34,565 results match your criteria pkc


Kisspeptin leads to calcium signaling in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

Gen Physiol Biophys 2021 Mar;40(2):155-160

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.

Although kisspeptin and GPR54 have been reported to be expressed in the neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats, and kisspeptin has been suggested to be involved in pain modulation in rodents, there is no study on the effects and mechanisms of kisspeptin on sensory neurons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of kisspeptin on intracellular free calcium levels in cultured rat DRG neurons. Bath application of kisspeptin-10 increased intracellular free calcium levels ([Ca2+]i). Read More

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Involvement of TRPC5 channels, inwardly rectifying K channels, PLCβ and PIP in vasopressin-mediated excitation of medial central amygdala neurons.

J Physiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND58203, USA.

Key Points: Activation of V vasopressin receptors facilitates neuronal excitability in the medial nucleus of central amygdala (CeM) V receptor activation excites about 80% CeM neurons by opening a cationic conductance and about 20% CeM neurons by suppressing an inwardly rectifying K (Kir) channels The cationic conductance activated by V receptors is identified as TRPC5 channels PLCβ-mediated depletion of PIP is involved in V receptor-elicited excitation of CeM neurons Intracellular Ca release and PKC are unnecessary for V receptor-mediated excitation of CeM neurons ABSTRACT: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) serves as a hormone in the periphery to modulate water homeostasis and a neuromodulator in the brain to regulate a diverse range of functions including anxiety, social behaviors, cognitive activities and nociception. The amygdala is an essential brain region involved in modulating defensive and appetitive behaviors, pain, and alcohol use disorders. Whereas activation of V receptors in the medial nucleus of the central amygdala (CeM) increases neuronal excitability, the involved ionic and signaling mechanisms have not been determined. Read More

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Signal transduction pathways involved in dopamine D receptor-evoked emesis in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

Auton Neurosci 2021 Apr 10;233:102807. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766, USA. Electronic address:

With its five receptor subtypes (D), dopamine is implicated in a myriad of neurological illnesses. Dopamine D receptor-based agonist therapy evokes nausea and vomiting. The signaling mechanisms by which dopamine D receptors evoke vomiting remains unknown. Read More

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Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide positively regulates neuropeptide secretion during diet-induced activation of the oxidative stress response.

Nat Commun 2021 04 16;12(1):2304. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Mitochondria play a pivotal role in the generation of signals coupling metabolism with neurotransmitter release, but a role for mitochondrial-produced ROS in regulating neurosecretion has not been described. Here we show that endogenously produced hydrogen peroxide originating from axonal mitochondria (mtHO) functions as a signaling cue to selectively regulate the secretion of a FMRFamide-related neuropeptide (FLP-1) from a pair of interneurons (AIY) in C. elegans. Read More

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Quercetin inhibits histamine-induced calcium influx in human keratinocyte via histamine H4 receptors.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 13;96:107620. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xinzhuang, New Taipei City, Taiwan; Program in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Histamine is released from mast cells when tissues are inflamed or stimulated by allergens. Activation of histamine receptors and calcium influx via TRPV1 could be related to histamine-induced itch and skin inflammation. Quercetin is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-itching effects. Read More

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Cudrania tricuspidata Root Extract Prevents Methylglyoxal-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress via Regulation of the PKC-NOX4 Pathway in Human Kidney Cells.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 30;2021:5511881. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, Republic of Korea.

Diabetic nephropathy is a microvascular complication induced by diabetes, and methylglyoxal (MGO) is a reactive carbonyl species causing oxidative stress that contributes to the induction of inflammatory response in kidney cells. (CT), cultivated in Northeast Asia, has been used as traditional medicine for treating various diseases, including neuritis, liver damage, and cancer. In this study, we determined whether a CT root extract (CTRE) can prevent MGO-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inflammation and assessed underlying mechanisms using a kidney epithelial cell line, HK-2. Read More

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Serotonin-induced vascular permeability is mediated by transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 in the airways and upper gastrointestinal tract of mice.

Lab Invest 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Medical Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia.

Endothelial and epithelial cells form physical barriers that modulate the exchange of fluid and molecules. The integrity of these barriers can be influenced by signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels. Serotonin (5-HT) is an important vasoactive mediator of tissue edema and inflammation. Read More

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Classical isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) and Akt regulate the osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells via both β-catenin and NF-κB.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Apr 14;12(1):242. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053, Regensburg, Germany.

Background: Human dental follicle cells (DFCs) are the precursor cells of the periodontium with a high potential for regenerative therapies of (alveolar) bone. However, the molecular mechanisms of osteogenic differentiation are inadequately understood. Classical isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) are reported to inhibit osteogenesis of stem/precursor cells. Read More

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Pterostilbene, a Dimethylether Analogue of Resveratrol, Possesses High Potency in the Prevention of Platelet Activation in Humans and the Reduction of Vascular Thrombosis in Mice.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan.

Platelets play a crucial role in cardiovascular disorders (CVDs); thus, development of a therapeutic target that prevents platelet activation reduces CVDs. Pterostilbene (PTE) has several remarkable pharmacological activities, including anticancer and neuroprotection. Herein, we examined the inhibitory mechanisms of PTE in human platelets and its role in the prevention of vascular thrombosis in mice. Read More

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mTORC2 controls the activity of PKC and Akt by phosphorylating a conserved TOR interaction motif.

Sci Signal 2021 Apr 13;14(678). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pharmacology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

The complex mTORC2 is accepted to be the kinase that controls the phosphorylation of the hydrophobic motif, a key regulatory switch for AGC kinases, although whether mTOR directly phosphorylates this motif remains controversial. Here, we identified an mTOR-mediated phosphorylation site that we termed the TOR interaction motif (TIM; F-x-F-pT), which controls the phosphorylation of the hydrophobic motif of PKC and Akt and the activity of these kinases. The TIM is invariant in mTORC2-dependent AGC kinases, is evolutionarily conserved, and coevolved with mTORC2 components. Read More

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Distinct circuits in rat central amygdala for defensive behaviors evoked by socially signaled imminent versus remote danger.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Emotions Neurobiology, BRAINCITY-Centre of Excellence for Neural Plasticity and Brain Disorders, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Animals display a rich repertoire of defensive responses adequate to the threat proximity. In social species, these reactions can be additionally influenced by the behavior of fearful conspecifics. However, the majority of neuroscientific studies on socially triggered defensive responses focuses on one type of behavior, freezing. Read More

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Deciphering the synergistic network regulation of active components from SiNiSan against irritable bowel syndrome via a comprehensive strategy: Combined effects of synephrine, paeoniflorin and naringin.

Phytomedicine 2021 Feb 24;86:153527. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Background: SiNiSan (SNS) is an ancient Chinese herbal prescription, and the current clinical treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is effective. In the previous study of the research team, the multi-functional co-synergism of SNS against IBS was presented. Some potential drug targets and candidate ligands were predicted. Read More

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February 2021

Targeting Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress Response Signaling Pathways as New Therapeutic Strategy for Pituitary Adenomas.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:565748. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Science and Technology Innovation Center, Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Oxidative stress and oxidative damage are the common pathophysiological characteristics in pituitary adenomas (PAs), which have been confirmed with many omics studies in PA tissues and cell/animal experimental studies. Nuclear factor erythroid 2 45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the core of oxidative stress response, is an oxidative stress sensor. Nrf2 is synthesized and regulated by multiple factors, including Keap1, ERK1/2, ERK5, JNK1/2, 38 MAPK, PKC, PI3K/AKT, and ER stress, in the cytoplasm. Read More

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Performance, carcass, and organoleptic scores of broiler chickens fed diets containing wet or sun-dried fermented mixture of grated cassava roots and palm kernel cake as replacements for maize.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Apr 10;53(2):255. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Nigeria.

The cost and effectiveness of drying processes have often limited the incorporation of solid-state fermented agro-industrial by-products into poultry feeding programs. In this study, the efficacy of replacing maize with wet or sun-dried solid-state fermented mixture of grated cassava root meal and palm kernel cake (FCP) was evaluated. One hundred and twenty (120), three weeks old broiler chicks were allotted to four treatment groups of 30 birds each in a completely randomized design. Read More

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Aloe vera mitigates dextran sulfate sodium-induced rat ulcerative colitis by potentiating colon mucus barrier.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 8:114108. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Third Clinical Medicine,Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine,Nanjing 210028,PR China; Laboratories of Translational Medicine,Jiangsu Province Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine,Nanjing 210028,PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Read More

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Physiological role for GABA receptor desensitization in the induction of long-term potentiation at inhibitory synapses.

Nat Commun 2021 04 9;12(1):2112. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, UCL, London, UK.

GABA receptors (GABARs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels distributed throughout the brain where they mediate synaptic and tonic inhibition. Following activation, these receptors undergo desensitization which involves entry into long-lived agonist-bound closed states. Although the kinetic effects of this state are recognised and its structural basis has been uncovered, the physiological impact of desensitization on inhibitory neurotransmission remains unknown. Read More

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Equilibrium and thermodynamic investigation of biosorption of nickel from water by activated carbon made from palm kernel chaff.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7808. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Civil Engineering, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria.

Novel biosorbents were derived from a waste product of palm kernel oil extraction known as palm kernel chaff (PKC). One portion of the PKC was carbonized in a furnace and then activated chemically, while the other half was activated without carbonization. Both were designated as CPKC and UPKC, respectively. Read More

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A Green and Blue Monochromatic Light Combination Therapy Reduces Oxidative Stress and Enhances B-Lymphocyte Proliferation through Promoting Melatonin Secretion.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:5595376. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Laboratory of Anatomy of Domestic Animals, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Haidian, Beijing 100193, China.

Artificial illumination may interfere with biological rhythms and distort physiological homeostasis in avian. Our previous study demonstrated that 660 nm red light exacerbates oxidative stress, but a combination of green and blue lights (G→B) can improve the antibody titer in chickens compared with single monochromatic light. Melatonin acts as an antioxidant which is a critical signaling to the coordination between external light stimulation and the cellular response from the body. Read More

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Abundant oleoyl-lysophosphatidylethanolamine in brain stimulates neurite outgrowth and protects against glutamate toxicity in cultured cortical neurons.

J Biochem 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Graduate School of Medicine, Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano, 390-8621, Japan.

Lysophosphatidylethanolamines (LPEs) are bioactive lysophospholipids that have been suggested to play important roles in several biological processes. We performed a quantitative analysis of LPE species and showed their composition in mouse brain. We examined the roles of oleoyl-LPE (18:1 LPE), which is one of the abundant LPE species in brain. Read More

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Essential role of protein kinase C βI in icariin-mediated protection against atherosclerosis.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to clarify the superior beneficial effects of icariin on atherosclerosis, as well as to explore the possible underlying mechanisms for its effect via the modulation of protein kinase C βI.

Methods: Lipid profiles were determined while dissected aortas were prepared of ApoE-/- mice. The expression of protein kinase C βI and phosphorylation of protein kinase C βI were determined by immunohistochemistry analysis. Read More

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The small molecule H89 inhibits inclusion growth and production of infectious progeny.

Infect Immun 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, California, USA

is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the most common reportable cause of human infection in the U.S. This pathogen proliferates inside a eukaryotic host cell, where it resides within a membrane-bound compartment called the chlamydial inclusion. Read More

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Mechanistic insight on the role of leukotriene receptors in ischemic-reperfusion injury.

Pharmacol Rep 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, India.

Leukotrienes (LT) are a class of inflammatory mediators produced by the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) enzyme from arachidonic acid (AA). We discussed the various LT inhibitors and downstream pathway modulators, such as Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK), Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/Akt), 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), Protein Kinase C (PKC), Nitric Oxide (NO), Bradykinin, Early Growth Response-1 (Egr-1), Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α), which in turn regulate various metabolic and physiological processes involving I/R injury. A systematic literature review of Bentham, Scopus, PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE (Elsevier) databases was carried out to understand the nature and mechanistic interventions of the leukotriene receptor modulations in ischemic injury. Read More

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Inhibition of PKCε induces primordial germ cell reprogramming into pluripotency by HIF1&2 upregulation and histone acetylation.

Am J Stem Cells 2021 15;10(1):1-17. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Cell Engineering Laboratory, La Paz University Hospital Health Research Institute IDiPAZ, Madrid, Spain.

Historically, primordial germ cells (PGCs) have been a good model to study pluripotency. Despite their low numbers and limited accessibility in the mouse embryo, they can be easily and rapidly reprogrammed at high efficiency with external physicochemical factors and do not require transcription factor transfection. Employing this model to deepen our understanding of cell reprogramming, we specifically aimed to determine the relevance of Ca signal transduction pathway components in the reprogramming process. Read More

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February 2021

PKCα Is Recruited toContaining Phagosomes and Impairs Bacterial Replication by Inhibition of Autophagy.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:662987. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Laboratorio de Mecanismos Moleculares Implicados en el Tráfico Vesicular y la Autofagia-Instituto de Histología y Embriología (IHEM)- Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, CONICET- Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Mendoza, Argentina.

Hijacking the autophagic machinery is a key mechanism through which invasive pathogens such as replicate in their host cells. We have previously demonstrated that the bacteria replicate in phagosomes labeled with the autophagic protein LC3, before escaping to the cytoplasm. Here, we show that the Ca-dependent PKCα binds to -containing phagosomes and that α-hemolysin, secreted by , promotes this recruitment of PKCα to phagosomal membranes. Read More

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A Therapeutic Strategy to Combat HIV-1 Latently Infected Cells With a Combination of Latency-Reversing Agents Containing DAG-Lactone PKC Activators.

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:636276. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

National Center for Global Health and Medicine Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

Advances in antiviral therapy have dramatically improved the therapeutic effects on HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, even with potent combined antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 latently infected cells cannot be fully eradicated. Latency-reversing agents (LRAs) are considered a potential tool for eliminating such cells; however, recent and studies have raised serious concerns regarding the efficacy and safety of the "shock and kill" strategy using LRAs. Read More

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Protein kinase D, ubiquitin and proteasome pathways are involved in adenosine receptor-stimulated NR4A expression in myeloid cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Mar 30;555:19-25. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Ireland; UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

Adenosine is a purine nucleoside pivotal for homeostasis in cells and tissues. Stimulation of the adenosine receptors (AR) has been shown to regulate the nuclear orphan receptor 4A (NR4A1-3) family, resulting in attenuation of hyper-inflammatory responses in myeloid cells. The NR4A1-3 orphan receptors are early immediate response genes and transcriptional regulators of cell and tissue homeostasis. Read More

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Sublytic C5b-9 induces glomerular mesangial cell proliferation via ERK1/2-dependent SOX9 phosphorylation and acetylation by enhancing Cyclin D1 in rat Thy-1 nephritis.

Exp Mol Med 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Immunology, and Key Laboratory of Immunological Environment and Disease, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211166, China.

Glomerular mesangial cell (GMC) proliferation is a histopathological alteration in human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) or in animal models of MsPGN, e.g., the rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N) model. Read More

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5-Hydroxytryptamine Modulates Maturation and Mitochondria Function of Human Oligodendrocyte Progenitor M03-13 Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 5;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Università di Napoli "Federico II", 80131 Napoli, Italy.

Inside the adult CNS, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are able to proliferate, migrate and differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes (OLs) which are responsible for the production of myelin sheet and energy supply for neurons. Moreover, in demyelinating diseases, OPCs are recruited to the lesion areas where they undergo differentiation and myelin synthesis. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is involved in OLs' development and myelination, but so far the molecular mechanisms involved or the effects of 5-HT on mitochondria function have not yet been well documented. Read More

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Protein Disulphide Isomerase and NADPH Oxidase 1 Cooperate to Control Platelet Function and Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Disease Risk Factors.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 23;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AH, UK.

Background: Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) and NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox-1) regulate platelet function and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, suggesting potentially interdependent roles. Increased platelet reactivity and ROS production have been correlated with cardiometabolic disease risk factors.

Objectives: To establish whether PDI and Nox-1 cooperate to control platelet function. Read More

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Rap1a Overlaps the AGE/RAGE Signaling Cascade to Alter Expression of α-SMA, p-NF-κB, and p-PKC-ζ in Cardiac Fibroblasts Isolated from Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

Cells 2021 Mar 4;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS 38677, USA.

Cardiovascular disease, specifically heart failure, is a common complication for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Heart failure can arise with stiffening of the left ventricle, which can be caused by "active" cardiac fibroblasts (i.e. Read More

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