12,545 results match your criteria plant eukaryotic

Novel Dicistroviruses in an Unexpected Wide Range of Invertebrates.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Plant Virology, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China.

Dicistroviruses are members of a rapidly growing family of small RNA viruses. Related sequences have been discovered in many environmental samples, indicating that our knowledge about dicistrovirus diversity and host range is still limited. In this study, we performed a systematic search against the publicly available transcriptome database, and identified large numbers of dicistrovirus-like sequences in a wide variety of eukaryotic species. Read More

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The unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae - the simplest model of a photosynthetic eukaryote.

Plant Cell Physiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503, Japan.

Several species of unicellular eukaryotic algae exhibit relatively simple genomic and cellular architecture. Laboratory cultures of these algae grow faster than plants and often provide homogeneous cellular populations exposed to an almost equal environment. These characteristics are ideal for conducting experiments at the cellular and subcellular levels. Read More

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Pharmacoinformatics and molecular dynamics simulation-based phytochemical screening of neem plant (Azadiractha indica) against human cancer by targeting MCM7 protein.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biological Science, Faculty of science, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah-21589, Saudi Arabia.

Minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 (MCM7) belongs to the minichromosome maintenance family that is important for the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication. Overexpression of the MCM7 protein is relative to cellular proliferation and responsible for aggressive malignancy in various cancers. Mechanistically, inhibition of MCM7 significantly reduces the cellular proliferation associated with cancer. Read More

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Coordinated Activation of ARF1 GTPases by ARF-GEF GNOM Dimers Is Essential for Vesicle Trafficking in Arabidopsis.

Plant Cell 2020 Aug;32(8):2491-2507

Center for Plant Molecular Biology, Developmental Genetics, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Membrane trafficking maintains the organization of the eukaryotic cell and delivers cargo proteins to their subcellular destinations, such as sites of action or degradation. The formation of membrane vesicles requires the activation of the ADP-ribosylation factor ARF GTPase by the SEC7 domain of ARF guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs), resulting in the recruitment of coat proteins by GTP-bound ARFs. In vitro exchange assays were done with monomeric proteins, although ARF-GEFs form dimers in vivo. Read More

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Dynamic membranes: the multiple roles of P4 and P5 ATPases.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr;185(3):619-631

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1871 Frederiksberg, Denmark.

The lipid bilayer of biological membranes has a complex composition, including high chemical heterogeneity, the presence of nanodomains of specific lipids, and asymmetry with respect to lipid composition between the two membrane leaflets. In membrane trafficking, membrane vesicles constantly bud off from one membrane compartment and fuse with another, and both budding and fusion events have been proposed to require membrane lipid asymmetry. One mechanism for generating asymmetry in lipid bilayers involves the action of the P4 ATPase family of lipid flippases; these are biological pumps that use ATP as an energy source to flip lipids from one leaflet to the other. Read More

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Three-dimensional genome organization in epigenetic regulations: cause or consequence?

Célia Baroux

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2021 Apr 2;61:102031. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, Zürich-Basel Plant Science Center, University of Zürich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The evolution of the nucleus is an evolutionary milestone. By enabling genome compartmentalization, it contributes to the fine-tuning of genome functions. The genome is partitioned into functional domains differing in spatial positioning and topological folding at different scales. Read More

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Analysis of the chromosomal clustering of Fusarium-responsive wheat genes uncovers new players in the defence against head blight disease.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 2;11(1):7446. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science and Earth Institute, College of Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

There is increasing evidence that some functionally related, co-expressed genes cluster within eukaryotic genomes. We present a novel pipeline that delineates such eukaryotic gene clusters. Using this tool for bread wheat, we uncovered 44 clusters of genes that are responsive to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Read More

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Selective Interaction of Sugarcane eIF4E with VPgs from Sugarcane Mosaic Pathogens.

Viruses 2021 Mar 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

National Engineering Research Center for Sugarcane & Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Biology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) plays a key role in the infection of potyviruses in susceptible plants by interacting with viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Sugarcane ( spp.) production is threatened by mosaic disease caused by (SCMV), (SrMV), and (SCSMV). Read More

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Targeting the DEAD-Box RNA Helicase eIF4A with Rocaglates-A Pan-Antiviral Strategy for Minimizing the Impact of Future RNA Virus Pandemics.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 5;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps University Marburg, Marbacher Weg 6, 35032 Marburg, Germany.

The increase in pandemics caused by RNA viruses of zoonotic origin highlights the urgent need for broad-spectrum antivirals against novel and re-emerging RNA viruses. Broad-spectrum antivirals could be deployed as first-line interventions during an outbreak while virus-specific drugs and vaccines are developed and rolled out. Viruses depend on the host's protein synthesis machinery for replication. Read More

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Characterization and In Vitro Efficacy against of a Newly Isolated Bacteriophage, ɸIZSAM-1.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 31;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise "G. Caporale", 64100 Teramo, Italy.

is a bacterial pathogen responsible of listeriosis, a disease that in humans is often related to the contamination of ready-to-eat foods. Phages are candidate biodecontaminants of pathogenic bacteria thanks to their ability to lyse prokaryotes while being safe for eukaryotic cells. In this study, ɸIZSAM-1 was isolated from the drain-waters of an Italian blue cheese plant and showed lytic activity against antimicrobial resistant strains. Read More

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B Chromosomes in Genus (Poaceae).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Institute of Experimental Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Šlechtitelů 31, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

B chromosomes (Bs) are supernumerary dispensable genomic elements that have been reported in several thousand eukaryotic species. Since their discovery, Bs have been subjected to countless studies aiming at the clarification of their origin, composition, and influence on the carriers. Despite these efforts, we still have very limited knowledge of the processes that led to the emergence of Bs, the mechanisms of their transmission, and the effects of Bs on the hosts. Read More

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Deciphering the Proteotoxic Stress Responses Triggered by the Perturbed Thylakoid Proteostasis in Arabidopsis.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Bioscience, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Sanda 669-1337, Hyogo, Japan.

Here, we explored heat dependent thylakoid FtsH protease substrates and investigated proteotoxicity induced by thermal damage and processive protease dysfunction on the thylakoid membrane. Through our thylakoid enriched proteome analysis and biochemical experiments, carbonylated stromal proteins were suggested as possible FtsH targets. Furthermore, we observed in the thylakoid fractions in the absence of FtsH stromal reactive oxygen species-detoxifying enzymes, as well as heat shock proteins and chaperones, which are known to be upregulated at the transcriptional level when this protease is absent, which is called the damaged protein response, resembling unfolded protein response in eukaryotic cells. Read More

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Allicin, the Odor of Freshly Crushed Garlic: A Review of Recent Progress in Understanding Allicin's Effects on Cells.

Molecules 2021 Mar 10;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Plant Physiology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen, Germany.

The volatile organic sulfur compound allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate) is produced as a defense substance when garlic () tissues are damaged, for example by the activities of pathogens or pests. Allicin gives crushed garlic its characteristic odor, is membrane permeable and readily taken up by exposed cells. It is a reactive thiol-trapping sulfur compound that -thioallylates accessible cysteine residues in proteins and low molecular weight thiols including the cellular redox buffer glutathione (GSH) in eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as bacillithiol (BSH) in Gram-positive firmicutes. Read More

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InsectChange: a global database of temporal changes in insect and arachnid assemblages.

Ecology 2021 Apr 2:e03354. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

German Centre for Integrated Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig (iDiv), Puschstrasse 4, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Insects are the most ubiquitous and diverse group of eukaryotic organisms on Earth, forming a crucial link in terrestrial and freshwater food webs, but have recently made headlines because of observations of dramatic declines in some places. Although there are hundreds of long-term insect monitoring programs, a global database for long-term data on insect assemblages has so far remained unavailable. In order to facilitate synthetic analyses of insect abundance changes, we compiled a database of long-term (≥10 year) studies of assemblages of insects (many also including arachnids) in the terrestrial and freshwater realms. Read More

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Autophagy is required for lipid homeostasis during dark-induced senescence.

Plant Physiol 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram 9190401, Israel.

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic components in eukaryotic cells. In plants, autophagy has been extensively associated with the recycling of proteins during carbon-starvation conditions. Even though lipids constitute a significant energy reserve, our understanding of the function of autophagy in the management of cell lipid reserves and components remains fragmented. Read More

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January 2021

Geometry and cellular function of organelle membrane interfaces.

Plant Physiol 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biogenèse Membranaire, UMR5200, CNRS, F-33140 Villenave d'Ornon, France.

The vast majority of cellular processes take root at the surface of biological membranes. By providing a two-dimensional platform with limited diffusion, membranes are, by nature, perfect devices to concentrate signaling and metabolic components. As such, membranes often act as "key processors" of cellular information. Read More

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December 2020

TOR coordinates nucleotide availability with ribosome biogenesis in plants.

Plant Cell 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) is a conserved eukaryotic Ser/Thr protein kinase that coordinates growth and metabolism with nutrient availability. We conducted a medium-throughput functional genetic screen to discover essential genes that promote TOR activity in plants, and identified a critical regulatory enzyme, cytosolic phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase (PRS4). PRS4 synthesizes cytosolic PRPP, a key upstream metabolite in nucleotide synthesis and salvage pathways. Read More

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February 2021

Exportin-4 coordinates nuclear shuttling of TOPLESS family transcription corepressors to regulate plant immunity.

Plant Cell 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

The regulated nucleocytoplasmic exchange of macromolecules is essential for the eukaryotic cell. However, nuclear transport pathways defined by different nuclear transport receptors (NTRs), including importins and exportins, and their significance in activating distinct stress responses are poorly understood in plants. Here, we exploited a CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic screen to search for modifiers of CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSION OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE 5 (cpr5), an Arabidopsis thaliana nucleoporin mutant that activates autoimmune responses that partially mimic effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Read More

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January 2021

An antisense noncoding RNA enhances translation via localised structural rearrangements of its cognate mRNA.

Plant Cell 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Plant Molecular Biology, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

A large portion of eukaryotic genes are associated with noncoding, natural antisense transcripts (NATs). Despite sharing extensive sequence complementarity with their sense mRNAs, mRNA-NAT pairs elusively often evade dsRNA-cleavage and siRNA-triggered silencing. More surprisingly, some NATs enhance translation of their sense mRNAs by yet unknown mechanism(s). Read More

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January 2021

Gene dosage compensation of rRNA transcript levels in Arabidopsis thaliana lines with reduced ribosomal gene copy number.

Plant Cell 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Genetics and Biotechnology Laboratory, Plant & AgriBiosciences Research Centre (PABC), Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway H91 REW4, Ireland.

The 45S rRNA genes (rDNA) are amongst the largest repetitive elements in eukaryotic genomes. rDNA consists of tandem arrays of rRNA genes, many of which are transcriptionally silenced. Silent rDNA repeats may act as 'back-up' copies for ribosome biogenesis and have nuclear organization roles. Read More

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February 2021

Functional Analysis of Wheat NAC Transcription Factor, , in Regulating Resistance of Wheat to Leaf Rust Fungus.

Front Plant Sci 2021 15;12:604797. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

College of Plant Protection, Hebei Agricultural University/Technological Innovation Center for Biological Control of Crop Diseases and Insect Pests of Hebei Province, Baoding, China.

NAC transcription factors are one of the largest transcription factor families having functions in a variety of stress responses. Few NACs have been reported for interactions between wheat and the wheat rust fungus (). In this study, based on analysis of RNA-seq data from wheat line TcLr19 inoculated by , the NAC transcription factor was cloned from wheat, and its transcriptional activity and homologous dimer formation were verified. Read More

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Genomic analysis uncovers functional variation in the C-terminus of anthocyanin-activating MYB transcription factors.

Hortic Res 2021 Apr 1;8(1):77. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, 120 Mount Albert Road, Sandringham, Auckland, 1025, New Zealand.

MYB transcription factors regulate diverse aspects of plant development and secondary metabolism, often by partnering in transcriptional regulatory complexes. Here, we harness genomic resources to identify novel MYBs, thereby producing an updated eudicot MYB phylogeny with revised relationships among subgroups as well as new information on sequence variation in the disordered C-terminus of anthocyanin-activating MYBs. BLAST® and hidden Markov model scans of gene annotations identified a total of 714 MYB transcription factors across the genomes of four crops that span the eudicots: apple, grape, kiwifruit and tomato. Read More

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Update on Phytochemical and Biological Studies on Rocaglate Derivatives from Aglaia Species.

Planta Med 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States.

With about 120 species, is one of the largest genera of the plant family Meliaceae (the mahogany plants). It is native to the tropical rainforests of the Indo-Australian region, ranging from India and Sri Lanka eastward to Polynesia and Micronesia. Various species have been investigated since the 1960s for their phytochemical constituents and biological properties, with the cyclopenta[]benzofurans (rocaglates or flavaglines) being of particular interest. Read More

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Profiling of RNA ribose methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Key Laboratory of RNA Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Eukaryotic rRNAs and snRNAs are decorated with abundant 2'-O-methylated nucleotides (Nm) that are predominantly synthesized by box C/D snoRNA-guided enzymes. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, C/D snoRNAs have been well categorized, but there is a lack of systematic mapping of Nm. Here, we applied RiboMeth-seq to profile Nm in cytoplasmic, chloroplast and mitochondrial rRNAs and snRNAs. Read More

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Diversity and Evolution of Carotenoid Biosynthesis from Prokaryotes to Plants.

Gerhard Sandmann

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1261:79-94

Biosynthesis Group, Molecular Biosciences, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Carotenoids exist in pro- and eukaryotic organisms, but not in animals (with one exception). Their biosynthesis evolved from a common ancestor of Archaea and Bacteria and via the latter by endosymbiosis to algae and plants. The formation of carotenoids in fungi can be regarded as a lineage from the archaea. Read More

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Mediator Subunits MED16, MED14, and MED2 Are Required for Activation of ABRE-Dependent Transcription in Arabidopsis.

Front Plant Sci 2021 11;12:649720. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Biosciences, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom.

The Mediator complex controls transcription of most eukaryotic genes with individual subunits required for the control of particular gene regulons in response to various perturbations. In this study, we reveal the roles of the plant Mediator subunits MED16, MED14, and MED2 in regulating transcription in response to the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and we determine which elements are under their control. Using synthetic promoter reporters we established an effective system for testing relationships between subunits and specific acting motifs in protoplasts. Read More

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Photoperiodic Signaling and Senescence, an Ancient Solution to a Modern Problem?

Front Plant Sci 2021 10;12:634393. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain.

The length of the day (photoperiod) is a robust seasonal signal originated by earth orbital and translational movements, a resilient external cue to the global climate change, and a predictable hint to initiate or complete different developmental programs. In eukaryotic algae, the gene expression network that controls the cellular response to photoperiod also regulates other basic physiological functions such as starch synthesis or redox homeostasis. Land plants, evolving in a novel and demanding environment, imbued these external signals within the regulatory networks controlling organogenesis and developmental programs. Read More

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Spray-induced gene silencing for disease control is dependent on the efficiency of pathogen RNA uptake.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Microbiology & Plant Pathology, Center for Plant Cell Biology, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, California, 92521, USA.

Recent discoveries show that fungi can take up environmental RNA, which can then silence fungal genes through environmental RNA interference. This discovery prompted the development of Spray-Induced Gene Silencing (SIGS) for plant disease management. In this study, we aimed to determine the efficacy of SIGS across a variety of eukaryotic microbes. Read More

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A newly nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD)-fused reversible fluorescence probe for pH monitoring and application in bioimaging.

Talanta 2021 Jun 19;228:122218. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Ningbo Eye Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315040, China; School of Ophthalmology & Optometry, School of Biomedical Engineering, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325035, China. Electronic address:

pH plays an essential role in virtually all biological processes, which thus needs to be tightly regulated. Especially small changes in pH value in biological systems will affect the normal metabolic functions of animals and plants. Therefore, it is very important to accurately track changes in pH in biological systems. Read More

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New Insights Into the Evolution of the Electron Transfer from Cytochrome f to Photosystem I in the Green and Red Branches of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.

Plant Cell Physiol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis, CSIC and Universidad de Sevilla, cicCartuja, Sevilla, Spain.

In cyanobacteria and most green algae of the eukaryotic green lineage, the copper-protein plastocyanin alternatively replaces the heme-protein cytochrome c  6 as the soluble electron carrier from cytochrome f to photosystem I. The functional and structural equivalence of "green" plastocyanin and cytochrome c  6 has been well established, representing an example of convergent evolution of two unrelated proteins. However, plants only produce plastocyanin, despite having evolved from green algae. Read More

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