1,250,897 results match your criteria plant

The scope of flavin-dependent reactions and processes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

Phytochemistry 2021 Jun 9;189:112822. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 12/2, 8010, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are utilized as coenzymes in many biochemical reduction-oxidation reactions owing to the ability of the tricyclic isoalloxazine ring system to employ the oxidized, radical and reduced state. We have analyzed the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana to establish an inventory of genes encoding flavin-dependent enzymes (flavoenzymes) as a basis to explore the range of flavin-dependent biochemical reactions that occur in this model plant. Expectedly, flavoenzymes catalyze many pivotal reactions in primary catabolism, which are connected to the degradation of basic metabolites, such as fatty and amino acids as well as carbohydrates and purines. Read More

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Zinc oxide nanoparticles alleviates the adverse effects of cadmium stress on Oryza sativa via modulation of the photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 8;220:112401. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Botany, S.P. College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element causing severe toxicity symptoms in plants, besides posing hazardous fitness issue due to its buildup in the human body through food chain. Nanoparticles (NPs) are recently employed as a novel strategy to directly ameliorate the Cd stress and acted as nano-fertilizers. The intend of the current study was to explore the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs; 50 mg/L) on plant growth, photosynthetic activity, elemental status and antioxidant activity in Oryza sativa (rice) under Cd (0. Read More

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Discovery and preliminary mechanism of 1-carbamoyl β-carbolines as new antifungal candidates.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jun 2;222:113563. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

Natural β-carboline alkaloids are ideal models for the discovery of pharmaceutically important entities. Various 1-substituted β-carbolines were synthesized from commercially inexpensive tryptophan and demonstrated significant in vitro antifungal activity against G. graminis. Read More

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Comparative analysis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedling transcriptomes reveals genotype-specific drought tolerance mechanisms.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 May 29;166:203-214. Epub 2021 May 29.

Agricultural College, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, 750021, China. Electronic address:

Drought is one of the main abiotic factors that affect alfalfa yield. The identification of genes that control this complex trait can provide important insights for alfalfa breeding. However, little is known about how alfalfa responds and adapts to drought stress, particularly in cultivars of differing drought tolerance. Read More

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In vitro tetraploidy induction creates enhancements in morphological, physiological and phytochemical characteristics in the fig tree (Ficus Carica L.).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jun 1;166:191-202. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, P.O. Box 65186-71441, Iran. Electronic address:

Fig tree (Ficus carica L.) is a precious fruit tree in semi-arid and arid areas worldwide which has difficulties in its conventional breeding programs. This study was carried out to make new genotypes with superior features based on the ploidy induction method. Read More

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Nanoplastics adsorption and removal efficiency by granular activated carbon used in drinking water treatment process.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 1;791:148175. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Group of Environmental Physical Chemistry, Department F.-A. Forel for Environmental and Aquatic Sciences, University of Geneva, Uni Carl Vogt, 66, boulevard Carl-Vogt, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Electronic address:

In this study Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) used in drinking water treatment processes is evaluated for its capacity to adsorb and remove polystyrene (PS) nanoplastics. Batch experiments are conducted in ultrapure and surface water from Lake Geneva, currently used as drinking water resources. Equilibrium and kinetic studies are conducted to understand adsorption mechanisms and limiting factors. Read More

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Variation in the content and fluorescent composition of dissolved organic matter in soil water during rainfall-induced wetting and extract of dried soil.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 9;791:148296. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is present in all soils, providing a readily available carbon source for microorganisms, which influences microbially mediated biogeochemical processes. Rainfall-induced wetting can alter the content and composition of soil DOM. However, conventional methods commonly used to extract DOM from soils involve air- or oven-drying followed by extraction with water, and the results vary considerably in terms of indexes used. Read More

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A sensing network involving citizens for high spatio-temporal resolution monitoring of fugitive emissions from a petroleum pre-treatment plant.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 29;791:148135. Epub 2021 May 29.

Biology Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari, Italy.

In this study an innovative sensing network consisting of eight photoionization detectors, meteorological sensors, a video camera and a telephonic system able to systematize the population complaints was developed for the monitoring of odor emissions. The development of monitoring approaches with high temporal and spatial resolution and actively involving citizens, is strategic in areas where relevant and also short-term emissive events frequently occur and the conventional approaches fail due to the high variability of fugitive emissions. Moreover, even if unpleasant odors are not necessarily direct triggers of health effects, they could be associated with the release of other harmful compounds. Read More

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Effect of ZnO nanoparticles on Zn, Cu, and Pb dissolution in a green bioretention system for urban stormwater remediation.

Chemosphere 2021 May 29;282:131045. Epub 2021 May 29.

Naturalea, Terra Alta, 51, 08211, Castellar del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain.

Stormwater runoff from urban and suburban areas can carry hazardous pollutants directly into aquatic ecosystems. These pollutants, such as metals, nutrients, aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals, are very toxic to aquatic organisms. Recently, significant amounts of zinc oxide engineered nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have been detected in urban stormwater and its bioretention systems. Read More

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Removal trend of amoxicillin and tetracycline during groundwater recharging reusing: Redox sensitivity and microbial community response.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 4;282:131011. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment (SKLUWRE); School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China. Electronic address:

The abundant existence of antibiotics within the effluent of wastewater treatment plant seriously threatened their safety recharging. To investigate the fate and biodegradation of those toxic antibiotics within the soil aquifer system, typical antibiotics of amoxicillin (AMX) and tetracycline (TC) were selected and their removal mechanisms were investigated. Experimental results revealed that totally 93. Read More

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Impact of time and phosphorus application rate on phosphorus bioavailability and efficiency of secondary fertilizers recovered from municipal wastewater.

Chemosphere 2021 May 28;282:131017. Epub 2021 May 28.

Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry (Ecochem), Coupure Links 653, B Block, 6th Floor, 9000, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Demand for phosphorus (P) resources other than non-renewable P rock has driven the development of several P recovery technologies from municipal wastewater treatment and directed recovery of P into valuable fertilizers (struvite, ash, iron phosphate, etc.). Although the bioavailability of novel secondary P fertilizers has been examined in previous studies, insufficient attention has been paid to defining optimal plant growth duration and monitoring conditions to assess the dynamic changes in P. Read More

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Antimicrobial activity and toxicological risk assessment of silver nanoparticles synthesized using an eco-friendly method with Gloeophyllum striatum.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 4;418:126316. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, 12/16 Banacha Street, 90-237 Lodz, Poland. Electronic address:

Recently, nanomaterials synthesized ecologically using microorganisms have attracted much interest. In the present study, the ability of Gloeophyllum striatum to synthesize silver nanoparticles is described for the first time. Nanoparticles were formed in an eco-friendly extracellular manner and characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, MADLS and SEM techniques. Read More

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Potency testing of cannabinoids by liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography: Where we are, what we need.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Jun 1;1651:462304. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Sciences, University of Ferrara, via L. Borsari 46, Ferrara 44121, Italy. Electronic address:

Hemp and cannabis industry is undergoing a renewed interest due to legalization of marijuana (a topic that all countries are discussing, especially in recent years) and the growing importance of therapeutic properties of cannabinoids. Together with an increment in the production of hemp and recreational cannabis, there has been an increasing demand for accurate potency testing of products (i.e. Read More

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Integrated mechanistic and data-driven modeling for risk assessment of greenhouse gas production in an urbanized river system.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 9;294:112999. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Animal Sciences, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.

Surrounded by intense anthropogenic activities, urban polluted rivers have increasingly been reported as a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, unlike pollution and climate change, no integrated urban water models have investigated the GHG production in urban rivers due to system complexity. In this study, we proposed a novel integrated framework of mechanistic and data-driven models to qualitatively assess the risks of GHG accumulation in an urban river system in different water management interventions. Read More

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Assessment of arsenic status and distribution in Usangu agro-ecosystem-Tanzania.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 9;294:113012. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, PL4 8AA, UK.

This study was conducted to assess arsenic (As) status and distribution in Usangu agroecosystem-Tanzania, including three land use. About 198 soil samples were collected in ten irrigation schemes in three land uses. Total and bioavailable As were determined by acid digestion (Aqua regia (AQ)) and Mehlich 3 method (M3) to estimate status, distribution and bioavailability. Read More

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Temporal responses of hydrochemical variables and dissolved Fe(II) to flooding at a lake riparian wetland under different vegetation revealing by high resolution DGT.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 9;294:112930. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, PR China.

The interplay between hydrological and biogeochemical processes in riparian wetland was recognized to lead directly to the temporal variations of surface water quality. However, the effects of flooding and vegetation on the release and entrapment of heavy metals and nutrients in riparian wetland remain poorly understood. The study aimed at investigating the influences of flooding and vegetation on the hydrochemical and Fe-redox change in the soil porewater and shallow groundwater, in Poyang lake riparian wetland through hydrochemical monitoring and diffusive gradient technology (DGT). Read More

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The evaluation of phenolic content, in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Mentha piperita extracts obtained by natural deep eutectic solvents.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 2;362:130226. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Chemistry&Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Field and Vegetable Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.

The focus of this study was to evaluate whether six choline chloride-based natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) could serve as solvents for the extraction of bioactives from the leaves of Mentha piperita. NADES extracted significantly higher amounts of phenols from peppermint than 70% ethanol and may be useful in the extraction of targeted major compounds from peppermint, like rosmarinic acid, at a similar level as 70% ethanol. The microdilution method for in vitro antibacterial activity showed that all NADES exhibit bacterial growth inhibition at a lower concentration than 70% ethanol, especially NADESs containing organic acids. Read More

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Design, synthesis, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of novel kojic acid derivatives containing bioactive heterocycle moiety as inhibitors of tyrosinase and antibrowning agents.

Food Chem 2021 May 28;362:130241. Epub 2021 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants, Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China. Electronic address:

Tyrosinase plays an important role in melanin biosynthesis and enzymatic browning of fresh-cut fruit and vegetables. To discover potent tyrosinase inhibitors and antibrowning agents, a series of novel kojic acid derivatives containing bioactive heterocycle moiety (4a-4l) were designed and synthesized. Thereinto, 4d displayed the most potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity with IC of 3. Read More

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Antimicrobial, modulatory, and antibiofilm activity of tt-farnesol on bacterial and fungal strains of importance to human health.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Jun 9:128192. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Medicinal Plants Research Center - NPPM, Federal University of Piauí, UFPI, 64049-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil; Center of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology, Federal University of Piauí, UFPI, 64049-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil. Electronic address:

In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and modulatory activities of trans-trans-farnesol (tt-farnesol). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of this sesquiterpene was evaluated against 31 Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and 4 species of the genus Candida. Furthermore, we examined its inhibitory action on biofilm production as well as antibiotic modulation. Read More

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Microbes-mediated synthesis strategies of metal nanoparticles and their potential role in cancer therapeutics.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 862-0973, Japan; Program for Leading Graduate Schools, HIGO Program, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 862-0973, Japan. Electronic address:

Past few years have seen a paradigm shift towards ecofriendly, green and biological fabrication of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) for diverse nanomedicinal applications especially in cancer nanotheranostics. Besides, the well-known green synthesis methods of plant materials, the potential of the microbial world (bacteria, fungi, alga, etc.) in biofabrication is equally realized. Read More

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Molecular mechanisms underlying health benefits of tea compounds.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Tea is one of the three most widely consumed beverages in the world, not only because of its unique flavor but also due to its various health benefits. The bioactive components in tea, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, polypeptides, pigments, and alkaloids, are the main contributors to its health functions. Based on epidemiological surveys, the consumption of tea and its compounds in daily life has positive effects on cardiovascular diseases, cancers, hepatopathy, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Read More

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CCHamide2-receptor regulates feeding behavior in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

Peptides 2021 Jun 9:170596. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Crop Pest Management of Shandong Province, College of Plant Health and Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, 700 Changcheng Road, Qingdao, Shandong, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Neuropeptide CCHamide-2 is a recently discovered peptide presents in many arthropods and it is the ligand of the CCHamide-2 receptor (CCHa2-R), which is playing a regulatory role in diverse physiological processes, such as feeding, insulin production, lipid metabolism, growth and reproduction, however, the function of this gene in aphids is still unknown. Here, we characterized and determined the presumed role of CCHa2-R signaling in the wingless pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed the expression levels of CCHa2-R transcripts in different development stages and different tissues, which indicates that the CCHa2-R expression was high in the first instar as compared to the upcoming nymphal instars and adult and was predominantly high in the brain. Read More

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Recent Advances in Potential Drug Therapies Combating COVID-19 and Related Coronaviruses-A Perspective.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 9:112333. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Laboratory of Medicinal Plant Biotechnology, College of Pharmacy, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310053, China. Electronic address:

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a large family of viruses responsible for the severe pathophysiological effects on human health. The most severe outbreak includes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The COVID-19 poses major challenges to clinical management because no specific FDA-approved therapy yet to be available. Read More

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Anti-seizure activity of African medicinal plants: the identification of bioactive alkaloids from the stem bark of Rauvolfia caffra using an in vivo zebrafish model.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 9:114282. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Epilepsy is one of the major chronic diseases that does not have a cure to date. Adverse drug reactions have been reported from the use of available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which are also effective in only two-thirds of the patients. Accordingly, the identification of scaffolds with promising anti-seizure activity remains an important first step towards the development of new anti-epileptic therapies, with improved efficacy and reduced adverse effects. Read More

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Unfolding the Apoptotic Mechanism of Antioxidant Enriched-Leaves of Tabebuia pallida (Lindl.) Miers in EAC Cells and Mouse Model.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 9:114297. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Tabebuia pallida (Lindl.) Miers (T. pallida) is a well-known native Caribbean medicinal plant. Read More

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Host nutrition-based approach for biotechnological production of the antifungal cyclic lipopeptide jagaricin.

J Biotechnol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Bio Pilot Plant, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell Institute, Adolf-Reichwein-Str. 23, 07745, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:

In today's, society multi-resistant pathogens have become an emerging threat, which makes the search for novel anti-infectives more urgent than ever. A promising class of substances are cyclic lipopeptides like the antifungal jagaricin. Jagaricin is formed by the bacterial mushroom pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum. Read More

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Lineage-specific gene evolution of innate immunity in Bombyx mori to adapt to challenge by pathogens, especially entomopathogenic fungi.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 9:104171. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, 571101, China; Sericulture Research Center, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, 571101, China. Electronic address:

Bombyx mori is a model species of Lepidoptera, in which 21 gene families and 220 genes have been identified as involved in immunity. However, only 45 B. mori - Drosophila melanogaster - Anopheles gambiae - Apis mellifera - Tribolium castaneum 1:1:1:1:1 orthologous genes were identified. Read More

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Sophoraflavanone M, a prenylated flavonoid from Sophora flavescens Ait., suppresses pro-inflammatory mediators through both NF-κB and JNK/AP-1 signaling pathways in LPS-primed macrophages.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 9:174246. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

(2R)-3α,7,4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-8-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl)-flavanone is a prenylated flavonoid isolated from the anti-inflammatory herb Sophora flavescens Ait. This article firstly named it as sophoraflavanone M (SFM) in accordance with trivial names of related constitutes from this plant. Although various studies investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of prenylated flavonoids from Sophora flavescens Ait. Read More

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Beneficial effect of the methanolic leaf extract of Allium hookeri on stimulating glutathione biosynthesis and preventing impaired glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Jun 9:108961. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Chemical Biology Lab, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST) Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati, 35, India; Assam Down Town University, Panikhaiti, Assam, 781068, India. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress resulting from the depletion of glutathione (GSH) level plays a vital role in generating various degenerative diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). We tested the hypothesis that depleted glutathione levels can be enhanced and the impaired glucose metabolism can be prevented by supplementing Allium hookeri, a herb rich in organosulfur compounds, in a High Fat (HF) diet-induced T2D Male Sprague Dawley rat model. The experimental rats were divided into three groups (n = 6), namely normal diet, high-fat diet, and high-fat diet treated with A. Read More

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Why trees grow at night.

New Phytol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, 8903, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

The timing of diel stem growth of mature forest trees is still largely unknown, as empirical data with high temporal resolution have not been available so far. Consequently, the effects of day-night conditions on tree growth remained uncertain. Here we present the first comprehensive field study of hourly-resolved radial stem growth of seven temperate tree species, based on 57 million underlying data points over a period of up to 8 years. Read More

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