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Orthorexia nervosa and Instagram: exploring the Russian-speaking conversation around #opтopeкcия.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Faculty of Science, Athena Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

This mixed-methods study explored the conversation around orthorexia nervosa (ON) on Instagram from a Russian-speaking perspective. Two quantitative data sources were implemented; a comparative content analysis of posts tagged with #opтopeкcия (n = 234) and #orthorexia (n = 243), and an online questionnaire completed by Russian-speakers (n = 96) sharing ON-related content on Instagram. Additionally, five questionnaire participants were interviewed, four of which identified with having (had) ON. Read More

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The relationship between tendency to attend to detail, sensory sensitivity, and affective response to food cues - A registered report.

Int J Psychophysiol 2021 May 7;166:50-60. Epub 2021 May 7.

Abertay University, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Understanding the underlying drivers of food choice remains a challenge and has highlighted the need for measures that capture data over and above that offered by self-reporting tools. Consequently, a growing body of research has set out to interpret facial responses to food cues to offer a greater insight into the emotional responses that may drive food acceptance. However, interpreting facial responses is challenging, as there are numerous factors that may influence affective response to foods, including expectation, context, and individual differences. Read More

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Disorder specific rewarding stimuli in anorexia nervosa.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, LWL University Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Objective: To enhance our understanding of reward stimuli in anorexia nervosa (AN) and to provide a basis for future research on reward processes, disorder specific reward stimuli as well as primary and secondary reinforcers were investigated.

Method: We developed a set of pictures with "disorder specific reward" stimuli, with the six subcategories "sport," "losing weight," "healthy food," "discipline," "thin bodies," "appreciation of others," and evaluated reward ratings of these "disorder specific reward" stimuli as well as "erotic," "high caloric," and "neutral" stimuli in 25 patients with AN and 25 participants in the comparison group (CG).

Results: We found a significant main effect for picture category and a significant interaction. Read More

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No effect of very brief exposure to masked food pictures on fear of food in anorexia nervosa.

Eur Eat Disord Rev 2021 Jul 5;29(4):645-656. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.

Objective: Very brief exposure to masked images of spider stimuli can facilitate approach behaviour towards spiders in fearful subjects. We hypothesized that a similar effect might occur for fear of food in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), possibly offering a new treatment approach, with advantages over other methods of food exposure.

Methods: Patients with AN (n = 60) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions and received a single session of exposure to either masked and very briefly presented food images, clearly visible food images, or masked non-food images (i. Read More

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Increased early motivational response to food in adolescent anorexia nervosa revealed by magnetoencephalography.

Psychol Med 2021 May 5:1-9. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Background: It remains unclear to what extent reduced nutritional intake in anorexia nervosa (AN) is a consequence of a reduced motivational response to food. Although self-reports typically suggest AN patients have a reduced appetitive response, behavioral and neurophysiological measures have revealed evidence for both increased and reduced attentional biases towards food stimuli. The mechanisms influencing food perception in AN, might be clarified using time-sensitive magnetoencephalography (MEG) to differentiate the early (more automatic processing) stages from the late (more controlled) stages. Read More

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Molecular characterization of Gyps africanus (African white-backed vulture) organic anion transporter 1 and 2 expressed in the kidney.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0250408. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Gyps species have been previously shown to be highly sensitive to the toxic effects of diclofenac, when present in their food sources as drug residues following use as a veterinary medicine. Vultures exposed to diclofenac soon become depressed and die with signs of severe visceral gout and renal damage on necropsy. The molecular mechanism behind toxicity and renal excretion of uric acid is still poorly understood. Read More

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The Dispensable Surplus Dairy Calf: Is This Issue a "Wicked Problem" and Where Do We Go From Here?

Front Vet Sci 2021 14;8:660934. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Animal Welfare Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Surplus dairy calves consist of all dairy bull calves and any heifer calves not needed as replacements for the milking herd. The fate of these surplus calves varies by region; for example, in Australia and New Zealand they are often sold as "bobby" calves and slaughtered within the first weeks of life; whereas, in North America they are normally sold within the first weeks of life but reared for 16-18 weeks as veal or longer as dairy beef. Regardless of region, demand for these calves is often very low, driving down prices and in some cases leaving farmers with no alternative options other than on-farm euthanasia. Read More

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Fat and Carbohydrate Interact to Potentiate Food Reward in Healthy Weight but Not in Overweight or Obesity.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 6;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Modern Diet and Physiology Research Center, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Prior work suggests that actual, but not estimated, energy density drives the reinforcing value of food and that energy from fat and carbohydrate can interact to potentiate reward. Here we sought to replicate these findings in an American sample and to determine if the effects are influenced by body mass index (BMI). Thirty participants with healthy weight (HW; BMI 21. Read More

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Perceived role of hot food in the pathogenesis of oesophageal cancer: a qualitative study in the Arsi Zone, Oromia, Central Ethiopia.

J Nutr Sci 2021 8;10:e1. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Observational studies in Ethiopia have identified a positive association between hot wheat porridge consumption and oesophageal carcinoma. However, a single dietary intake cannot be a sufficient predictor of cancer among populations that have diverse dietary practices. The present study was carried out to explore the community's perspectives on the role of hot foods in the pathogenesis of oesophageal cancer in Ethiopia. Read More

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January 2021

Development of a Classical Conditioning Task for Humans Examining Phasic Heart Rate Responses to Signaled Appetitive Stimuli: A Pilot Study.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 1;15:639372. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Lab of Electric Stimulation of the Nervous System Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Cardiac responses to appetitive stimuli have been studied as indices of motivational states and attentional processes, the former being associated with cardiac acceleration and latter deceleration. Very few studies have examined heart rate changes in appetitive classical conditioning in humans. The current study describes the development and pilot testing of a classical conditioning task to assess cardiac responses to appetitive stimuli and cues that reliably precede them. Read More

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Characterization of interactions between whey protein isolate and hyaluronic acid in aqueous solution: Effects of pH and mixing ratio.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jul 10;203:111758. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Food Science, College of Food Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 130062, China. Electronic address:

Interactions between whey protein isolate (WPI) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were characterized as functions of pH (6.0-1.0) and protein to polysaccharide ratio (R, 1:4-10:1). Read More

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Test-retest reliability of functional MRI food receipt, anticipated receipt, and picture tasks.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: Functional MRI (fMRI) tasks are increasingly being used to advance knowledge of the etiology and maintenance of obesity and eating disorders. Thus, understanding the test-retest reliability of BOLD signal contrasts from these tasks is important.

Objectives: To evaluate test-retest reliability of responses in reward-related brain regions to food receipt paradigms (palatable tastes, anticipated palatable tastes), food picture paradigms (high-calorie food pictures), a monetary reward paradigm (winning money and anticipating winning money), and a thin female model picture paradigm (thin female model pictures). Read More

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The #orthorexia community on Instagram.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Athena Institute, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: This mixed-methods study delved into the relationship between orthorexia nervosa (ON) and Instagram.

Methods: Two quantitative data sources were used: content analysis of pictures using #orthorexia (n = 3027), and an online questionnaire investigating the experience of ON and the use of Instagram of people sharing ON-related content on Instagram (n = 185). Following, interviews (n = 9) were conducted with people posting ON-related content on Instagram and self-identifying as having (had) ON. Read More

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Reaching Out for Food: How Food Incentives Modulate Peripersonal Space Perception.

J Cogn 2021 Mar 10;4(1):21. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Cognitive Sciences, University of Potsdam, Germany.

Two experiments were conducted to determine, first, whether food items influence participants' estimations of the size of their subjective peripersonal space. It was of particular interest whether this representation is influenced by satiated/hungry states and is differentially affected by valence and calorie content of depicted stimuli. Second, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used, in order to obtain information about the time course of the observed effects and how they depend on the spatial location of the food pictures. Read More

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Effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the interaction and aggregation behavior of ovalbumin-lysozyme complex.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 3;352:129457. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

National Research and Development Center for Egg Processing, College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

The mechanism by which sodium tripolyphosphate affected the aggregation behavior of ovalbumin-lysozyme complexes was investigated in this work. The highest stability coefficients were detected for natural ovalbumin and lysozyme at pH 9.0 and pH 5. Read More

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Investigating the Relationship between Perceived Meal Colour Variety and Food Intake across Meal Types in a Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 26;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, P.O. Box 47, 78457 Konstanz, Germany.

Although most people are aware of the health benefits of consuming sufficient amounts of fruit and vegetables, many do not adhere to current dietary recommendations. Recent studies have suggested meal colour variety as an intuitive cue for healthy and enjoyable lunch meal choices. The present study extends this research by testing the "colourful = healthy" association across meal types. Read More

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February 2021

Food solutions and cigarette smoke-dependent changes in color and surface texture of CAD/CAM resin composites - an in vitro study.

Int J Prosthodont 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Purpose: To investigate the discoloration and surface properties of four CAD/CAM composite resins provoked by a variety of food solutions and cigarette smoke.

Materials And Methods: A total of 74 specimens (N = 370) were prepared per material (Brilliant Crios [Coltene], CeraSmart [GC], Lava Ultimate [3M Espe], Shofu Block HC [Shofu], and SonicFill 2 [Kerr]). Discoloration (ΔE) was investigated with a spectrophotometer. Read More

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February 2021

Needs Assessment Survey for a Food Safety Education through We-Media: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Junior Students of an Education and a Medical University in Chongqing, China.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2020 ;66(Supplement):S267-S274

School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University.

Many studies on food safety cognition and practice intervention among university students exist, but only few conduct needs assessment surveys. In recent years, We-media has been applied in the field of health education and promotion, but its application in food safety intervention is limited at home and abroad. This study aimed to explore the current situation of We-media use and assess the needs for food safety information through We-media among junior students of an education and a medical university. Read More

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January 2020

Perspective: Big Data and Machine Learning Could Help Advance Nutritional Epidemiology.

Adv Nutr 2021 Jun;12(3):621-631

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

The field of nutritional epidemiology faces challenges posed by measurement error, diet as a complex exposure, and residual confounding. The objective of this perspective article is to highlight how developments in big data and machine learning can help address these challenges. New methods of collecting 24-h dietary recalls and recording diet could enable larger samples and more repeated measures to increase statistical power and measurement precision. Read More

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Influence of microbial in-situ heteropolysaccharide production on textural properties of raw fermented sausages (salami).

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Feb 17;58(2):562-570. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Food Physics and Meat Science, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 21/25, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany.

The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of a heteropolysacchride (HePS)-forming lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the quality attributes of raw fermented sausages. Therefore, salamis with the HePS-producing strain TMW 1.1478 or the non-EPS-producing strain TMW 1. Read More

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February 2021

Emotional reactivity, suppression of emotions and response inhibition in emotional eaters: A multi-method pilot study.

Appetite 2021 Jun 1;161:105142. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Schleichstr. 4, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Objective: Emotional eating has been associated with high emotional reactivity, suppression of negative emotions and inhibitory control difficulties. The current study aimed to address the association of these factors and their combined effect on emotional eating.

Method: Twenty-eight participants conducted an emotional Go/Nogo task including pictures of neutral, negative and positive scenes and an additional emotion suppression condition. Read More

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Validation of computer software to estimate dietary intake among patients with type 2 diabetes.

J Clin Biochem Nutr 2021 Jan 21;68(1):105-109. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5 Shimogamo, Hangi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan.

Tailored nutritional guidance by a registered dietitian is necessary for feasible, practical application of nutrition therapy. In order to reduce the requirement for estimation by a dietitian and to increase the time available for practical advice, we developed and validated computer software for estimating dietary intake among patients with type 2 diabetes. The study enrolled 46 patients with type 2 diabetes, recruited from an outpatient clinic in 2015. Read More

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January 2021

Estimating Dining Plate Size From an Egocentric Image Sequence Without a Fiducial Marker.

Front Nutr 2020 14;7:519444. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Despite the extreme importance of food intake in human health, it is currently difficult to conduct an objective dietary assessment without individuals' self-report. In recent years, a passive method utilizing a wearable electronic device has emerged. This device acquires food images automatically during the eating process. Read More

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January 2021

Are meat options preferred to comparable vegetarian options? An experimental study.

BMC Res Notes 2021 Jan 26;14(1):37. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Behaviour and Health Research Unit, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Objective: Reducing meat consumption would have substantial benefits both in terms of health and environmental impact, but meat options may be more attractive to customers than meat-free options. This study tested this by presenting UK adults (n = 540) with a series of pictures showing two meal options and asking them to select which they would prefer to eat right now. They completed this task for every possible pair from a pool of six comparator meat-based options and six target options (66 pairs). Read More

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January 2021

Do Food Odors Differently Influence Cerebral Activity Depending on Weight Status? An Electroencephalography Study of Implicit Olfactory Priming Effects on the Processing of Food Pictures.

Neuroscience 2021 04 20;460:130-144. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, AgroSup Dijon, CNRS, INRAE, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France.

Attentional automatic processes and cerebral activity may differ between individuals with different weight statuses in the presence of food stimuli (e.g. odors, pictures). Read More

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Non-IgE- or Mixed IgE/Non-IgE-Mediated Gastrointestinal Food Allergies in the First Years of Life: Old and New Tools for Diagnosis.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 14;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Food Allergy Committee of the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (SIAIP), Pediatric Department, Garbagnate Milanese Hospital, ASST Rhodense, 70056 Garbagnate Milanese, Italy.

non-IgE and mixed gastrointestinal food allergies present various specific, well-characterized clinical pictures such as food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis and food protein-induced enteropathy syndrome as well as eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders such as eosinophilic esophagitis, allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis and eosinophilic colitis. The aim of this article is to provide an updated review of their different clinical presentations, to suggest a correct approach to their diagnosis and to discuss the usefulness of both old and new diagnostic tools, including fecal biomarkers, atopy patch tests, endoscopy, specific IgG and IgG4 testing, allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test (ALST) and clinical score (CoMiss). Read More

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January 2021

Fucoidan supplementation modulates hepato-renal oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by aflatoxin B1 intoxication in rats.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 30;768:144781. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Chrono-Environnement Laboratory, UMR CNRS 6249, Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, F-25030 Besançon Cedex, France.

Aflatoxins are a common food contaminant of global concern. Aflatoxin B (AFB) intoxication is associated with serious health hazards. Recently, fucoidan (FUC) has gained much attention from pharmaceutical industry due to its promising therapeutic effects. Read More

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The Human Factor in Automated Image-Based Nutrition Apps: Analysis of Common Mistakes Using the goFOOD Lite App.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 01 13;9(1):e24467. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Technological advancements have enabled nutrient estimation by smartphone apps such as goFOOD. This is an artificial intelligence-based smartphone system, which uses food images or video captured by the user as input and then translates these into estimates of nutrient content. The quality of the data is highly dependent on the images the user records. Read More

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January 2021

Hypokalemia in peritoneal dialysis patients in Thailand: the pivotal role of low potassium intake.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Jul 11;53(7):1463-1471. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Objective: Hypokalemia is highly prevalent in chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients worldwide, particularly in Thailand. This study aims to investigate the major determinants of hypokalemia in Thai PD patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in chronic PD patients at 4 PD centers in Bangkok, Thailand. Read More

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Biologics for atopic diseases: Indication, side effect management, and new developments.

Allergol Select 2021 5;5:1-25. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy Center, Berlin, Germany.

With the advent of biologicals, more and more therapeutics are available that specifically address specific switch points in the pathomechanism of immunologically dominated diseases. Thus, the focus of diagnostics and therapy (precision medicine) is more on the individual disease characteristics of the individual patient. Regarding the different phenotypes of atopic diseases, severe asthma was the first entity for which biologicals were approved, followed by urticaria, and finally atopic dermatitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Read More

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January 2021