10,689 results match your criteria placental genes

Identification of methylation changes associated with positive and negative growth deviance in Gambian infants using a targeted methyl sequencing approach of genomic DNA.

FASEB Bioadv 2021 Apr 5;3(4):205-230. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Pathology University of Cambridge Cambridge UK.

Low birthweight and reduced height gain during infancy (stunting) may arise at least in part from adverse early life environments that trigger epigenetic reprogramming that may favor survival. We examined differential DNA methylation patterns using targeted methyl sequencing of regions regulating gene activity in groups of rural Gambian infants: (a) low and high birthweight (DNA from cord blood ( = 16 and  = 20, respectively), from placental trophoblast tissue ( = 21 and  = 20, respectively), and DNA from peripheral blood collected from infants at 12 months of age ( = 23 and  = 17, respectively)), and, (b) the top 10% showing rapid postnatal length gain (high,  = 20) and the bottom 10% showing slow postnatal length gain (low,  = 20) based on z score change between birth and 12 months of age (LAZ) (DNA from peripheral blood collected from infants at 12 months of age). Using BiSeq analysis to identify significant methylation marks, for birthweight, four differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified in trophoblast DNA, compared to 68 DMRs in cord blood DNA, and 54 DMRs in 12-month peripheral blood DNA. Read More

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Pre-implantation exogenous progesterone and pregnancy in sheep. II. Effects on fetal-placental development and nutrient transporters in late pregnancy.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Apr 8;12(1):46. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-2471, USA.

Background: Administration of progesterone (P4) to ewes during the first 9 to 12 days of pregnancy accelerates blastocyst development by day 12 of pregnancy, likely due to P4-induced up-regulation of key genes in uterine epithelia responsible for secretion and transport of components of histotroph into the uterine lumen. This study determined if acceleration of blastocyst development induced by exogenous P4 during the pre-implantation period affects fetal-placental development on day 125 of pregnancy. Suffolk ewes (n = 35) were mated to fertile rams and assigned randomly to receive daily intramuscular injections of either corn oil vehicle (CO, n = 18) or 25 mg progesterone in CO (P4, n = 17) for the first 8 days of pregnancy. Read More

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Differential expression of mTOR related molecules in the placenta from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preeclampsia patients.

Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 4;21(2):100503. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Lung and Placenta Research Laboratory, Brigham Young University, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Provo, UT, USA. Electronic address:

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is involved in the function and growth of the placenta during pregnancy. The mTOR pathway responds to nutrient availability and growth factors that regulate protein expression and cell growth. Disrupted mTOR signaling is associated with the development of several obstetric complications. Read More

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Sexually dimorphic placental responses to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection.

bioRxiv 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

There is a persistent male bias in the prevalence and severity of COVID-19 disease. Underlying mechanisms accounting for this sex difference remain incompletely understood. Interferon responses have been implicated as a modulator of disease in adults, and play a key role in the placental anti-viral response. Read More

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H2AK119ub1 guides maternal inheritance and zygotic deposition of H3K27me3 in mouse embryos.

Nat Genet 2021 04 5;53(4):539-550. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

YCI Laboratory for Metabolic Epigenetics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

Parental epigenomes are established during gametogenesis. While they are largely reset after fertilization, broad domains of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated formation of lysine 27-trimethylated histone H3 (H3K27me3) are inherited from oocytes in mice. How maternal H3K27me3 is established and inherited by embryos remains elusive. Read More

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Transcriptome analysis of placentae reveals HELLP syndrome exhibits a greater extent of placental metabolic dysfunction than preeclampsia.

Hypertens Pregnancy 2021 Apr 5:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Obstetrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The association between HELLP syndrome and preeclampsia has been investigated with conflicting conclusions. This study is to investigate the pathogenesis underlying these two diseases by analyzing placental transcriptome. The gene expression profile downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database was analyzed by R language. Read More

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Mechanobiology-informed regenerative medicine: Dose-controlled release of placental growth factor from a functionalized collagen-based scaffold promotes angiogenesis and accelerates bone defect healing.

J Control Release 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG), Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; Trinity Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; Advanced Materials and Bioengineering Research Centre (AMBER), Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

Leveraging the differential response of genes to mechanical loading may allow for the identification of novel therapeutics and we have recently established placental growth factor (PGF) as a mechanically augmented gene which promotes angiogenesis at higher doses and osteogenesis at lower doses. Herein, we sought to execute a mechanobiology-informed approach to regenerative medicine by designing a functionalized scaffold for the dose-controlled delivery of PGF which we hypothesized would be capable of promoting regeneration of critically-sized bone defects. Alginate microparticles and collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffolds were shown to be effective PGF-delivery platforms, as demonstrated by their capacity to promote angiogenesis in vitro. Read More

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Age and Sex-Related Changes in Human First-Trimester Placenta Transcriptome and Insights into Adaptative Responses to Increased Oxygen.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 12;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Pathophysiology & Pharmacotoxicology of the Human Placenta, Pre & Postnatal Microbiota, Université de Paris, INSERM, 3PHM, F-75006 Paris, France.

Physiological oxygen tension rises dramatically in the placenta between 8 and 14 weeks of gestation. Abnormalities in this period can lead to gestational diseases, whose underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We explored the changes at mRNA level by comparing the transcriptomes of human placentas at 8-10 gestational weeks and 12-14 gestational weeks. Read More

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Exaptation of Retroviral Syncytin for Development of Syncytialized Placenta, Its Limited Homology to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and Arguments against Disturbing Narrative in the Context of COVID-19 Vaccination.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Human placenta formation relies on the interaction between fused trophoblast cells of the embryo with uterine endometrium. The fusion between trophoblast cells, first into cytotrophoblast and then into syncytiotrophoblast, is facilitated by the fusogenic protein syncytin. Syncytin derives from an envelope glycoprotein (ENV) of retroviral origin. Read More

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Clusterin and Its Potential Regulatory microRNAs as a Part of Secretome for the Diagnosis of Abnormally Invasive Placenta: Accreta, Increta, and Percreta Cases.

Life (Basel) 2021 Mar 24;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Kulakov National Medical Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology, Ministry of Health of Russia, Ac. Oparina 4, 117997 Moscow, Russia.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound methods used for the diagnosis of an abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) have a wide range of sensitivity (Se, 33-93%) and specificity (Sp, 71-100%) levels, which results in a high risk of unfavorable maternal and perinatal outcomes. The relevance of optimizing the diagnosis of AIP is beyond doubt. Given the epigenetic nature of trophoblast invasion, we aimed to quantitate microRNAs and proteins of their target genes that are potentially associated with AIP in blood plasma samples from 64 pregnant women at gestation weeks 30-34 by reverse transcription coupled with polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Read More

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Maternal Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation and Rate of Maternal Weight Gain Affects Placental Expression of Energy Metabolism and Transport-Related Genes.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Center for Nutrition and Pregnancy, Department of Animal Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA.

Maternal nutrients are essential for proper fetal and placental development and function. However, the effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation under two rates of maternal weight gain on placental genome-wide gene expression have not been investigated so far. Furthermore, biological processes and pathways in the placenta that act in response to early maternal nutrition are yet to be elucidated. Read More

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Cytological Observation and Transcriptome Comparative Analysis of Self-Pollination and Cross-Pollination in .

Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

College of Life Sciences, Jiangxi Normal University, No 99, Zi Yang Road, Nanchang 330000, China.

is a rare and traditional medicinal plant with high pharmacological and nutritional value. The self-incompatibility mechanism of reproductive isolation was formed in the long-term evolution process, but intraspecific hybridization of different germplasm resources leads to a large gap in the yield, quality, and medicinal value of . To investigate the biological mechanism of self-incompatibility in , cytological observation and the transcriptome analysis was carried out on the samples of self-pollination and cross-pollination in . Read More

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Transcriptome Profiling of the Retained Fetal Membranes-An Insight in the Possible Pathogenesis of the Disease.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 3;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Research Station of the Institute of Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences in Popielno, 12-220 Ruciane-Nida, Poland.

Retained fetal membranes (RFM) is one of the most common post-partum diseases of a complex etiology. Moreover, its pathogenesis is still not elucidated. Detailed transcriptomic analysis of physiological and retained placenta may bring profound insight in the pathogenesis of the disease. Read More

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Global Changes of 5-mC/5h-mC Ratio and Methylation of Adiponectin and Leptin Gene in Placenta Depending on Mode of Delivery.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 21;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

First Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Żelazna 90, 01-004 Warsaw, Poland.

It was suggested that the epigenetic alterations of the placenta are associated with obesity, as well as the delivery mode. This study aimed to assess the effect of maternal outcome and delivery procedure on global placental DNA methylation status, as well as selected 5'-Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine-3' (CpG) sites in and genes. Global DNA methylation profile in the placenta was assessed using the 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) ratio evaluated with the ELISA, followed by target gene methylation patterns at selected gene regions which were determined using methylation-specific qPCR in 70 placentas from healthy, pregnant women with single pregnancy. Read More

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Dietary Intake of Endocrine Disrupting Substances Presents in Environment and Their Impact on Thyroid Function.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 6;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Institute of Medicine, Medical College of Rzeszow University, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland.

According to the available data, environmental pollution is a serious problem all over the world. Between 2015 and 2016, pollution was responsible for approximately nine million deaths worldwide. They also include endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that can interfere with the functioning of the thyroid gland. Read More

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Transcriptome and DNA Methylation Profiles of Mouse Fetus and Placenta Generated by Round Spermatid Injection.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:632183. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Low birth efficiency and developmental abnormalities in embryos derived using round spermatid injection (ROSI) limit the clinical application of this method. Further, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive and warrant further in-depth study. In this study, the embryonic day (E) 11. Read More

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Implications for Preeclampsia: Hypoxia-Induced Notch Promotes Trophoblast Migration.

Reproduction 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

N Douglas, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Health, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Newark, United States.

In the 1st trimester of human pregnancy, low oxygen tension or hypoxia, is essential for proper placentation and placenta function. Low oxygen levels and activation of signaling pathways have been implicated as critical mediators in the promotion of trophoblast differentiation, migration, and invasion with inappropriate changes in oxygen tension and aberrant Notch signaling both individually reported as causative to abnormal placentation. Despite crosstalk between hypoxia and Notch signaling in multuple cell types, the relationship between hypoxia and Notch in 1st trimester trophoblast function is not understood. Read More

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Deciphering the complexity of sperm transcriptome reveals genes governing functional membrane and acrosome integrities potentially influence fertility.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Omics Laboratory, Animal Nutrition Division, ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi, Bengaluru, 560030, India.

Deciphering sperm transcriptome is the key to understanding the molecular mechanisms governing peri-fertilization, embryonic development, and pregnancy establishment. This study aimed to profile sperm transcriptome to identify signature transcripts regulating male fertility. Semen samples were collected from 47 bulls with varied fertility rates. Read More

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Analysis of differential expression of hypoxia-inducible microRNA-210 gene targets in mild and severe preeclamptic patients.

Noncoding RNA Res 2021 Mar 9;6(1):51-57. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Manama, Bahrain.

Preeclampsia (PE) is a multi-system disorder that is specific to human pregnancy. Inadequate oxygenation of uterus and placenta is considered as one of the leading causes for the disease. MicroRNA-210(miR-210) is one of the prime molecules that has emerged in response to hypoxia. Read More

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Placental superoxide dismutase 3 mediates benefits of maternal exercise on offspring health.

Cell Metab 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Section on Integrative Physiology and Metabolism, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Poor maternal diet increases the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in offspring, adding to the ever-increasing prevalence of these diseases. In contrast, we find that maternal exercise improves the metabolic health of offspring, and here, we demonstrate that this occurs through a vitamin D receptor-mediated increase in placental superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) expression and secretion. SOD3 activates an AMPK/TET signaling axis in fetal offspring liver, resulting in DNA demethylation at the promoters of glucose metabolic genes, enhancing liver function, and improving glucose tolerance. Read More

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One-Carbon Metabolism and Development of the Conceptus During Pregnancy: Lessons from Studies with Sheep and Pigs.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1285:1-15

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

The pregnancy recognition signal from the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated membranes) to the mother is interferon tau (IFNT) in ruminants and estradiol, possibly in concert with interferons gamma and delta in pigs. Those pregnancy recognition signals silence expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISG) in uterine luminal (LE) and superficial glandular (sGE) epithelia while inducing expression of genes for transport of nutrients, including glucose and amino acids, into the uterine lumen to support growth and development of the conceptus. In sheep and pigs, glucose not utilized immediately by the conceptus is converted to fructose. Read More

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The enrichment of neutrophil extracellular traps impair the placentas of systemic lupus erythematosus through accumulating decidual NK cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6870. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Despite the advances made in the management of pregnancies in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes is still higher than that in the general population. In the last few years, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were proven to be detrimental in both autoimmune diseases and placental injury. We investigated whether NETs could be detected in the placentas of pregnant individuals with SLE and explored the relationship between NETs and decidual natural killer cells (dNKs), which comprise the majority of immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface, using clinical samples and animal models. Read More

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Characterization of highly proliferative decidual precursor cells during the window of implantation in human endometrium.

Stem Cells 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Pregnancy depends on the wholesale transformation of the endometrium, a process driven by differentiation of endometrial stromal cells (EnSC) into specialist decidual cells. Upon embryo implantation, decidual cells impart the tissue plasticity needed to accommodate a rapidly growing conceptus and invading placenta, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we characterize a discrete population of highly proliferative mesenchymal cells (hPMC) in midluteal human endometrium, coinciding with the window of embryo implantation. Read More

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Distinct placental molecular processes associated with early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia.

Theranostics 2021 5;11(10):5028-5044. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Center for genetics and Developmental Systems Biology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Patients with preeclampsia display a spectrum of onset time and severity of clinical presentation, yet the underlying molecular bases for the early-onset and late-onset clinical subtypes are not known. Although several transcriptome studies have been done on placentae from PE patients, only a small number of differentially expressed genes have been identified due to very small sample sizes and no distinguishing of clinical subtypes. We carried out RNA-seq on 65 high-quality placenta samples, including 33 from 30 patients and 32 from 30 control subjects, to search for dysregulated genes and the molecular network and pathways they are involved in. Read More

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Confined placental mosaicism involving multiple de novo copy number variants associated with fetal growth restriction: A case report.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada.

The presence of multiple large (>1 Mb) copy number variants (CNVs) in non-malignant tissue is rare in human genetics. We present a liveborn male with a birth weight below the first percentile associated with placental mosaicism involving eight 2.4-3. Read More

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Human placental mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate chemotherapy-induced damage in the testis by reducing apoptosis/oxidative stress and promoting autophagy.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Mar 20;12(1):199. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Center of Reproduction and Genetics, The affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou Municipal Hospital, Gusu School, State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou, 215002, China.

Background: The side effects of busulfan on male reproduction are serious, so fertility preservation in children undergoing busulfan treatment is a major worldwide concern. Human placental mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) have advantages such as stable proliferation and lower immunogenicity that make them an ideal material for stimulating tissue repair, especially restoring spermatogenesis. The protective effects of hPMSCs in busulfan-induced Sertoli cells and in busulfan-treated mouse testes have not been determined. Read More

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