126,824 results match your criteria physiological conditions

Silica Gel-mediated Oxidation of Prenyl Motifs Generates Natural Product-Like Artifacts.

Planta Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research, Pharmacognosy Institute, and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, United States.

Prenyl moieties are commonly encountered in the natural products of terpenoid and mixed biosynthetic origin. The reactivity of unsaturated prenyl motifs is less recognized and shown here to affect the acyclic monoterpene glycoside, kenposide A (8: ), which oxidizes readily on silica gel when exposed to air. The major degradation product mediated under these conditions was a new aldehyde, 9: . Read More

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A critical review of the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of growth-related abnormalities affecting broiler chicken breast muscles.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 20;100(6):101180. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Italy.

In the past decade, the poultry industry has faced the occurrence of growth-related muscular abnormalities that mainly affect, with a high incidence rate, the Pectoralis major of the fast-growing genotypes selected for their production performances (high growth rate and breast yield). These myopathies are termed as White Striping, Wooden Breast, and Spaghetti Meat and exhibit distinctive phenotypes. A spatiotemporal distribution has been demonstrated for these disorders as in the early stage they primarily affect the superficial area in the cranial portion of the muscle and, as the birds grow older, involve the entire tissue. Read More

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Highly Stable 1,2-Dicarbonyl Radical Cations Derived from N-Heterocyclic Carbenes.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 37673, Republic of Korea.

Stable organic radicals have been of great academic interest not only in the context of fundamental understanding of reactive intermediates but also because of their numerous applications as functional materials. Apart from the early examples of triphenylmethyl and TEMPO derivatives, reports on air- and water-stable organic radicals are scarce, and their development remains a challenge. Herein, we present the design and synthesis of a novel organic radical based on a 1,2-dicarbonyl scaffold supported by -heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs). Read More

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Low-Level Light Therapy Downregulates Scalp Inflammatory Biomarkers in Men With Androgenetic Alopecia and Boosts Minoxidil 2% to Bring a Sustainable Hair Regrowth Activity.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

L'OREAL Research and Innovation, 188, rue Paul Hochart, Chevilly Larue, 94550, France.

Background And Objectives: Low-level light therapies using visible to infrared light are known to activate several cellular functions, such as adenosine triphosphate and nitric oxide synthesis. However, few clinical observations report its biological consequences for skin and scalp homeostasis. Since scalp inflammation was recognized as a potential physiological obstacle to the efficacy of the reference hair regrowth drug Minoxidil in vivo and since perifollicular inflammation is the hallmark of about 50%-70% follicular units in androgenetic alopecia, we decided to investigate whether the anti-inflammatory activity of LLLT/GentleWaves® device were assigned to L'Oréal by Light BioScience L. Read More

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Exploring directional and fluctuating asymmetry in the human palate during growth.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy.

Objectives: Palate morphology is constantly changing throughout an individual's lifespan, yet its asymmetry during growth is still little understood. In this research, we focus on the study of palate morphology by using 3D geometric morphometric approaches to observe changes at different stages of life, and to quantify the impact of directional and fluctuating asymmetry on different areas at different growth stages.

Materials And Methods: The sample consists of 183 individuals (1-72 years) from two identified human skeletal collections of 19th and early 20th Century Italian contexts. Read More

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Fluid mechanics and rheology of the jumping spider body fluid.

Soft Matter 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Physical Intelligence Department, Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany. and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

Spiders use their inner body fluid ("blood" or hemolymph) to drive hydraulic extension of their legs. In hydraulic systems, performance is highly dependent on the working fluid, which needs to be chosen according to the required operating speed and pressure. Here, we provide new insights into the fluid mechanics of spider locomotion. Read More

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The effect of feeding patterns on serum zonulin levels in infants at 3-4 months of age.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Pediatric Endocrine Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Patras, Rion, Patras, Greece.

Zonulin so far is the only known endogenous modulator of intercellular tight junctions which regulate the intestinal permeability. Breastfeeding is considered to enhance the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract; however, limited data are available about the effect of feeding patterns on intestinal permeability. We aimed to investigate the potential association between the mode of feeding (breast versus formula milk) and the serum zonulin levels as a marker of intestinal permeability. Read More

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Seasonal Dynamics of the Honey Bee Gut Microbiota in Colonies Under Subtropical Climate : Seasonal Dynamics of Honey Bee Gut Microbiota.

Microb Ecol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratorio de Microbiología Y Salud de Las Abejas, Departamento de Microbiología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Avda. Italia 3318, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide invaluable benefits for food production and maintenance of biodiversity of natural environments through pollination. They are widely spread across the world, being adapted to different climatic conditions. To survive the winter in cold temperate regions, honey bees developed different strategies including storage of honey and pollen, confinement of individuals during the winter, and an annual cycle of colony growth and reproduction. Read More

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Distinct Features of Brain-Resident Macrophages: Microglia and Non-Parenchymal Brain Macrophages.

Mol Cells 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Tissue-resident macrophages play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and innate immune defense against invading microbial pathogens. Brain-resident macrophages can be classified into microglia in the brain parenchyma and non-parenchymal brain macrophages, also known as central nervous system-associated or border-associated macrophages, in the brain-circulation interface. Microglia and non-parenchymal brain macrophages, including meningeal, perivascular, and choroid plexus macrophages, are mostly produced during embryonic development, and maintained their population by self-renewal. Read More

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Oxidant therapy improves adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells in human wound healing.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 May 10;12(1):280. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and adipocytes are involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological conditions, which have been extensively described in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots over the past two decades. However, much less is known about ASC and adipocytes outside classical fat tissue depots and their necessity in tissue remodeling after injury. Therefore, we investigated the etiology of adipocytes in human granulation tissue and define their possible role wound healing. Read More

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Simultaneous learning of individual microRNA-gene interactions and regulatory comodules.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 May 10;22(1):237. Epub 2021 May 10.

Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by binding to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Because of the key part that miRNAs play, understanding the correct regulatory role of miRNAs in diverse patho-physiological conditions is of great interest. Although it is known that miRNAs act combinatorially to regulate genes, precise identification of miRNA-gene interactions and their specific functional roles in regulatory comodules remains a challenge. Read More

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Can Myogenic Tone Protect Endothelial Function? Integrating Myogenic Activation and Dilator Reactivity for Cerebral Resistance Arteries in Metabolic Disease.

J Vasc Res 2021 May 10:1-15. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departments of Medical Biophysics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

The obese Zucker rat (OZR) manifests multiple risk factors for impaired cerebrovascular function, including hypertension and insulin resistance although how they combine to produce integrated vascular function is unclear. As studies have suggested that myogenic activation (MA) severity for middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) may be proportional to hypertension severity, we hypothesized that MA will negatively correlate with dilator reactivity in OZR. MA of MCA from OZR was divided into low, medium, and high based on the slope of MA, while MCA reactivity and vascular metabolite bioavailability were assessed in all groups. Read More

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Does the environmental condition affect the tolerance of the bivalve Anomalocardia flexuosa to different intensities and durations of marine heatwaves?

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 8;168:112410. Epub 2021 May 8.

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Coordenadoria Especial de Oceanografia, Laboratório de Biodiversidade Costeira, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

Populations of the clam Anomalocardia flexuosa, subjected to different pollution conditions, were experimentally exposed to marine heatwaves of actual and future intensities and varying durations. We measured physiological and biochemical biomarkers and survival rates of the species under simulated heatwave events of 7 and 11 days. We observed that both the response of A. Read More

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Post-translational modifications and antioxidant properties of different therapeutic human serum albumins.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Kedrion S.p.A., Research and Innovation Department, Via di Fondovalle, Loc., Bolognana 55027, Gallicano (LU), Italy.

Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely used for the treatment of diverse clinical conditions to restore plasma volume, manage burns and treat hypoproteinemia.Although the HSA preparations should ideally preserve its functionality, the structural integrity and antioxidant properties of HSA may be compromised as a result of the manufacturing process. The present study examined seven commercially available HSA preparations for clinical use to investigate their post-translational modifications (PTMs) and antioxidant activity, including DPPH radical-scavenging, peroxyl radical antioxidant and metal binding activities, by means of mass spectrometry and Ellman's assay. Read More

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Germplasm Conservation Techniques and Assessment of Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Integrity of Indigenous, Endangered Dioscorea prazeri.

Cryo Letters 2021 May-Jun;42(3):168-177

Science, Innovation and Diagnostics division and Bio-Agriculture, Avesthagen Ltd, Bangalore, India, Affiliated to University of Mysore, Karnataka-570005, India.

Background: Cryopreservation is a reliable and economical method for the long-term ex situ conservation of valuable genetic resources.

Objective: The present study focuses on establishing novel regeneration strategies and on assessing various cryogenic methods using nodal explants/shoot apices and on developing in vitro technologies for germplasm conservation of Dioscorea prazeri.

Materials And Methods: Pre-treatment, growth regulators, temperature conditions, treatment period for recovery and growth of explants were optimized and various germplasm conservation methods were conducted to attain the conservation and mass multiplication of the endangered therapeutic plant. Read More

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Deletion of a putative promoter-proximal Tnfsf11 regulatory region in mice does not alter bone mass or Tnfsf11 expression in vivo.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0250974. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Musculoskeletal Disease Research, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, United States of America.

The cytokine RANKL is essential for osteoclast formation during physiological and pathological bone resorption. RANKL also contributes to lymphocyte production, development of lymph nodes and mammary glands, as well as other biological activities. Transcriptional control of the Tnfsf11 gene, which encodes RANKL, is complex and involves distant regulatory regions. Read More

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Effect of Modifications in Poly (Lactide-co-Glycolide) (PLGA) on Drug Release and Degradation Characteristics: A Mini Review.

Curr Drug Deliv 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.

The use of PLGA in the pharmaceutical industry has only increased as we move towards more and more advanced delivery carrier systems. The qualities of PLGA like biocompatibility, biodegradability and a tunable degradation and drug release has only helped in keeping up the release requirements desired for various delivery platforms. Fine-tuning the release and degradation rate is gaining more and more attention as researchers keep pushing the boundaries of novel delivery carriers. Read More

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Thermoregulatory strategies of three reclusive lizards (genus Xantusia) from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico, under current and future microenvironmental temperatures.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

The thermal quality of the habitat is key for the regulation of body temperature in terrestrial ectotherms and, therefore, permits them to carry out their fundamental biological activities. In thermally heterogeneous environments, ectotherms might follow different behavioral or physiological strategies to maintain their body temperature within biologically adequate boundaries, for which they depend on microhabitat selection. These aspects are, thus, relevant in the context of habitat degradation and land-use change. Read More

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Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial communities in mud crab Scylla serrata in South India.

Microbiologyopen 2021 Mar;10(2):e1179

Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK.

Little is known about the functions of the crustacean gut microbiome, but environmental parameters and habitat are known to affect the composition of the intestinal microbiome, which may in turn affect the physiological status of the host. The mud crab Scylla serrata is an economically important species, and is wild-caught, and farmed across the Indo-Pacific region. In this study, we compared the composition of the gut microbiome (in terms of gut microbial species richness and abundance) of S. Read More

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Bioengineered tooth emulation systems for regenerative and pharmacological purposes.

Eur Cell Mater 2021 May 10;41:502-516. Epub 2021 May 10.

nstitute of Oral Biology, University of Zurich, Plattenstrasse 11, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland.

Genetic conditions, traumatic injuries, carious lesions and periodontal diseases are all responsible for dental pathologies. The current clinical approaches are based on the substitution of damaged dental tissues with inert materials, which, however, do not ensure full physiological recovery of the teeth. Different populations of dental mesenchymal stem cells have been isolated from dental tissues and several attempts have already been made at using these stem cells for the regeneration of human dental tissues. Read More

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Extension in the approaches to treat cancer through siRNA system: a beacon of hope in cancer therapy.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Shri Guru Ram Rai University, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, 248001, Uttarakhand, India.

Along with the evolutionary breakthrough of RNA interference and the applicability for gene knockdown, a subsequent development in siRNA-based therapeutics has been attained. The gene therapy based on RNAi is in transition progress from the research aspects to clinical base. Being a potent tool, siRNA is used as therapeutic against several disorders. Read More

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Stress-induced expression of IPT gene in transgenic wheat reduces grain yield penalty under drought.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 May 10;19(1):67. Epub 2021 May 10.

Instituto de Genética, "Edwald A. Favret", Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: The heterologous expression of isopentenyl transferase (IPT) under the transcriptional control of the senescence-associated receptor-like kinase (SARK) promoter delayed cellular senescence and, through it, increased drought tolerance in plants. To evaluate the effect of pSARK::IPT expression in bread wheat, six independent transgenic events were obtained through the biolistic method and evaluated transgene expression, phenology, grain yield and physiological biomass components in plants grown under both drought and well-irrigating conditions. Experiments were performed at different levels: (i) pots and (ii) microplots inside a biosafety greenhouse, as well as under (iii) field conditions. Read More

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The Role of ClpB in Bacterial Stress Responses and Virulence.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 22;8:668910. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Bacterial survival within a mammalian host is contingent upon sensing environmental perturbations and initiating an appropriate counter-response. To achieve this, sophisticated molecular machineries are used, where bacterial chaperone systems play key roles. The chaperones are a prerequisite for bacterial survival during normal physiological conditions as well as under stressful situations, e. Read More

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Spaceflight Induced Disorders: Potential Nutritional Countermeasures.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 21;9:666683. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Space travel is an extreme experience even for the astronaut who has received extensive basic training in various fields, from aeronautics to engineering, from medicine to physics and biology. Microgravity puts a strain on members of space crews, both physically and mentally: short-term or long-term travel in orbit the International Space Station may have serious repercussions on the human body, which may undergo physiological changes affecting almost all organs and systems, particularly at the muscular, cardiovascular and bone compartments. This review aims to highlight recent studies describing damages of human body induced by the space environment for microgravity, and radiation. Read More

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Involvement of Phosphatases in Parasite Biology and Pathogeny.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 22;11:633146. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo De Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

In the lifecycle, the motile promastigote form is transmitted from the sand fly vector to a mammalian host during a blood meal. Inside vertebrate host macrophages, the parasites can differentiate into the amastigote form and multiply, causing leishmaniasis, one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases. parasites face different conditions throughout their development inside sand flies. Read More

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Extracellular vesicle therapeutics from plasma and adipose tissue.

Nano Today 2021 Aug 27;39. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-released lipid-bilayer nanoparticles that contain biologically active cargo involved in physiological and pathological intercellular communication. In recent years, the therapeutic potential of EVs has been explored in various disease models. In particular, mesenchymal stromal cell-derived EVs have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, and pro-angiogenic properties in cardiovascular, metabolic and orthopedic conditions. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas9-Induced and Mutations Stacked With Confer High Oleic Acid Seed Oil in Pennycress ( L.).

Front Plant Sci 2021 22;12:652319. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, United States.

Pennycress ( L.) is being domesticated as an oilseed cash cover crop to be grown in the off-season throughout temperate regions of the world. With its diploid genome and ease of directed mutagenesis using molecular approaches, pennycress seed oil composition can be rapidly tailored for a plethora of food, feed, oleochemical and fuel uses. Read More

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and Show Contrasting Root Metabolic Responses to Drought.

Front Plant Sci 2021 21;12:652143. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Applied Biology (IMAB), Public University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Drought is an environmental stressor that affects crop yield worldwide. Understanding plant physiological responses to stress conditions is needed to secure food in future climate conditions. In this study, we applied a combination of plant physiology and metabolomic techniques to understand plant responses to progressive water deficit focusing on the root system. Read More

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Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics of the Extreme Halophyte Provides Insights Into Salinity Tolerance Differentiation Between Halophytes and Glycophytes.

Front Plant Sci 2021 22;12:649001. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of Ministry of Education (MOE), Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

Halophytes and glycophytes exhibit clear differences in their tolerance to high levels of salinity. The genetic mechanisms underlying this differentiation, however, remain unclear. To unveil these mechanisms, we surveyed the evolution of salinity-tolerant gene families through comparative genomic analyses between the model halophyte and glycophytic Gramineae plants, and compared their transcriptional and physiological responses to salinity stress. Read More

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Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Sorghum: Exploring Native Variability for Traits Under Variable N-Regimes.

Front Plant Sci 2021 21;12:643192. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid and Tropics, Patancheru, India.

Exploring the natural genetic variability and its exploitation for improved Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) in sorghum is one of the primary goals in the modern crop improvement programs. The integrated strategies include high-throughput phenotyping, next generation sequencing (NGS)-based genotyping technologies, and selected candidate gene studies that help understand the detailed physiological and molecular mechanisms underpinning this complex trait. A set of sixty diverse sorghum genotypes was evaluated for different vegetative, reproductive, and yield traits related to NUE in the field (under three N regimes) for two seasons. Read More

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