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Electron Spin Resonance of the itinerant ferromagnets LaCrGe, CeCrGeand PrCrGe.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kalyanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, 208016, INDIA.

We report Electron Spin Resonance of the itinerant ferromagnets LaCrGe3, CeCrGe3, and PrCrGe3. These compounds show well defined and very similar spectra of itinerant Cr 3d spins in the paramagnetic temperature region. Upon cooling and crossing the Cr-ferromagnetic ordering (below around 90 K) strong spectral structures start to dominate the resonance spectra in a quite different manner in the three compounds. Read More

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September 2021

Regular magnetic orders in triangular and kagome lattices.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Dept. of physics , Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam, India 781039, Guwahati, Assam, 781039, INDIA.

We investigate the possible regular magnetic order (RMO) for the spin models with global O(3) spin rotation, based on a group theoretical approach for triangular and kagome lattices. The main reason to study these RMOs is that they are good variational candidates for the ground states of many specific models. In this work, we followed the prescription introduced by Messio et al. Read More

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September 2021

Can a ToF-PET photon attenuation reconstruction test stopping power estimations in proton therapy? a phantom study.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

WPE, University Hospital Essen, Essen, GERMANY.

Objective: The aim of the phantom study was to validate and to improve the computed tomography (CT) images used for the dose computation in proton therapy. It was tested, if the joint reconstruction of activity and attenuation images of time-of-flight PET (ToF-PET) scans could improve the estimation of the proton stopping power.

Approach: The attenuation images, i. Read More

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September 2021

Anhydrous fat crystallization of ultrasonic treated goat milk: DSC and NMR relaxation studies.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Sep 11;78:105751. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Methods of NMR relaxation and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study the crystallization of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) obtained from milk and subjected to ultrasonic (US) processing. Amongst the changes in the crystallization nature under the influence of ultrasound are the decrease in the crystallization temperature and the increase in the melting enthalpy of the anhydrous milk fat samples. The increase is ∼30% at 20 min of isothermal crystallization and is presumably explained by the additional formation of β'-form crystals from the melt. Read More

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September 2021

Controlling phase and rheological behaviours of hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline templates for nanostructural administration and retention.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 6;607(Pt 1):816-825. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Deakin University, Geelong, Institute for Frontier Materials, Locked Bag 20000, VIC 3220, Australia. Electronic address:

Introducing polymerizable monomers into a binary hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) template is a straightforward way for retaining the nanostructure but will decrease attractive intra- and inter- aggregate interactions. It is therefore crucial to understand the interfacial interactions at nanoscale after introducing the monomers but prior to polymerization. Herein, active species, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), were introduced into hexagonal LLC of dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide and water to explore the structural variables, dimensional stability, and dynamic property. Read More

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September 2021

Bridging the gap between microbial limits and extremes in space: space microbial biotechnology in the next 15 years.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

The establishment of a permanent human settlement in space is one of humanity's ambitions. To achieve this, microorganisms will be used to carry out many functions such as recycling, food and pharmaceutical production, mining and other processes. However, the physical and chemical extremes in all locations beyond Earth exceed known growth limits of microbial life. Read More

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September 2021

Fluoroscopy-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Neurotomy of the Lumbar Zygapophyseal Joints: A Clinical Pilot Study.

Pain Med 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objective: To investigate the safety and feasibility of a fluoroscopy-guided, high-intensity focused ultrasound system for zygapophyseal joint denervation as a treatment for chronic low back pain.

Methods: The clinical pilot study was performed on ten participants diagnosed with lumbar zygapophyseal joint syndrome. Each participant had a documented positive response to a diagnostic block or a previous, clinically beneficial radiofrequency ablation. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of RBE variations on risk estimates of temporal lobe necrosis in patients treated with intensity-modulated proton therapy for head and neck cancer.

Acta Oncol 2021 Sep 17:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Temporal lobe necrosis (TLN) is a potential late effect after radiotherapy for skull base head and neck cancer (HNC). Several photon-derived dose constraints and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models have been proposed, however variation in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) may challenge the applicability of these dose constraints and models in proton therapy. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of RBE variations on risk estimates of TLN after Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for HNC. Read More

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September 2021

Modeling Liquid Water by Climbing up Jacob's Ladder in Density Functional Theory Facilitated by Using Deep Neural Network Potentials.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, United States.

Within the framework of Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT), the ability to provide good predictions of water properties by employing a strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) functional has been extensively demonstrated in recent years. Here, we further advance the modeling of water by building a more accurate model on the fourth rung of Jacob's ladder with the hybrid functional, SCAN0. In particular, we carry out both classical and Feynman path-integral molecular dynamics calculations of water with the SCAN0 functional and the isobaric-isothermal ensemble. Read More

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September 2021

A Carbonate-Templated Decanuclear Mn Nanocage with Two Different Silsesquioxane Ligands.

Inorg Chem 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Ji'nan 250100, China.

The mild reaction of the preorganized silsesquioxane precursor with Mn(II) acetate under ambient conditions results in a mixed-valent {MnMn} nanocage () which is protected by both acyclic trimer [Si3] and cyclic tetramer [Si4]. Serendipitous capture of atmospheric CO as a μ-carbonate anion placed at the center supports the formation of the cluster. The magnetic analysis reveals the strong antiferromagnetic interactions between Mn ions. Read More

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September 2021

Flexible Hard Coatings with Self-Evolution Behavior in a Low Earth Orbit Environment.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P. R. China.

Lightweight, long lifetime, and flexible polymer membrane-based structures, which are tightly folded on the ground and then unfolded in space, suffer from repeated bending before launching and fatal erosion on exposure to atomic oxygen (AO) in a low Earth orbit (LEO). Although various AO-resistant coatings have been developed, a coating that can simultaneously meet the critical requirements for the mechanical robustness and long-term protection of polymer membranes is rare. Here, we fabricated a coating with mechanical robustness and long-term space endurance, starting from an inorganic polymer precursor. Read More

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September 2021

Vertical Graphene Arrays with Straightaway Ions Capacitance for AC Line-Filtering Capacitors.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

College of Chemistry, Peking University, College of Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Peking University, 100871, Beijing, CHINA.

High-frequency responsive electrochemical capacitor (EC), as an ideal lightweight filtering capacitor, can directly convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) . However, current electrodes are stuck in limited electrode area and tortuous ion transport. Herein, strictly vertical graphene arrays (SVGAs) prepared by electric-field-assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition have been successfully designed as the main electrode to ensure ions rapidly adsorb/desorb in richly available graphene surface. Read More

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September 2021

Molecular Dopant-Dependent Charge Transport in Surface-Charge-Transfer-Doped Tungsten Diselenide Field Effect Transistors.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 17:e2101598. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute of Applied Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Korea.

The controllability of carrier density and major carrier type of transition metal dichalcogenides(TMDCs) is critical for electronic and optoelectronic device applications. To utilize doping in TMDC devices, it is important to understand the role of dopants in charge transport properties of TMDCs. Here, the effects of molecular doping on the charge transport properties of tungsten diselenide (WSe ) are investigated using three p-type molecular dopants, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F -TCNQ), tris(4-bromophenyl)ammoniumyl hexachloroantimonate (magic blue), and molybdenum tris(1,2-bis(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolene) (Mo(tfd-COCF ) ). Read More

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September 2021

Shear strain and inflammation-induced fixed charge density loss in the knee joint cartilage following ACL injury and reconstruction: a computational study.

J Orthop Res 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, Yliopistonranta 1, FI, 70210, Kuopio, Finland.

Excessive tissue deformation near cartilage lesions and acute inflammation within the knee joint after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and reconstruction surgery accelerate the loss of fixed charge density (FCD) and subsequent cartilage tissue degeneration. Here, we show how biomechanical and biochemical degradation pathways can predict FCD loss using a patient-specific finite element model of an ACL reconstructed knee joint exhibiting a chondral lesion. Biomechanical degradation was based on the excessive maximum shear strains that may result in cell apoptosis, while biochemical degradation was driven by the diffusion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of electrostatic interactions on global folding and local conformational dynamics of a multidomain Y-family DNA polymerase.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA.

The Y-family DNA polymerases specialize in translesion DNA synthesis, which is essential for replicating damaged DNA. The Y-family polymerases, which are made up of four stable domains, exhibit extensive distributions of charged residues, and are responsible for the tight formation of the protein-DNA complex. However, it is still unclear how the electrostatic interactions influence the conformational dynamics of the polymerases. Read More

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September 2021

Carbon dots from an immunomodulatory plant for cancer cell imaging, free radical scavenging and metal sensing applications.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Phytomedicine Research Lab, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering & Technology, IIT (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, 221005, India.

This work aimed to develop stem-derived carbon dots (TCSCD) for cancer cell imaging, free radical scavenging and metal sensing applications. The TCSCDs were synthesized by a simple, one-step, and ecofriendly hydrothermal carbonization method and characterized for their optical properties, morphology, hydrodynamic size, surface functionality, crystallinity, stability, bacterial biocompatibility, cellular imaging, free radical scavenging and metal sensing ability. The TCSCDs exhibited excellent biocompatibility with dose-dependent bioimaging results in melanoma (B16F10) and cervical cancer (SiHa) cell lines. Read More

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September 2021

Improved Spatial Resolution Achieved by Chromatic Intensity Interferometry.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(10):103601

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

Interferometers are widely used in imaging technologies to achieve enhanced spatial resolution, but require that the incoming photons be indistinguishable. In previous work, we built and analyzed color erasure detectors, which expand the scope of intensity interferometry to accommodate sources of different colors. Here we demonstrate experimentally how color erasure detectors can achieve improved spatial resolution in an imaging task, well beyond the diffraction limit. Read More

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September 2021

Seamless High-Q Microwave Cavities for Multimode Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(10):107701

James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

Multimode cavity quantum electrodynamics-where a two-level system interacts simultaneously with many cavity modes-provides a versatile framework for quantum information processing and quantum optics. Because of the combination of long coherence times and large interaction strengths, one of the leading experimental platforms for cavity QED involves coupling a superconducting circuit to a 3D microwave cavity. In this work, we realize a 3D multimode circuit QED system with single photon lifetimes of 2 ms across 9 modes of a novel seamless cavity. Read More

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September 2021

Dissipationless Vector Drag-Superfluid Spin Hall Effect.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(10):100403

Department of Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Dissipationless flows in single-component superfluids have a significant degree of universality. In ^{4}He, the dissipationless mass flow occurs with a superfluid velocity determined by the gradient of the superfluid phase. However, in interacting superfluid mixtures, principally new effects appear. Read More

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September 2021

Constraints on the Initial State of Pb-Pb Collisions via Measurements of Z-Boson Yields and Azimuthal Anisotropy at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(10):102002

Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerpen, Belgium.

The CMS experiment at the LHC has measured the differential cross sections of Z bosons decaying to pairs of leptons, as functions of transverse momentum and rapidity, in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02  TeV. The measured Z boson elliptic azimuthal anisotropy coefficient is compatible with zero, showing that Z bosons do not experience significant final-state interactions in the medium produced in the collision. Read More

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September 2021

Quantum Simulation of the Bosonic Creutz Ladder with a Parametric Cavity.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(10):100503

Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.

There has been a growing interest in realizing quantum simulators for physical systems where perturbative methods are ineffective. The scalability and flexibility of circuit quantum electrodynamics make it a promising platform for implementing various types of simulators, including lattice models of strongly coupled field theories. Here, we use a multimode superconducting parametric cavity as a hardware-efficient analog quantum simulator, realizing a lattice in synthetic dimensions with complex hopping interactions. Read More

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September 2021

Precision Global Determination of the B→X_{s}γ Decay Rate.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(10):102001

Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.

We perform the first global fit to inclusive B→X_{s}γ measurements using a model-independent treatment of the nonperturbative b-quark distribution function, with next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic resummation and O(α_{s}^{2}) fixed-order contributions. The normalization of the B→X_{s}γ decay rate, given by |C_{7}^{incl}V_{tb}V_{ts}^{*}|^{2}, is sensitive to physics beyond the standard model (SM). We determine |C_{7}^{incl}V_{tb}V_{ts}^{*}|=(14. Read More

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September 2021

Multiparticle Quantum Walks and Fisher Information in One-Dimensional Lattices.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(10):100406

State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, APM, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China.

Recent experiments on quantum walks (QWs) demonstrated a full control over the statistics-dependent walks of single particles and two particles in one-dimensional lattices. However, little is known about the general characterization of QWs at the many-body level. Here, we rigorously study QWs, Bloch oscillations, and the quantum Fisher information for three indistinguishable bosons and fermions in one-dimensional lattices using a time-evolving block decimation algorithm and many-body perturbation theory. Read More

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September 2021

Quantum Sampling Algorithms for Near-Term Devices.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(10):100504

Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

Efficient sampling from a classical Gibbs distribution is an important computational problem with applications ranging from statistical physics over Monte Carlo and optimization algorithms to machine learning. We introduce a family of quantum algorithms that provide unbiased samples by preparing a state encoding the entire Gibbs distribution. We show that this approach leads to a speedup over a classical Markov chain algorithm for several examples, including the Ising model and sampling from weighted independent sets of two different graphs. Read More

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September 2021

Stereodivergent Construction of Vicinal Acyclic Quaternary-Tertiary Carbon Stereocenters by Michael-Type Alkylation of α,α-Disubstituted --Butanesulfinyl Ketimines.

Org Lett 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China.

Vicinal quaternary-tertiary carbon stereocenters were constructed with excellent stereoselectivity via aza-enolization of enantioenriched acyclic --butanesulfinyl ketimines bearing two sterically similar α-linear alkyl substituents followed by conjugate addition to nitroalkenes. Further changes of the absolute configuration of the sulfinyl group and/or the α-stereocenter in the ketimine allowed the facile stereodivergent synthesis of all four diastereomers of the Michael-type alkylation adducts. This reaction is a successful example of acyclic stereocontrol based on stereoselective α-deprotonation for the formation of fully substituted aza-enolates from ketone derivatives. Read More

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September 2021

A Three-Dimensional sp Carbon-Conjugated Covalent Organic Framework.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

A first example of an sp carbon-conjugated three-dimensional (3D) covalent organic framework (COF) (BUCT-COF-4) is synthesized via the Knoevenagel condensation of the saddle-shaped aldehyde-substituted cyclooctatetrathiophene and 1,4-phenylenediacetonitrile. Ascribed to the extended π-conjugation and long-range ordered structures, BUCT-COF-4 displays high Hall electron mobility of 1.97 cm V s at room temperature. Read More

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September 2021

Hydration Forces Dominate Surface Charge Dependent Lipid Bilayer Interactions under Physiological Conditions.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Sep 17:9248-9252. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Institute for Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna, Austria.

Lipid bilayer interactions are essential to a vast range of biological functions, such as intracellular transport mechanisms. Surface charging mediated by concentration dependent ion adsorption and desorption on lipid headgroups alters electric double layers as well as van der Waals and steric hydration forces of interacting bilayers. Here, we directly measure bilayer interactions during charge modulation in a symmetrically polarized electrochemical three-mirror interferometer surface forces apparatus. Read More

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September 2021

Room temperature spontaneous valley polarization in two-dimensional FeClBr monolayer.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 17;13(35):14807-14813. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparation Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354, China.

The valley degrees of freedom of Bloch electrons provide a proper platform to realize information storage and processing. Using first principles calculations, we propose that the FeClBr monolayer is a ferromagnetic semiconductor with spontaneous valley polarization owing to the combined effect of magnetic exchange interaction and spin-orbit coupling effect. The FeClBr monolayer shows perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, a high Curie temperature of 651 K and a large valley splitting of 188 meV, which are beneficial for the practical applications in valleytronics. Read More

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September 2021

In-plane ferroelectricity in few-layered GeS and its van der Waals ferroelectric diodes.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Physics, Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Henan Normal University, Henan 453007, China.

Two-dimensional ferroelectric semiconductors (2DFeSs) have been attracting extensive research attention on account of their unique properties and versatile applications in random-access memory, digital signal processors, and neuromorphic computing. Germanium sulfide (GeS) is predicted as a typical 2DFeS with a large spontaneous polarization of 484 pC m. Furthermore, the moderate band gap equivalent to 1. Read More

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September 2021

Understanding the interfacial charge transfer in the CVD grown BiOSe/CsPbBr nanocrystal heterostructure and its exploitation in superior photodetection: experiment theory.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 17;13(35):14945-14959. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati - 781039, India.

Efficient charge transfer in a 2D semiconductor heterostructure plays a crucial role in high-performance photodetectors and energy harvesting devices. Non-van der Waals 2D BiOSe has enormous potential for high-performance optoelectronics, though very little is known about the interfacial charge transport at the corresponding 2D heterojunction. Herein, we report a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of interfacial charge transfer in the BiOSe/CsPbBr heterostructure through various microscopic and spectroscopic tools corroborated with density functional theory calculations. Read More

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September 2021