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Metal artifact reduction in 2D CT images with self-supervised cross-domain learning.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Stanford, California, CA94305-5847, Stanford, California, 94305-5847, UNITED STATES.

The presence of metallic implants often introduces severe metal artifacts in the X-ray CT images, which could adversely influence clinical diagnosis or dose calculation in radiation therapy. In this work, we present a novel deep-learning-based approach for metal artifact reduction (MAR). In order to alleviate the need for anatomically identical CT image pairs (\ie, metal artifact-corrupted CT image and metal artifact-free CT image) for network learning, we propose a self-supervised cross-domain learning framework. Read More

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Efficient removal of organic pollutants by a Co/N/S-doped yolk-shell carbon catalyst via peroxymonosulfate activation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 23;421:126726. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, PR China.

Carbon-based catalysts with heteroatom doping and hollow structures are desired for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Herein, dual-shelled Co, N, and S codoped hollow carbon nanocages were developed by wrapping zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) with trithiocyanuric acid (TCA) and performing subsequent carbonization. The optimal composite catalyst (Co-NC-CoS) exhibited excellent catalytic performance toward different organic pollutants. Read More

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Long-term low-dose oxytetracycline potentially leads to neurobehavioural changes.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 27;223:112546. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Infectious Disease, Xinhua Children's Hospital, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Trace levels of oxytetracycline (OTC)-a veterinary antibiotic and feed additive-are widespread in the environment. Studies revealed that OTC potentially impairs thyroid function, which may affect neurobehaviour; however, the impact of exposure to environmental concentrations of OTC on adult neurobehaviour is unknown. In this study, the effects of OTC on zebrafish after 30-day exposure were investigated. Read More

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N-(3-cyano-1H-indol-5-yl)isonicotinamide and N-(3-cyano-1H-indol-5-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxamide derivatives: Novel amide-based xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 15;115:105181. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, 77 Puhe Road, North New Area, Shenyang 110122, China. Electronic address:

Our previous work demonstrated that amide is an efficient linker to explore chemical space of xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors that are entirely different from febuxostat and topiroxostat. In this effort, with 3-cyano-1H-indol-5-yl as a key moiety, two series of amide-based XO inhibitors, N-(3-cyano-1H-indol-5-yl)isonicotinamides (2a-w) and N-(3-cyano-1H-indol-5-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxamides (3a-i), were designed and synthesized. The structure-activity relationship investigation identified N-(3-cyano-1-cyclopentyl-1H-indol-5-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxamide (3i, IC = 0. Read More

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Breast cancer screening using synthesized two-dimensional mammography: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Breast 2021 Jul 22;59:270-278. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Centre, Beijing, China.

Purpose: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the screening performance of synthesized mammography (SM) plus digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) with digital mammography (DM) plus DBT or DM alone.

Methods: Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2010 to January 2021. Eligible population-based studies on breast cancer screening comparing SM/DBT with DM/DBT or DM in asymptomatic women were included. Read More

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Olaparib in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer regardless of BRCA status: a GEICO phase II trial (ROLANDO study).

ESMO Open 2021 Jul 27;6(4):100212. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medical Oncology Department, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Madrid, Spain.

Background: There is limited evidence for the benefit of olaparib in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC) patients with BRCA wild-type tumors. This study investigated whether this combination of a DNA-damaging chemotherapy plus olaparib is effective in PROC regardless BRCA status.

Patients And Methods: Patients with high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian carcinoma and one previous PROC recurrence were enrolled regardless of BRCA status. Read More

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An empirical method for splitting arcs in VMAT.

Phys Med 2021 Jul 26;88:264-271. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Medical Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. Electronic address:

Purpose: We present a new approach to determine the optimal arc split for VMAT beams which is an extension of our recently published algorithm for selecting optimal beam angles in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) MATERIAL AND METHODS: The proposed approach uses an objective function based scoring method called "ψ - score" to determine optimal arc splitting strategy. To validate our approach, we applied it in different clinical cases: Abdomen-Para aortic node, Lung, Pancreas and Prostate. Basically, for all clinical cases, two set of plans were created, namely VMAT plan and VMAT_S plan using Pinnacle (V16. Read More

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Safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of budigalimab with rovalpituzumab tesirine in patients with small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 May 25;28:100405. Epub 2021 May 25.

Cancer Care Center, Blacktown Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Agents targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have been approved as monotherapy for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In preclinical models, the combined targeting of PD-1 and delta-like protein 3 resulted in enhanced antitumor activity. Herein, we report results from the expansion arm of study NCT03000257 evaluating the combination of the anti-PD-1 antibody budigalimab and the targeted antibody-drug conjugate rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T) in patients with previously treated SCLC. Read More

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Antibody response induced by the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of health-care workers, with or without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection: a prospective study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Infectious Tropical Diseases and Microbiology, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria hospital, via Sempreboni 5, 37024 Negrar di Valpolicella, Verona, Italy; Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Objectives: We assessed the antibody response to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of health care workers (HCW), comparing subjects with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and naïve subjects.

Methods: HCW were tested at T0 (day of first dose), T1 (day of second dose), and T2 (2-3 weeks after) for IgG anti nucleocapside protein, IgM anti spike protein and IgG anti receptor binding domain (IgG-RBD-S). The antibody response was compared between 4 main groups: A) Subjects with previous infection and positive antibodies at baseline; B) subjects with same history but negative antibodies; C) subjects with no infection history but positive antibodies; D) naïve subjects. Read More

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Assessment reliability of cervical spine parameters on full-body radiographs apply to asymptomatic and spinal deformities subjects.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 Jul 27:103026. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Saint-Joseph in Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Background: Cervical spinal alignment is usually assessed on full-body radiographs allowing for the concomitant evaluation of possible compensatory mechanisms that may occur at any level in the setting of postural malalignment.

Hypothesis: Cervical parameters measured on full-body radiographs are reliable.

Patients & Methods: A total of 70 subjects were included and divided in 3 groups: asymptomatic adults (N=21), adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (N=20), and adults with spinal deformity (N=29), for whom full-body low-dose biplanar radiographs were obtained. Read More

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Does intraoperative 3D navigation improve SpineJack vertebral augmentation in thoracic and lumbar compression fracture?

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 Jul 27:103028. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, Université Grenoble Alpes, 38700 La Tronche, France; TIMC-IMAG Lab, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS UMR 5525, 38700 La Tronche, France.

Introduction: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of navigation on the positioning of the SpineJack implant in the treatment of thoracic and lumbar compression fractures.

Methods: Between January 2018 and December 2019, all patients operated on for thoracic or lumbar fracture using the SpineJack device in stand-alone were included in this single-center study. The positioning of the SpineJack implant was analyzed on axial CT views by measuring the angle between the axis of the pedicle and the axis of the final implant. Read More

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FLAMSA-busulfan-melphalan as sequential conditioning regimen in HLA-matched or haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for high-risk myeloid diseases.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Sorbonne Université, Service d'Hématologie Clinique, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, APHP, Paris, France.

Background: Given the poor prognosis of relapsed/refractory myeloid malignancies, the concept of sequential conditioning prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been shown as an effective approach.

Objective: We sought to evaluate a sequential scheme combining fludarabine, amsacrine and cytarabine for cytoreduction, followed by a reduced-intensity conditioning with melphalan and busulfan (FLAMSA-BuMel), which was designed to be suitable for both HLA-matched and haploidentical grafts.

Study Design: In this monocentric retrospective study, 36 adult patients with high-risk myeloid malignancies were included, and transplanted from HLA-matched (n=19) or haploidentical (n=17) donors. Read More

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Myeloablative Fractionated Busulfan with Fludarabine in Older Patients: Long Term Disease-Specific Outcomes of a Prospective Phase II Clinical Trial.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Background: Compared to reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) reduces relapse but is avoided in older patients due to higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). To meet the need for a myeloablative regimen for older patients, we developed a novel fludarabine and busulfan MAC regimen. We fractionated the dose of busulfan and gave it for six days over a two-week period and demonstrated the feasibility and safety of this approach. Read More

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Combined treatment of sinapic acid and ellagic acid attenuates hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jul 27:112443. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van, Turkey.

In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of individual and combined treatment of sinapic acid (SA) and ellagic acid (EA) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Rats were divided into eight groups (n = 7): Normal Control, Diabetic Control, Diabetic + Sinapic Acid, Diabetic + Ellagic Acid, Diabetic + Sinapic Acid + Ellagic Acid, Sinapic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Sinapic Acid + Ellagic Acid. Diabetic groups were injected with a single dose of 50 mg/kg STZ intraperitoneally. Read More

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PCNA inhibition enhances the cytotoxicity of β-lapachone in NQO1-Positive cancer cells by augmentation of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA. Electronic address:

β-Lapachone is a classic quinone-containing antitumor NQO1-bioactivatable drug that directly kills NQO1-overexpressing cancer cells. However, the clinical applications of β-lapachone are primarily limited by its high toxicity and modest lethality. To overcome this side effect and expand the therapeutic utility of β-lapachone, we demonstrate the effects of a novel combination therapy including β-lapachone and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) inhibitor T2 amino alcohol (T2AA) on various NQO1 cancer cells. Read More

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Dose bridging data for mometasone furoate in once-daily fixed-dose inhaled combinations of mometasone furoate/indacaterol and mometasone furoate/ indacaterol/glycopyrronium in patients with asthma.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jul 27:102068. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

University of Groningen, And University Medical Center Groningen, And Groningen Research Institute for Asthma and COPD, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Once-daily (o.d.) fixed-dose combinations of mometasone furoate/indacaterol acetate and mometasone furoate/indacaterol acetate/glycopyrronium bromide, both delivered via the Breezhaler® device, are approved for the maintenance treatment of asthma. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic herb-disease-drug interactions: Effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacokinetics of pitavastatin, a substrate of Oatp1b2, in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 27:114469. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Second Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 300250, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ginkgo biloba L. is a traditional Chinese medicine for hyper lipaemia. Ginkgo flavonols and terpene lactones are responsible for the lipid-lowering effect in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Read More

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Bioequivalence assessment of pharmaceutical aerosol products through IVIVC.

Authors:
Dennis Sandell

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 Jul 27:113895. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

S5 Consulting, Ekvägen 8, 27562 Blentarp, Sweden. Electronic address:

Many pharmaceutical developers of generic orally inhaled products (OIPs) are facing significant issues in passing the regulatory requirement to show pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence (BE) to the originator product. The core of the issue is that no reliable in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) is available to guide their development. In this paper, several issues are identified and means to improve the data used for developing an IVIVC are discussed. Read More

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Galangin mitigates iron overload-triggered liver injury: Up-regulation of PPARγ and Nrf2 signaling, and abrogation of the inflammatory responses.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 27:119856. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751, Egypt.

Aim: Hepatotoxicity is a critical consequence of the iron overload conditions such as hemochromatosis and blood transfusion-requiring anemia. Iron induces hepatotoxicity largely through disruption of cellular redox homeostasis and induction of inflammatory responses. The present work explored the hepatoprotective activity of the bio-active flavone galangin against iron-evoked hepatotoxicity. Read More

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A multi-centre analysis of adjuvant contact x-ray brachytherapy (CXB) in rectal cancer patients treated with local excision - preliminary results of the CONTEM1 study.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Service de Radiotherapie, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice, France.

Introduction: Early rectal cancers are increasingly diagnosed through screening programmes and are often treated using local excision (LE). In the case of adverse pathological features completion total mesorectal excision surgery (TME) is the standard recommendation. The morbidity and mortality risks of TME have stimulated the use of adjunctive treatments following LE to achieve organ preservation. Read More

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Effects of new antiseizure drugs on seizure activity and anxiety-like behavior in adult zebrafish.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Jul 27:115655. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Animal Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, PL 20-033 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Several studies with larvae and adult zebrafish have shown that old and new antiseizure drugs (ASDs) produce discrepant results in seizure tests, locomotor activity or anxiety models. In this study, the pentylenetetrazole seizure test (PTZ) was performed to assess the effectiveness of four new ASDs: lamotrigine (LTG), topiramate (TPM), felbamate (FBM), and levetiracetam (LEV) in the subsequent stages of seizures in adult fish. All ASDs were administered intraperitoneally (i. Read More

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Exocellular polysaccharides extracted from mangrove fungus Paecilomyces Lilacinuson present anti-HSV-1 activity in mice.

J Virol Methods 2021 Jul 27:114246. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of Hainan Medical University, Ministry of Education, Haikou, Hainan, 571199, China. Electronic address:

This study examined the anti-HSV-1 activity of EPS extracts isolated from mangrove fungus Paecilomyces Lilacinuson after intraperitoneal administration in mice. Mice were experimentally infected with HSV-1 intracranially and treated intraperitoneally with three different doses of EPS extract (6 g/Kg, 8 g/Kg, and 10 g/Kg) for 7 days. One group of 15 mice was infected with HSV-1 but did not receive any treatment, while another group of 15 mice was mock-infected to remain a control group. Read More

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A Predictive Model of Reintubation after Cardiac Surgery Using the Electronic Health Record.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Department of Quality, Safety, and Risk Prevention, Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

Background: Reintubation and prolonged intubation after cardiac surgery are associated with significant complications. Despite these competing risks, providers frequently extubate patients with limited insight into the risk of reintubation at the time of extubation. Achieving timely, successful extubation remains a significant clinical challenge. Read More

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Dose-dense brentuximab vedotin plus ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide for second-line treatment of relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma: a single centre, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Aug;8(8):e562-e571

Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma could be treated with multiagent salvage chemotherapy followed by autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. The aim of this study is to establish the safety and activity of dose-dense brentuximab vedotin combined with ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (BV-ICE) chemotherapy in second-line treatment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Methods: We conducted a single-arm, open-label, phase 1/2 study of dose-dense BV-ICE at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, University of Washington (Seattle, WA, USA). Read More

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Venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy with cladribine, idarubicin, and cytarabine in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: a cohort from a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Aug;8(8):e552-e561

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Addition of the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax to lower intensity therapy has been shown to improve overall survival in older (aged 75 years or older) and unfit patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of venetoclax combined with intensive chemotherapy in patients aged 65 years or younger with acute myeloid leukaemia.

Methods: This cohort study was done at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in the USA, as part of the single-centre, single arm, phase 2, CLIA trial. Read More

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14-Day Nose-Only Inhalation Toxicity and Haber's Rule Study of NNK in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

Toxicol Sci 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Jefferson, AR.

4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is one of the key tobacco-specific nitrosamines that plays an important role in human lung carcinogenesis. However, repeated inhalation toxicity data on NNK, which is more directly relevant to cigarette smoking, are currently limited. In the present study, the subacute inhalation toxicity of NNK was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. Read More

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Effect of pregabalin on the EC50 of intravenous alfentanil in capsaicin induced pain.

Authors:
Mark S Wallace

Pain Med 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Professor of Anesthesiology, Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, 9452 Medical Center Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037-0898.

Objective: To apply the sequential up-down method to a human experimental pain model in order to examine the opioid-sparing effect of oral pregabalin on intravenous alfentanil.

Design: Double-blind, randomized, crossover.

Setting: Academic University Medical Center. Read More

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The interactions of bacteriophage Ace and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli during biocontrol.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

CEB - Centre of Biological Engineering, LIBRO - Laboratório de Investigação em Biofilmes Rosário Oliveira, University of Minho, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal.

Strictly lytic phages are considered powerful tools for biocontrol of foodborne pathogens. Safety issues needed to be addressed for the biocontrol of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) include: lysogenic conversion, Shiga toxin production through phage induction, and emergence/proliferation of bacteriophage insensitive mutants (BIMs). To address these issues, two new lytic phages, vB_EcoS_Ace (Ace) and vB_EcoM_Shy (Shy), were isolated and characterized for life cycle, genome sequence and annotation, pH stability, and efficacy at controlling STEC growth. Read More

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Neoxanthin in young vegetable leaves prevents fat accumulation in differentiated adipocytes.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Nature & Wellness Research Department, Innovation Division, KAGOME CO., LTD., Tochigi, Japan.

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of young leaves on fat accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A potent preventive effect on fat accumulation was observed in fractions of young leaves of spinach, beet, and arugula extracted with a low-polarity solvent (hexane: acetone: ethanol: toluene = 10:6:7:6). This effect was seemingly associated with the leaf carotenoid content, including lutein, β-carotene, and neoxanthin. Read More

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