401,706 results match your criteria pigs

Bioaugmentation with Acinetobacter sp. TAC-1 to enhance nitrogen removal in swine wastewater by moving bed biofilm reactor inoculated with bacteria.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jun 21:127506. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 40054, China. Electronic address:

To enhance the performance of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) inoculated with heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification (HN-AD) bacteria, bioaugmentation with Acinetobacter sp. TAC-1 was firstly employed and then the treatment performance for real swine wastewater was presented in this study. Results indicated that NH-N and TN removal rates of bioaugmented reactor were significantly improved from 16. Read More

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Establishment of type 2 diabetes mellitus models using streptozotocin after 3 months high-fat diet in Bama minipigs.

Anim Biotechnol 2022 Jun 24:1-18. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Laboratory Animal Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

In the past twenty years, the number of adults with diabetes has tripled. Most studies have been conducted using rodent models of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the developed drugs have low clinical conversion efficiency. Therefore, it is urgent to establish a more human-like large animal model to explore T2DM pathogenesis and formulate new disease prevention and control strategies. Read More

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The importance of optimal body condition to maximize reproductive health and perinatal outcomes in pigs.

Nutr Res Rev 2022 Jun 24:1-59. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Nutrition and Animal Production, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of São Paulo (USP); Campus Pirassununga, SP, Brazil.

Overnutrition or undernutrition during all or part of the reproductive cycle predisposes sows to metabolic consequences and poor reproductive health which contributes to a decrease in sow longevity and an increase in perinatal mortality. This represents not only an economic problem for the pig industry but also results in poor animal welfare. To maximize profitability and increase sustainability in pig production; it is pivotal to provide researchers and practitioners with synthesized information about the repercussions of maternal obesity or malnutrition on reproductive health and perinatal outcomes; and to pinpoint currently available nutritional managements to keep sows' body condition in an optimal range. Read More

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Ornithine α-Ketoglutarate Alleviates Inflammation Regulating Ileal Mucosa Microbiota and Metabolites in Enterotoxigenic -Infected Pigs.

Front Nutr 2022 7;9:862498. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, Changsha, China.

Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) is one of the main causes of diarrhea in weaned piglets, and ornithine α-ketoglutarate (OKG) as a food supplement has been shown to improve intestinal immune status in animals and humans. However, it remains unknown whether OKG alleviates inflammation through the regulation of gut microbiota and its metabolites on ETEC-infected piglets. This study was conducted to explore the impact of OKG on growth performance, immunity, and ileal mucosa microbiota and its metabolites in piglets infected with ETEC. Read More

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A Combinatorial Vaccine Containing Inactivated Bacterin and Subunits Provides Protection Against Infection in Mice and Pigs.

Front Vet Sci 2022 7;9:902497. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

(APP) is the etiological agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia (PCP) that causes great economic losses in the swine industry. Currently, vaccination is still a commonly used strategy for the prevention of the disease. Commercially available vaccines of this disease, including inactivated bacterins and subunit vaccines, have clinical limitations such as side effects and low cross-protection. Read More

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Development of a Monoclonal Antibody to Pig CD69 Reveals Early Activation of T Cells in Pig after PRRSV and ASFV Infection.

Viruses 2022 Jun 20;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

The CD69 molecule, as an early activation marker of lymphocytes, is often used to assess the activation of cellular immunity. However, for pigs, an anti-pig CD69 antibody is not yet available for this purpose after infection or vaccination. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against pig CD69 was produced by peptide immunization and hybridoma technique. Read More

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Prevention and Control of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea: The Development of Recombination-Resistant Live Attenuated Vaccines.

Viruses 2022 Jun 16;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Center for Food Animal Health, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA.

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED), causing up to 100% mortality in neonatal pigs, is a highly contagious enteric disease caused by PED virus (PEDV). The highly virulent genogroup 2 (G2) PEDV emerged in 2010 and has caused huge economic losses to the pork industry globally. It was first reported in the US in 2013, caused country-wide outbreaks, and posed tremendous hardship for many pork producers in 2013-2014. Read More

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A Review on Equine Influenza from a Human Influenza Perspective.

Viruses 2022 Jun 15;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Equine Infectious Disease Surveillance (EIDS), Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK.

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a main natural reservoir in wild birds. IAVs are highly contagious, continually evolve, and have a wide host range that includes various mammalian species including horses, pigs, and humans. Furthering our understanding of host-pathogen interactions and cross-species transmissions is therefore essential. Read More

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Benzimidazole-2-Phenyl-Carboxamides as Dual-Target Inhibitors of BVDV Entry and Replication.

Viruses 2022 Jun 14;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy.

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), also known as Pestivirus A, causes severe infection mostly in cattle, but also in pigs, sheep and goats, causing huge economical losses on agricultural farms every year. The infections are actually controlled by isolation of persistently infected animals and vaccination, but no antivirals are currently available to control the spread of BVDV on farms. BVDV binds the host cell using envelope protein E2, which has only recently been targeted in the research of a potent and efficient antiviral. Read More

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Serum Neutralizing and Enhancing Effects on African Swine Fever Virus Infectivity in Adherent Pig PBMC.

Viruses 2022 Jun 9;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Orient, NY 11957, USA.

African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates of up to 100% in domestic pigs. Currently, there are no commercial vaccines for the disease. Only some live-attenuated viruses have been able to protect pigs from ASFV infection. Read More

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Characterization of the Cross-Species Transmission Potential for Porcine Expressing Sparrow Coronavirus Spike Protein in Commercial Poultry.

Viruses 2022 Jun 5;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Center for Food Animal Health, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA.

Avian species often serve as transmission vectors and sources of recombination for viral infections due to their ability to travel vast distances and their gregarious behaviors. Recently a novel (DCoV) was identified in sparrows. Sparrow (SpDCoV), coupled with close contact between sparrows and swine carrying porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) may facilitate recombination of DCoVs resulting in novel CoV variants. Read More

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High Prevalence of Porcine Circovirus 3 in Hungarian Pig Herds: Results of a Systematic Sampling Protocol.

Viruses 2022 Jun 3;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, István Str. 2., 1078 Budapest, Hungary.

Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is an emerging pathogen that has been reported worldwide in all ages of healthy and clinically ill pigs. The presence of this virus in Hungary has been confirmed in a commercial farm experiencing reproductive failures, but there were no data on the circulation of PCV3 in the country. Here we report the prevalence and the genetic diversity of PCV3 in Hungarian herds. Read More

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Comparison of Endemic and Epidemic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Lineages in Midges.

Viruses 2022 Jun 3;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit, Center for Grain and Animal Health, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA.

Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) primarily infects livestock and is transmitted by direct contact and vectored by midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Endemic to Central and South America, specific VSV lineages spread northward out of endemic regions of Mexico and into the U.S. Read More

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The Emergence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Australia in 2022: Existing Knowledge of Mosquito Vectors.

Viruses 2022 Jun 2;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.

In early 2022, the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was identified as the cause of stillborn and mummified piglets in pig farms in southeastern Australia. Human cases and additional pig farms with infected piglets were subsequently identified across a widespread area encompassing four states. To inform surveillance and control programs, we synthesized existing information on Australian vectors of JEV, much of which was generated in response to incursions of JEV into the northern state of Queensland between 1995 and 2005. Read More

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Paraoxonase-1 Facilitates PRRSV Replication by Interacting with Viral Nonstructural Protein-9 and Inhibiting Type I Interferon Pathway.

Viruses 2022 May 31;14(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150069, China.

Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an esterase with specifically paraoxonase activity, has been proven to be involved in inflammation and infection. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is still a major concern in pigs and causes severe economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, the role of PON1 was investigated in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) during PRRSV infection. Read More

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Poly(A)-Binding Protein Cytoplasmic 1 Inhibits Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Replication by Interacting with Nucleocapsid Protein.

Viruses 2022 May 31;14(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Life Sciences School, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the etiological agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) characterized by vomit, watery diarrhea, dehydration and high mortality. Outbreaks of highly pathogenic variant strains of PEDV have resulted in extreme economic losses to the swine industry all over the world. The study of host-virus interaction can help to better understand the viral pathogenicity. Read More

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Evolution Characterization and Pathogenicity of a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolate from a Pig Farm in Shandong Province, China.

Viruses 2022 May 31;14(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271000, China.

In recent years, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains have been experiencing extensive recombination in Chinese swine farms. This recombination usually happens in NADC30/34 strains and highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV strains. This study identified a new PRRSV isolate that shared 99% and 99. Read More

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The Genomic Evolution and the Transmission Dynamics of H6N2 Avian Influenza A Viruses in Southern China.

Viruses 2022 May 26;14(6). Epub 2022 May 26.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

In China, the broad prevalence of H6 subtype influenza viruses, increasingly detected in aquatic birds, promotes their exchange materials with other highly pathogenic human-infecting H5N1, H5N6, and H7N9 influenza viruses. Strikingly, some H6 subtype viruses can infect pigs, dogs, and humans, posing risks to public health. In this study, 9 H6N2 viruses recovered from waterfowl species in the Guangdong province of China in 2018 were isolated and sequenced. Read More

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Recombination between the Fostera MLV-like Strain and the Strain Belonging to Lineage 1 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Korea.

Viruses 2022 May 26;14(6). Epub 2022 May 26.

Animal Disease Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important pathogens in the swine industry worldwide. In Korea, Fostera PRRS commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccines have been used since 2014 to control the PRRSV infection. In this study, two PRRSV-2 strains (20D160-1 and 21R2-63-1) were successfully isolated, and their complete genomic sequences were determined. Read More

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Functional Analysis of a Frontal miRNA Cluster Located in the Large Latency Transcript of Pseudorabies Virus.

Viruses 2022 May 26;14(6). Epub 2022 May 26.

Laboratory of Virus Molecular Biology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdańsk, Abrahama 58, 80-307 Gdańsk, Poland.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as a class of crucial regulators of virus-host crosstalk, modulating such processes as viral replication, antiviral immune response, viral latency, and pathogenesis. Pseudorabies virus (PRV), a model for the study of alphaherpesvirus biology, codes for 11 distinct miRNAs mapped to the ~4.6 kb intron of Large Latency Transcript (LLT). Read More

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CD38 Enhances TLR9 Expression and Activates NLRP3 Inflammasome after Porcine Parvovirus Infection.

Viruses 2022 May 25;14(6). Epub 2022 May 25.

Research Center of Swine Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

(1) Background: Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) is a single-stranded DNA virus without envelope which causes great harm in relation to porcine reproductive disorders in clinic. Cluster of Differentiation 38 (CD38) is a transmembrane protein widely existing in mammals. Its various functions make it a very popular research object, including in the viral infection field. Read More

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Protective Immune Responses Induced by an mRNA-LNP Vaccine Encoding prM-E Proteins against Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection.

Viruses 2022 May 24;14(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important zoonotic pathogen, which causes central nervous system symptoms in humans and reproductive disorders in swine. It has led to severe impacts on human health and the swine industry; however, there is no medicine available for treating yet. Therefore, vaccination is the best preventive measure for this disease. Read More

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Efficacy of a Modified Live Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 1 (PRRSV-1) Vaccine against Experimental Infection with PRRSV AUT15-33 in Weaned Piglets.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 11;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 11.

University Clinic for Swine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

In this study, the efficacy of the commercial modified live PRRSV-1 vaccine "Ingelvac PRRSFLEX EU" was assessed in weaned piglets experimentally infected with PRRSV strain AUT15-33. Seventy-four weaned piglets were allocated to five groups. Vaccinated (groups 1, 2, and 5) and non-vaccinated piglets (groups 3 and 4), infected with either a low dose (10 TCID/dose; groups 2 and 4) or a high dose (10 TCID/dose; groups 1 and 3) of the virus, were compared regarding clinical signs, average daily weight gain (ADG), lung lesions, viral load in serum, oral swabs, and tissue samples. Read More

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Eight Years of African Swine Fever in the Baltic States: Epidemiological Reflections.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 20;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Epidemiology, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

African swine fever (ASF) was first detected in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia in 2014 and has since been circulating in the Baltic States with a similar epidemiological course characterized by persistence of the disease in the wild boar population and occasional spill-over infections in domestic pigs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate surveillance data on ASF in wild boar from the three countries to improve our understanding of the course of the disease. ASF surveillance and wild boar population data of the countries were analyzed. Read More

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African Swine Fever Outbreak Investigations-The Significance of Disease-Related Anecdotal Information Coming from Laypersons.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 17;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald-Insel Riems, 17493 Greifswald, Germany.

Veterinarians who have conducted numerous investigations of African swine fever outbreaks in pig farms in various European countries over the years shared their experiences during a workshop in Germany in early 2020. One focus was on the so-called "anecdotal information" obtained from farmers, farm workers or other lay people during the outbreak investigations. Discussions revolved around how to correctly interpret and classify such information and how the subjective character of the statements can influence follow-up examinations. Read More

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First Data on Aquaporins: Structural, Phylogenetic and Immunogenic Characterisation as Vaccine Targets.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 16;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Parasitology Laboratory, Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (IRNASA, CSIC), Cordel de Merinas, 40-52, 37008 Salamanca, Spain.

transmits African swine fever and human relapsing fever in Africa. The elimination of populations from anthropic environments is expected to improve the prevention and control of these diseases. Tick vaccines have emerged as a sustainable method for tick control, and tick aquaporins (AQPs) are promising targets for tick vaccines due to their vital functions, immunogenicity and ease of access by neutralising host antibodies. Read More

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Evaluation of Ultraviolet Type C Radiation in Inactivating Relevant Veterinary Viruses on Experimentally Contaminated Surfaces.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 15;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Many swine farms employ UVC treatment in employees' personal belongings and small tools entering farms as part of the biosecurity protocol to decrease the risk of pathogen introduction into the operation. However, the UVC efficacy in some veterinary viruses is not fully evaluated. This study evaluated the efficacy of ultraviolet type C (UVC) radiation in inactivating seven relevant veterinary viruses: Swine Poxvirus (SwPV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV), Swine Influenza Virus (SIV), Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), Porcine Parvovirus (PPV), and Senecavirus A (SVA). Read More

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Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of PCV Types 2 and 3 DNA in Suckling Piglets Compared to Grow-Finish Pigs in Downstream Production.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 10;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Division of Virology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80539 Munich, Germany.

Vertical transmission is a consistently discussed pathway of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) transmission in pigs. To evaluate the presence of PCV2 and PCV3 in piglets, we collected tissue samples from 185 piglets that were crushed within the first week of life from 16 farms located in Germany and Austria. Pooled samples consisting of thymus, inguinal lymph node, myocardium, lung and spleen were examined for PCV2 and PCV3 by qPCR. Read More

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Worldwide Prevalence of -mediated Colistin-Resistance in Isolates of Clinical Samples, Healthy Humans, and Livestock-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 8;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

One Health Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad de Las Américas, Quito 170124, Ecuador.

Antimicrobial resistance is a serious public-health problem throughout the world. , the most common Gram-negative microorganism, has developed different resistance mechanisms, making treating infections difficult. Colistin is considered a last-resort drug in the treatment of infections caused by . Read More

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