54 results match your criteria pigs' exposure


Positive Human Contact and Housing Systems Impact the Responses of Piglets to Various Stressors.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 30;11(6). Epub 2021 May 30.

The Animal Welfare Science Centre, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.

This experiment studied the effects of lactation housing systems and human interaction on piglets' responses to routine stressors. Forty litters of piglets were reared in either a standard farrowing crate (FC) or a loose farrowing and lactation pen (LP; PigSAFE pen) and received either routine contact with humans (C) or regular opportunities for positive human contact (+HC; 3 min of patting, stroking and scratching 5 times/week). Behavioural and physiological responses to routine husbandry procedures, weaning, novelty and humans were studied in addition to effects on piglet growth, injuries and survival. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of vertebral bone strength with a finite element method using low dose computed tomography imaging.

J Orthop Sci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Medical Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ami, Ibaraki 300-0394, Japan; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences Hospital, Ami, Ibaraki 300-0394, Japan.

Background: Focusing on compression fractures of bone by finite elements, we evaluated bone strength based on the computed tomography-based finite element method. However, the exposure dose is an issue. We aimed to investigate the quantity of reduction of the radiation dose with respect to the reference dose by comparing the calculation results of compression fractures of the vertebral body using experimental data obtained from the spine of a pig. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adverse Effects of Heat Stress on the Intestinal Integrity and Function of Pigs and the Mitigation Capacity of Dietary Antioxidants: A Review.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen, Böszörményi Street 138, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary.

Heat stress (HS) significantly affects the performance of pigs by its induced stressors such as inflammation, hypoxia and oxidative stress (OS), which mightily strain the intestinal integrity and function of pigs. As heat stress progresses, several mechanisms in the intestinal epithelium involved in the absorption of nutrients and its protective functions are altered. Changes in these mechanisms are mainly driven by cellular oxidative stress, which promotes disruption of intestinal homeostasis, leading to intestinal permeability, emphasizing intestinal histology and morphology with little possibility of recovering even after exposure to HS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In-Water Antibiotic Dosing Practices on Pig Farms.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Feb 8;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Asia Pacific Centre for Animal Health, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, National Centre for Antimicrobial Stewardship, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.

Pigs reared on many farms are mass-medicated for short periods with antibiotics through their drinking water to control bacterial pathogen loads and, if a disease outbreak occurs, to treat pigs until clinical signs are eliminated. Farm managers are responsible for conducting in-water antibiotic dosing events, but little is known about their dosing practices. We surveyed managers of 25 medium to large single-site and multi-site pig farming enterprises across eastern and southern Australia, using a mixed methods approach (online questionnaire followed by a one-on-one semi-structured interview). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Inhibition of persimmon tannin extract on guinea pig skin pigmentation.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Food Science, College of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, China.

Background: In daily life, excessive exposure to ultraviolet light can lead to pigmentation.

Aims: This study is to determine the mechanism of persimmon tannin extract in inhibiting pigmentation, to investigate whether the effect of persimmon tannin extract is superior to that of arbutin, and to detect the optimal concentration.

Methods: In this study, the guinea pig pigmentation model was established by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Risk assessment of nitrate and nitrite in feed.

EFSA J 2020 Nov 4;18(11):e06290. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks to animal health related to nitrite and nitrate in feed. For nitrate ion, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) identified a BMDL of 64 mg nitrate/kg body weight (bw) per day for adult cattle, based on methaemoglobin (MetHb) levels in animal's blood that would not induce clinical signs of hypoxia. The BMDL is applicable to all bovines, except for pregnant cows in which reproductive effects were not clearly associated with MetHb formation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Neonatal parenteral nutrition affects the metabolic flow of glucose in newborn and adult male Hartley guinea pigs' liver.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2021 Jun 3;12(3):484-495. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Nutrition, Université de Montréal, 2405 Chemin de la Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montréal, QCH3T 1A8, Canada.

Extremely premature birth is associated with a permanent disruption of energy metabolism. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The oxidative stress induced by parenteral nutrition (PN) during the first week of life is suspected to reprogram energy metabolism in the liver. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Acute systemic inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

BMC Genomics 2019 Oct 11;20(1):728. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, 2255 Kildee Hall, Ames, IA, 50011, USA.

Background: It is unclear whether improving feed efficiency by selection for low residual feed intake (RFI) compromises pigs' immunocompetence. Here, we aimed at investigating whether pig lines divergently selected for RFI had different inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure, regarding to clinical presentations and transcriptomic changes in peripheral blood cells.

Results: LPS injection induced acute systemic inflammation in both the low-RFI and high-RFI line (n = 8 per line). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2019

Farmer Perceptions of Pig Aggression Compared to Animal-Based Measures of Fight Outcome.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Jan 10;9(1). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Animal Behaviour & Welfare, Animal and Veterinary Sciences Research Group, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), West Mains Rd., Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK.

Several animal welfare issues persist in practice despite extensive research which has been linked to the unwillingness of stakeholders to make changes. For example, most farmers do not perceive pig aggression to be a problem that requires action despite the fact that stress and injuries are common, and that several solutions exist. Frequent exposure to animal suffering could affect farmer responses to distressed animals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2019

Effects of Quercetin on Proliferation and H₂O₂-Induced Apoptosis of Intestinal Porcine Enterocyte Cells.

Molecules 2018 Aug 12;23(8). Epub 2018 Aug 12.

Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, Hunan, China.

Weanling stress and toxicosis, which are harmful to the health of pigs' intestines, are associated with oxidative stress. Quercetin (Que) is a polyphenolic compound that shows good anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation effects. This study aimed to elaborate whether or not Que promotes IPEC-J2 (intestinal porcine enterocyte cells) proliferation and protects IPEC-J2 from oxidative damage. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of the predictive value of tonsil examination by bacteriological culture for detecting positive lung colonization status of nursery pigs exposed to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by experimental aerosol infection.

BMC Vet Res 2018 Jun 28;14(1):211. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Institute for Microbiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, D-30173, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. For control of the disease the detection of sub-clinically infected pigs is of major importance to avoid transmitting of subclinical infections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Aujeszky's Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures.

Front Vet Sci 2018 24;5. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Unité Virologie Immunologie Porcines, Laboratoire de Ploufragran/Plouzané, ANSES, Ploufragan, France.

Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild-domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2018

Effects of Maternal Low-Energy Diet during Gestation on Intestinal Morphology, Disaccharidase Activity, and Immune Response to Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Pig Offspring.

Nutrients 2017 Oct 13;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 211, Huimin Road, Wenjiang District, Chengdu 611130, China.

Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2017

Bama miniature pigs' liver possess great heat tolerance through upregulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidative enzymes.

J Therm Biol 2017 Jul 29;67:15-21. Epub 2017 Apr 29.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095, PR China. Electronic address:

The liver is one of the most crucial organs affected by high ambient temperature. Bama miniature pig show a heat tolerance in hot summer months. However, the physiological condition of liver under high ambient temperature has not been well elucidated in Bama miniature pig. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Maternal Methyl Donor Supplementation during Gestation Counteracts the Bisphenol A-Induced Impairment of Intestinal Morphology, Disaccharidase Activity, and Nutrient Transporters Gene Expression in Newborn and Weaning Pigs.

Nutrients 2017 Apr 26;9(5). Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 211, Huimin Road, Wenjiang District, Chengdu 611130, China.

This study was conducted to explore whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy could change intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring using pigs as a model, and whether methyl donor (MET) could counteract the BPA-induced impacts. Fifty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were divided into four dietary groups throughout gestation: control diet (CON); control diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg); control diet supplemented with MET (3 g/kg betaine, 400 mg/kg choline, 150 μg/kg vitamin B12, and 15 mg/kg folic acid); and control diet with BPA and MET supplementation (BPA + MET). Intestine samples were collected from pigs' offspring at birth and weaning. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anethol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol inclusion in feed affects postweaning performance and feeding behavior of piglets.

J Anim Sci 2016 Dec;94(12):5262-5271

The early exposure of the fetus to certain volatiles may result in a further preference for these compounds later in life and could positively affect the acceptance of feed containing a similar flavor and the zootechnical responses. The study consisted of 2 trials to determine if including Fluidarom 1003 (a commercially flavored feed additive containing >25% anethol and cinnamaldehyde and >10% eugenol; Norel S.A. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2016

Endemicity of Zoonotic Diseases in Pigs and Humans in Lowland and Upland Lao PDR: Identification of Socio-cultural Risk Factors.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Apr 12;10(4):e0003913. Epub 2016 Apr 12.

International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

In Lao People's Democratic Republic pigs are kept in close contact with families. Human risk of infection with pig zoonoses arises from direct contact and consumption of unsafe pig products. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Luang Prabang (north) and Savannakhet (central-south) Provinces. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Validation and comparison of two sampling methods to assess dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil.

Ann Occup Hyg 2014 Jun 5;58(5):591-600. Epub 2014 Mar 5.

1.Centre for Human Exposure Science, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, UK.

Dermal exposure to drilling fluids and crude oil is an exposure route of concern. However, there have been no published studies describing sampling methods or reporting dermal exposure measurements. We describe a study that aimed to evaluate a wipe sampling method to assess dermal exposure to an oil-based drilling fluid and crude oil, as well as to investigate the feasibility of using an interception cotton glove sampler for exposure on the hands/wrists. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Development of an animal model of fibrous cholangitis in pigs.

J Invest Surg 2014 Apr 10;27(2):95-101. Epub 2014 Jan 10.

1 First Department of Surgery, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to develop a model of fibrous cholangitis in the offspring of gravid domestic pigs through the administration of 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate (DITC).

Material And Methods: Six young domestic pigs and two gravid pigs with their offspring (21 pigs) were used as experimental models and six wild-type animals were used as controls. All pigs were divided into five main groups and five subgroups, according to their developmental stage and time of exposure to DITC. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Round window membrane permeability to golimumab in guinea pigs: a pilot study.

Laryngoscope 2013 Nov 25;123(11):2840-4. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, U.S.A; Department of Surgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, U.S.A; Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: Autoimmune inner ear disorder is one of a few types of sensorineural hearing loss that is treatable and potentially reversible. Treatment involves oral steroids and methotrexate. Other treatment modalities have been tried with variable success. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2013

Relations between peripheral and brain serotonin measures and behavioural responses in a novelty test in pigs.

Physiol Behav 2013 Jun 14;118:88-96. Epub 2013 May 14.

Wageningen University, Department of Animal Sciences, Adaptation Physiology Group, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Pigs differ in their behavioural responses towards environmental challenges. Individual variation in maladaptive responses such as tail biting, may partly originate from underlying biological characteristics related to (emotional) reactivity to challenges and serotonergic system functioning. Assessing relations between behavioural responses and brain and blood serotonin parameters may help in understanding susceptibility to the development of maladaptive responses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Relationship between airborne detection of influenza A virus and the number of infected pigs.

Vet J 2013 May 17;196(2):171-5. Epub 2012 Nov 17.

Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Protein carbonyls and traditional biomarkers in pigs exposed to low-dose γ-radiation.

Res Vet Sci 2013 Apr 25;94(2):214-8. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

Department of Biochemistry, Chemistry and Biophysics, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Czech Republic.

Response of pigs to irradiation manifested by production of protein carbonyls and adaptable enzymes was studied in two experiments. In one experiment, 10 mixed-sex pigs were exposed to 0.5 Gy whole body (60)Co irradiation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The predictive power of the elimination of dioxin-like pollutants from pigs: an in vivo study.

Environ Int 2012 Jan 22;38(1):73-8. Epub 2011 Sep 22.

Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, PR China.

Pigs accidentally given feed contaminated by dioxin-like pollutants are a serious public health issue. We have examined whether pigs with limited exposure during early periods of fattening would be categorized as non-compliant with the EU limit at slaughtering when growth-dilution, excretion and metabolism effects are considered. Sixteen female and sixteen castrated male weaned pigs were divided into four groups (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2012

The impact of chronic environmental stressors on growing pigs, Sus scrofa (Part 1): stress physiology, production and play behaviour.

Animal 2010 Nov;4(11):1899-909

1Centre for Animal Welfare, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL7 9TA, UK.

Commercially farmed animals are frequently housed in conditions that impose a number of concurrent environmental stressors. For pigs housed indoors, elevated levels of mechanical noise, atmospheric ammonia and low light intensities are commonplace. This experiment examined the effects on growing pigs of chronic exposure to combinations of commercially relevant levels of these potential stressors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2010

Livestock handling--minimizing worker injuries.

J Agromedicine 2010 Jul;15(3):226-35

North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Public Health, 1912 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1912, USA.

Numerous hazards may occur on farms raising livestock. Animal contact is often ranked as the first or second leading cause of injuries on the farm. In addition to direct trauma from the animal, other injuries may occur from injection of medications, chemical splashes from cleaning the facility, and repetitive motion injuries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Using the nonlinear control of anaesthesia-induced hypersensitivity of EEG at burst suppression level to test the effects of radiofrequency radiation on brain function.

Nonlinear Biomed Phys 2009 Jul 18;3(1). Epub 2009 Jul 18.

Tampere University of Technology, Pori, Finland.

Background: In this study, investigating the effects of mobile phone radiation on test animals, eleven pigs were anaesthetised to the level where burst-suppression pattern appears in the electroencephalogram (EEG). At this level of anaesthesia both human subjects and animals show high sensitivity to external stimuli which produce EEG bursts during suppression. The burst-suppression phenomenon represents a nonlinear control system, where low-amplitude EEG abruptly switches to very high amplitude bursts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Modelling Salmonella spread within a farrow-to-finish pig herd.

Vet Res 2008 Sep-Oct;39(5):49. Epub 2008 Jun 14.

INRA, UMR1300 Unité Bio-Agression, Epidémiologie et Analyse de Risque, BP 40706, F-44307 Nantes, France.

Delivery of infected pigs to the slaughterhouse is a major source of pork meat contamination by bacterial hazards to humans. We propose a model of Salmonella spread within a farrow-to-finish pig herd, assuming the prevalence in infected delivered pigs depends on the whole pig life-time and growing process. This stochastic discrete-time model represents both the population dynamics in a farrow-to-finish pig herd using batch management, and Salmonella spread. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2008

Disabling work-related persistent photosensitivity following photoallergic contact dermatitis from chlorpromazine and olaquindox in a pig breeder.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2007 ;14(2):329-33

Department of Occupational and Social Medicine, Georg-August-University of Gottingen, Waldweg 37, 37073 Göttingen, Germany.

The use of veterinary medicines and medicated feed has a potential for the exposure of agricultural workers to pharmaceuticals with phototoxic and photoallergic side-effects. We present a 67-year-old self-employed farmer and pig breeder with a 22-year history of severe persistent photosensitivity following photoallergic contact dermatitis due to direct occupational dermal and airborne contact to chlorpromazine (sedative) and olaquindox (antibiotic and animal growth promoter, AGP). His first dermatitis symptoms appeared at the age of 45 when the pig breeding was intensified. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Survey of pigs' kidneys with lesions consistent with PMWS and PDNS and ochratoxicosis. Part 2: pathological and histological findings.

Vet Rec 2006 Dec;159(23):761-8

Veterinary Laboratories Agency - Bury St Edmunds, Rougham Hill, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk.

One thousand condemned pigs' kidneys were collected in February 2002 from two pig abattoirs in England to assess the lesions due to postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (pdns) and the possible contribution of ochratoxicosis; 174 of the kidneys were pale, 295 were swollen and 81 were abnormally firm with the gross appearance of fibrosis. The main macroscopic finding was the presence of multifocal pale cortical lesions, observed in 446 of the kidneys, and there were large cysts in 266 of them. Histopathological lesions of non-suppurative tubulointerstitial nephritis, with degeneration and fibrosis of renal tubules, were identified in 213 of 250 (85. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2006