30,445 results match your criteria pig rat

Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in Rats.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2319:77-85

Department of Medical Physiology, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Heath Science Center, Bryan, TX, USA.

The laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) model has been widely used for research on wet age-related macular degeneration (wet-AMD) and other ocular neovascular diseases. In this model, the Bruch membrane is perforated by laser injury, resulting in neovascularization formed from the choroidal capillaries. It has become a standard method to evaluate the effect of different treatments on CNV progression in preclinical studies. Read More

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January 2021

Genome-scale insights into the metabolic versatility of Limosilactobacillus reuteri.

BMC Biotechnol 2021 Jul 30;21(1):46. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Limosilactobacillus reuteri (earlier known as Lactobacillus reuteri) is a well-studied lactic acid bacterium, with some specific strains used as probiotics, that exists in different hosts such as human, pig, goat, mouse and rat, with multiple body sites such as the gastrointestinal tract, breast milk and mouth. Numerous studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of orally administered specific L. reuteri strains, such as preventing bone loss and promoting regulatory immune system development. Read More

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What is the gold standard model for Alzheimer's Disease drug discovery and development?

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

International Center of Neuroscience and Genomic Medicine, EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center, 15165 Bergondo, Corunna, Spain.

Introduction: . Alzheimer's disease models (ADMs) are currently used for drug development (DD). More than 20,000 molecules were screened for AD treatment over decades, with only one drug (Aducanumab)FDA-approved over the past 18 years. Read More

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Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits U46619- and prostaglandin F-induced pig coronary and basilar artery contractions by inhibiting prostanoid TP receptors.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jul 28;908:174371. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Chemical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Miyama 2-2-1, Funabashi-City, Chiba, 274-8510, Japan.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) inhibits U46619 (a TP receptor agonist)- and prostaglandin F-induced contractions in rat aorta and mesenteric arteries. However, whether these effects could be replicated in vasospasm-prone vessels, such as coronary and cerebral arteries, remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the changes in pig coronary and basilar artery tensions and intracellular Ca concentrations in human prostanoid TP or FP receptor-expressing cells. Read More

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Binding of Plasminogen to Protein Endopeptidase O Facilitates Evasion of Innate Immunity in .

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:694103. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

The Gram-positive bacterial species is an important porcine and human pathogen that causes severe life-threatening diseases associated with high mortality rates. However, the mechanisms by which evades host innate immunity remain elusive, so identifying novel virulence factors involved in immune evasion is crucial to gain control over this threatening pathogen. Our previous work has shown that protein endopeptidase O (SsPepO) is a novel fibronectin-binding protein. Read More

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The Effect of Castration on Peripheral Autonomic Neurons Supplying Mammalian Male Genitourinary System.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 16;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Human Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Warszawska 30, 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland.

This review paper deals with the influence of androgens (testosterone) on pelvic autonomic pathways in male mammals. The vast majority of the relevant information has been gained in experiments involving castration (testosterone deprivation) performed in male rats, and recently, in male pigs. In both species, testosterone significantly affects the biology of the pathway components, including the pelvic neurons. Read More

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Ex Vivo and In Vivo Analysis of a Novel Porcine Aortic Patch for Vascular Reconstruction.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 16;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Ceramic Materials, Chair of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Institute for Materials Science and Technologies, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany.

(1) Background: The aim of the present study was the biocompatibility analysis of a novel xenogeneic vascular graft material (PAP) based on native collagen won from porcine aorta using the subcutaneous implantation model up to 120 days post implantationem. As a control, an already commercially available collagen-based vessel graft (XenoSure) based on bovine pericardium was used. Another focus was to analyze the (ultra-) structure and the purification effort. Read More

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Mammals fail to regenerate organs when wound contraction drives scar formation.

NPJ Regen Med 2021 Jul 22;6(1):39. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

To understand why mammals generally do not regenerate injured organs, we considered the exceptional case of spontaneous skin regeneration in the early lamb fetus. Whereas during the early fetal stage skin wounds heal by regeneration, in the late fetal stage, and after birth, skin wounds close instead by scar formation. We review independent evidence that this switch in wound healing response coincides with the onset of wound contraction, which is also enabled during late fetal gestation. Read More

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A wireless spinal stimulation system for ventral activation of the rat cervical spinal cord.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14900. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Neuroregeneration, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, USA.

Electrical stimulation of the cervical spinal cord is gaining traction as a therapy following spinal cord injury; however, it is difficult to target the cervical motor region in a rodent using a non-penetrating stimulus compared with direct placement of intraspinal wire electrodes. Penetrating wire electrodes have been explored in rodent and pig models and, while they have proven beneficial in the injured spinal cord, the negative aspects of spinal parenchymal penetration (e.g. Read More

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Fabrication of novel-shaped microneedles to overcome the disadvantages of solid microneedles for the transdermal delivery of insulin.

Biomed Microdevices 2021 Jul 21;23(3):38. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka, 820-8502, Japan.

In this study, we fabricated two different microneedles (MNs) - semi-hollow and bird-bill - to overcome the limitations of solid and coated MNs, respectively. The two MN arrays were developed using a general injection molding process to obtain high-quality MNs with uniform shape. The semi-hollow and bird-bill MNs could penetrate the micropores of swine skin up to depths of 178. Read More

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Self-healing polyurethane-elastomer with mechanical tunability for multiple biomedical applications in vivo.

Nat Commun 2021 07 20;12(1):4395. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The unique properties of self-healing materials hold great potential in the field of biomedical engineering. Although previous studies have focused on the design and synthesis of self-healing materials, their application in in vivo settings remains limited. Here, we design a series of biodegradable and biocompatible self-healing elastomers (SHEs) with tunable mechanical properties, and apply them to various disease models in vivo, in order to test their reparative potential in multiple tissues and at physiological conditions. Read More

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Genotoxicity of three mycotoxin contaminants of rice: 28-day multi-endpoint assessment in rats.

Mutat Res 2021 Jul 5;867:503369. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; Food Safety Monitoring and Risk Assessment Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisin B (FB), as the main mycotoxins contaminating rice, often coexist in food. Thus, we have measured the genotoxicity of the three rice fungal contaminants, singly and in different combinations, with a 28-day multi-endpoint (Pig-a assay + in vivo micronucleus [MN] test + comet assay) genotoxicity platform. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received the agents orally via gavage for 28 consecutive days, before performing the abovementioned tests. Read More

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infection among human-close-contact animals in different geographical areas in Vietnam.

Sci Prog 2021 Jul-Sep;104(3):368504211031747

National Center of Veterinary Diagnosis, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Leptospirosis is a neglected disease in Vietnam. Only a few studies have evaluated the status of infection in both humans and animals. To our knowledge, this is the first serological survey of in both domestic and wild animals, which may act as reservoirs of this agent. Read More

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The connexin 43 carboxyl terminal mimetic peptide αCT1 prompts differentiation of a collagen scar matrix in humans resembling unwounded skin.

FASEB J 2021 08;35(8):e21762

Fralin Biomedical Research Institute, Center for Vascular and Heart Research, Virginia Tech Carilion, Roanoke, VA, USA.

Phase II clinical trials have reported that acute treatment of surgical skin wounds with the therapeutic peptide alpha Connexin Carboxy-Terminus 1 (αCT1) improves cutaneous scar appearance by 47% 9-month postsurgery. While Cx43 and ZO-1 have been identified as molecular targets of αCT1, the mode-of-action of the peptide in scar mitigation at cellular and tissue levels remains to be further characterized. Scar histoarchitecture in αCT1 and vehicle-control treated skin wounds within the same patient were compared using biopsies from a Phase I clinical trial at 29-day postwounding. Read More

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Development of alginate and gelatin-based pleural and tracheal sealants.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA. Electronic address:

Pleural and tracheal injuries remain significant problems, and an easy to use, effective pleural or tracheal sealant would be a significant advance. The major challenges are requirements for adherence, high strength and elasticity, dynamic durability, appropriate biodegradability, and lack of cell or systemic toxicity. We designed and evaluated two sealant materials comprised respectively of alginate methacrylate and of gelatin methacryloyl, each functionalized by conjugation with dopamine HCl. Read More

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Genetic evidence substantiates transmission of Trichinella spiralis from one swine farm to another.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Jul 9;14(1):359. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

European Union Reference Laboratory for Parasites, Istituto Superiore Di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

Background: Trichinella spiralis ranks seventh in the risk posed by foodborne parasites. It causes most human cases of trichinellosis and is the most frequent cause of Trichinella outbreaks on pig farms and in wild boar, worldwide. Veterinary inspectors seek the source of outbreaks in hopes of limiting the spread. Read More

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[Directed differentiation of porcine induced pluripotent stem cells into forebrain GABAergic neuron progenitors].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Jun;41(6):820-827

School of Laboratory Medicine Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu 233000, China.

Objective: To establish an efficient protocol for directed differentiation of miniature-swine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into GABAergic progenitors in a chemically defined system.

Objective: We adopted a two-stage protocol for inducing the differentiation of porcine iPSCs. In the first stage, embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from porcine iPSCs after 3 days of suspension culture were induced in neural induction medium (containing SB431542, DMH1 and FGF2) till day 12 to differentiate into primitive neuroepithelia cells (NECs). Read More

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Evaluation of a novel tilapia-skin acellular dermis matrix rationally processed for enhanced wound healing.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Aug 21;127:112202. Epub 2021 May 21.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Nano-Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, PR China. Electronic address:

Acellular Dermal Matrix (ADM) is mainly made with human or porcine skins and has the risk of zoonotic virus transmission. The fish skin-derived ADM could overcome the shortcoming. Fish skin acellular matrix has been used as wound dressing, but there is few systematic studies on tilapia-skin acellular dermal matrix (TS-ADM). Read More

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Dose optimization of early high-dose valproic acid for neuroprotection in a swine cardiac arrest model.

Resusc Plus 2020 Mar-Jun;1-2:100007. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Aim: High-dose valproic acid (VPA) improves the survival and neurologic outcomes after asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) in rats. We characterized the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of high-dose VPA in a swine CA model to advance clinical translation.

Methods: After 8 ​min of untreated ventricular fibrillation CA, 20 male Yorkshire swine were resuscitated until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Read More

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Large-conductance calcium-activated K channels, rather than K channels, mediate the inhibitory effects of nitric oxide on mouse lymphatic pumping.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Medical Pharmacology & Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.

Background And Purpose: K channels are negative regulators of lymphatic vessel excitability and contractility and are proposed to be targets for immune cell products that inhibit lymph transport. Previous studies in rat and guinea pig mesenteric lymphatics found that nitric oxide (NO)-mediated inhibition of lymphatic contraction was prevented or reversed by the K channel inhibitor, glibenclamide. We revisited this hypothesis using mouse lymphatic vessels and K channel knock out mice. Read More

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Critical Role of Hemopexin Mediated Cytoprotection in the Pathophysiology of Sickle Cell Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 15;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Circulating hemopexin is the primary protein responsible for the clearance of heme; therefore, it is a systemic combatant against deleterious inflammation and oxidative stress induced by the presence of free heme. This role of hemopexin is critical in hemolytic pathophysiology. In this review, we outline the current research regarding how the dynamic activity of hemopexin is implicated in sickle cell disease, which is characterized by a pathological aggregation of red blood cells and excessive hemolysis. Read More

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Osteoclast-Mediated Cell Therapy as an Attempt to Treat Elastin Specific Vascular Calcification.

Molecules 2021 Jun 15;26(12). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Bioengineering, 301 Rhodes Research Center, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0905, USA.

Inflammation and stiffness in the arteries is referred to as vascular calcification. This process is a prevalent yet poorly understood consequence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, comorbidities with few treatments clinically available. Because this is an active process similar to bone formation, it is hypothesized that osteoclasts (OCs), bone-resorbing cells in the body, could potentially work to reverse existing calcification by resorbing bone material. Read More

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Large Animal Models for Investigating Cell Therapies of Stress Urinary Incontinence.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 5;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Center of Medical Research, Department of Urology at UKT, Eberhard-Karls-University, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany.

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a significant health concern for patients affected, impacting their quality of life severely. To investigate mechanisms contributing to SUI different animal models were developed. Incontinence was induced under defined conditions to explore the pathomechanisms involved, spontaneous recovery, or efficacy of therapies over time. Read More

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Postnatal testicular development in Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs.

Acta Histochem 2021 Jul 29;123(5):151741. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Departamento de Medicina y Zootecnia de Cerdos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CDMX, C.P. 04510, Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address:

The Vietnamese pot-bellied pig is a breed with high investigation potential. However, at the reproductive level, its testicular characteristics are still unknown, as well as the different stages of its development. Therefore, the objective of this work is to describe the postnatal testicular development of Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs. Read More

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Personalized Radiation Attenuating Materials for Gastrointestinal Mucosal Protection.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 06 27;8(12):2100510. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Division of Gastroenterology Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School 75 Francis St. Boston MA 02115 USA.

Cancer patients undergoing therapeutic radiation routinely develop injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal (GI) tract mucosa due to treatment. To reduce radiation dose to critical GI structures including the rectum and oral mucosa, 3D-printed GI radioprotective devices composed of high-Z materials are generated from patient CT scans. In a radiation proctitis rat model, a significant reduction in crypt injury is demonstrated with the device compared to without ( < 0. Read More

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Safety and efficacy profile of a phytase produced by fermentation and used as a feed additive.

Heliyon 2021 Jun 5;7(6):e07237. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Novozymes A/S, Krogshoejvej 36, DK-2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark.

Enzymes can aid in optimal feed stock utilization when used as feed additives. A range of toxicological studies were performed to evaluate the safety profile of a novel phytase (phytase HM) from produced in . Phytase HM was found to be non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in tests. Read More

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In-vivo application of low frequency alternating currents on porcine cervical vagus nerve evokes reversible nerve conduction block.

Bioelectron Med 2021 Jun 30;7(1). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, USA.

Background: This paper describes a method to reversibly block nerve conduction through direct application of a 1 Hz sinusoidal current waveform delivered through a bipolar nerve cuff electrode. This low frequency alternating current (LFAC) waveform was previously shown to reversibly block the effects of vagal pulse stimulation evoked bradycardia in-vivo in the anaesthetised rat model (Mintch et al. 2019). Read More

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3D printed hollow microneedles array using stereolithography for efficient transdermal delivery of rifampicin.

Int J Pharm 2021 Aug 19;605:120815. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER)-Guwahati, Changsari, Assam, India; National Centre for Pharmacoengineering, NIPER-Guwahati, Changsari, Assam, India. Electronic address:

A 3D printed assembly of hollow microneedles (HMNs) array, conjoined with a reservoir void, was designed and additively manufactured using stereolithography (SLA) technology utilizing a proprietary class-I resin. The HMNs array was utilized for transdermal delivery of high molecular weight antibiotics, i.e. Read More

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Molecular surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp. for microbial source tracking of fecal contamination in Laguna Lake, Philippines.

J Water Health 2021 Jun;19(3):534-544

Pathogen-Host-Environment Interactions Research Laboratory, Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines E-mail:

Water quality deterioration in source waters poses increased health, environmental, and economic risks. Here, we genotyped Cryptosporidium spp. obtained from water samples of Laguna Lake, Philippines, and its tributaries for the purpose of source-tracking fecal contamination. Read More

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Preventing post-surgical cardiac adhesions with a catechol-functionalized oxime hydrogel.

Nat Commun 2021 06 18;12(1):3764. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Post-surgical cardiac adhesions represent a significant problem during routine cardiothoracic procedures. This fibrous tissue can impair heart function and inhibit surgical access in reoperation procedures. Here, we propose a hydrogel barrier composed of oxime crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with the inclusion of a catechol (Cat) group to improve retention on the heart for pericardial adhesion prevention. Read More

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