of microscopes and preparation techniques has allowed for the visualization of subcellular structures, and the use of protein biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology has enabled the identification of proteins and mechanisms that regulate key cellular processes. In this review, seven senior plant cell biologists reflect on the development of this research field in the past decades, including the foundational contributions that their teams have made to our rich, current insights into cell biology. Read More

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September 2021

STOP1 activates NRT1.1-mediated nitrate uptake to create a favorable rhizospheric pH for plant adaptation to acidity.

Plant Cell 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Protons (H+) in acidic soils arrest plant growth. However, the mechanisms by which plants optimize their biological processes to diminish the unfavorable effects of H+ stress remain largely unclear. Here, we showed that in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, the C2H2-type transcription factor STOP1 in the nucleus was enriched by low pH in a nitrate-independent manner, with the spatial expression pattern of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1. Read More

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September 2021

PLANT CELL MECHANOBIOLOGY: GREATER THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS.

Plant Cell 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biology and Center for Engineering Mechanobiology, Washington University in St Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130.

The ability to sense and respond to physical forces is critical for the proper function of cells, tissues, and organisms across the evolutionary tree. Plants sense gravity, osmotic conditions, pathogen invasion, wind, and the presence of barriers in the soil, and dynamically integrate internal and external stimuli during every stage of growth and development. While the field of plant mechanobiology is growing, much is still poorly understood-including the interplay between mechanical and biochemical information at the single-cell level. Read More

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September 2021

Comparative Phylogenomic Analysis Reveals Evolutionary Genomic Changes and Novel Toxin Families in Endophytic Pathogens.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 15:e0050921. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biology, College of Arts & Sciences, Saint Louis Universitygrid.262962.b, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

pathogens are the causative agents of several severe crop diseases worldwide, including citrus Huanglongbing and potato zebra chip. These bacteria are endophytic and nonculturable, which makes experimental approaches challenging and highlights the need for bioinformatic analysis in advancing our understanding about pathogenesis. Here, we performed an in-depth comparative phylogenomic analysis of the pathogens and their free-living, nonpathogenic, ancestral species, aiming to identify major genomic changes and determinants associated with their evolutionary transitions in living habitats and pathogenicity. Read More

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September 2021

Exploring the Genomic Diversity and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum in a Vietnamese Population.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 15:e0052621. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

The Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum is a member of the human gut microbiota, and specific variants of have been associated with health benefits such as improving gut integrity and reducing inflammatory responses. Here, we aimed to assess the genomic diversity and predicted metabolic profiles of B. pseudocatenulatum cells found colonizing the gut of healthy Vietnamese adults and children. Read More

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September 2021

Aspects of the Neurospora crassa Sulfur Starvation Response Are Revealed by Transcriptional Profiling and DNA Affinity Purification Sequencing.

mSphere 2021 Sep 15:e0056421. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Plant and Microbial Biology Department, University of California, Berkeleygrid.47840.3f, California, USA.

Accurate nutrient sensing is important for rapid fungal growth and exploitation of available resources. Sulfur is an important nutrient source found in a number of biological macromolecules, including proteins and lipids. The model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is capable of utilizing sulfur found in a variety of sources from amino acids to sulfate. Read More

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September 2021

Beyond the Biosynthetic Gene Cluster Paradigm: Genome-Wide Coexpression Networks Connect Clustered and Unclustered Transcription Factors to Secondary Metabolic Pathways.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 15:e0089821. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Chair of Applied and Molecular Microbiology, Institute of Biotechnology, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Fungal secondary metabolites are widely used as therapeutics and are vital components of drug discovery programs. A major challenge hindering discovery of novel secondary metabolites is that the underlying pathways involved in their biosynthesis are transcriptionally silent under typical laboratory growth conditions, making it difficult to identify the transcriptional networks that they are embedded in. Furthermore, while the genes participating in secondary metabolic pathways are typically found in contiguous clusters on the genome, known as biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), this is not always the case, especially for global and pathway-specific regulators of pathways' activities. Read More

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September 2021

Novel Pyrazolo[3,4-]pyrimidin-4-one Derivatives as Potential Antifungal Agents: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China.

Plant pathogenic fungi seriously threaten agricultural production. There is an urgent need to develop novel fungicides with low toxicity and high efficiency. In this study, we designed and synthesized 44 pyrazolo[3,4-]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives and evaluated them for their fungicidal activities. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of the aerobic biodegradability of process water produced by hydrothermal carbonization and inhibition effects on the heterotrophic biomass of an activated sludge system.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 13;299:113561. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

HBI S.r.l., via A. Volta 13/A, 39100 Bolzano, Italy.

In this work, the aerobic biodegradability of the process water (PW) produced by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of dewatered anaerobic digested sludge and the toxicity assessment in regard to the heterotrophic activated biomass of a conventional activated sludge systems, are described. Such assessments are not yet reported in other scientific papers, so this paper seeks to contribute to the increase of knowledge regarding the valorization of the HTC process applied in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). For such purpose, two different respirometric techniques were applied - multi-OUR respirometry and manometric respirometry. Read More

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September 2021

Key factors influencing on vegetation restoration in the gullies of the Mollisols.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 8;299:113704. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Northeast Agricultural University, 600 Changjiang Rd, Harbin, 150030, PR China.

Natural vegetation restoration (NVR) highly relates to the development of gully erosion, and is mainly determined by both the soil properties and species competition in the gullies. However, it is still not clear what are the key factors influencing on the vegetation restoration in the gullies with the poor soil properties (e.g. Read More

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September 2021

Ethylene needs endogenous hydrogen sulfide for alleviating hexavalent chromium stress in Vigna mungo L. and Vigna radiata L.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 13;290:117968. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, C.M.P. Degree College, A Constituent Post Graduate College of University of Allahabad, Prayagraj, 211002, India.

Chromium toxicity to crops is a big scientific issue of the present time. Thus, continuous scientific attempts have been taken for reducing chromium toxicity in crop plants. In this study, we have tested potential of ethylene (ET) and hydrogen sulfide (HS) in alleviating hexavalent chromium [(Cr(VI)] stress in two pulse crops i. Read More

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The phytoextraction power of Cichorium intybus L. on metal-contaminated soil: Focus on time- and cultivar-depending accumulation and distribution of cadmium, lead and zinc.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 31;287(Pt 1):132122. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Univ. Lille, Institut Mines-Télécom, Univ. Artois, JUNIA, ULR 4515 - LGCgE, Laboratoire de Génie Civil et Géo-Environnement, F-59000, Lille, France. Electronic address:

This study is focused on the evaluation of the accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in five cultivars of Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) which were produced on contaminated agricultural soil. Over a growth period of 211 days, the roots and leaves were collected in four stages and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to measure the concentration and distribution of the target metals in these two chicory organs considering the weather and the nature of the cultivar. Read More

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OsWRKY108 is an integrative regulator of phosphorus homeostasis and leaf inclination in rice.

Plant Signal Behav 2021 Sep 15:1976545. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Phosphorus (P), which is taken up by plants as inorganic phosphate (Pi), is one of the most important macronutrients for plant growth and development. Meanwhile, it determines plant architecture in several ways, including leaf inclination. However, the molecular basis underlying the crosstalk between the signaling pathways of plant P homeostasis and architecture maintenance remains elusive. Read More

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September 2021