2,559 results match your criteria physics evaporation

Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Annealing-Free Solution-Processable NiO.

Small 2021 Jun 24:e2101729. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan, 44610, Republic of Korea.

Nickel oxide (NiO) offers intrinsic p-type behavior and high thermal and chemical stability, making it promising as a hole transport layer (HTL) material in inverted organic solar cells. However, its use in this application has been rare because of a wettability problem caused by use of water as base solvent and high-temperature annealing requirements. In the present work, an annealing-free solution-processable method for NiO deposition is developed and applied in both conventional and inverted non-fullerene polymer solar cells. Read More

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Multiple Dirac cones and Lifshitz transition in a two-dimensional Cairo lattice as a Hawking evaporation analogue.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Shan Da Nan Lu 27, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Jinan, Shandong, 250100, CHINA.

The linear energy-momentum dispersion of Dirac cones offers a unique platform for mimicking the fantastical phenomena in high energy physics, such as Dirac fermions and black hole (BH) horizons. Three types of Dirac cones (I, III, and II) with different tilts have been proposed individually in specific materials but lack of integral lattice model. Here, we demonstrated the three types of Dirac cones inherited in a -conjugated Cairo lattice of double-degenerate and orbitals by means of tight-binding (TB) approach, which paves a way for the design of two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials. Read More

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3D Photothermal Cryogels for Solar-Driven Desalination.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Smart Materials, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova, Italy.

This paper reports the fabrication of photothermal cryogels for freshwater production the solar-driven evaporation of seawater. Photothermal cryogels were prepared oxidative polymerization of pyrrole with ammonium persulfate on preformed poly(sodium acrylate) (PSA) cryogels. We found that the pyrrole concentration used in the fabrication process has a significant effect on the final PSA/PPy cryogels (PPCs), causing the as-formed polypyrrole (PPy) layer on the PPC to evolve from nanoparticles to lamellar sheets and to consolidated thin films. Read More

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Aligned Millineedle Arrays for Solar Power Seawater Desalination with Site-Specific Salt Formation.

Small 2021 Jun 21:e2101487. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, 999077, P. R. China.

As a sustainable and clean water production technology, solar thermal water evaporation has been extensively studied in the past few years. One challenge is that upon operation, salt would form on surface of the solar absorbers leading to inefficient water supply and light absorption and thus much reduced water vaporization rate. To address this problem, a simple solar evaporator based on an array of aligned millineedles for efficient solar water evaporation and controlled site-specific salt formation is demonstrated. Read More

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Modeling the viral load dependence of residence times of virus-laden droplets from COVID-19-infected subjects in indoor environments.

Indoor Air 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India.

In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation, exposure assessment and control strategies for aerosol transmission path are feebly understood. A recent study pointed out that Poissonian fluctuations in viral loading of airborne droplets significantly modifies the size spectrum of the virus-laden droplets (termed as "virusol") (Anand and Mayya, 2020). Herein we develop the theory of residence time of the virusols, as contrasted with complete droplet system in indoor air using a comprehensive "Falling-to-Mixing-Plate-out" model that considers all the important processes namely, indoor dispersion of the emitted puff, droplet evaporation, gravitational settling, and plate out mechanisms at indoor surfaces. Read More

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Dual Inorganic Sacrificial Template Synthesis of Hierarchically Porous Carbon with Specific N Sites for Efficient Oxygen Reduction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 11;13(24):28140-28149. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan, China.

It is still a challenge to achieve efficiently controlled preparation of functional oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) carbon electrocatalysts with multi-preferred structures (hierarchically porous networks and specific carbon-nitrogen bonds) from carbohydrate-containing small molecules via simple one-step pyrolysis. Based on the step-by-step spontaneous gas-foaming strategy, we successfully prepare 3D hierarchically porous networks with tunable N sites (N/N ≈ 1:1) by pyrolyzing diverse carbohydrates (glucose, maltose, and cyclodextrin) using nonmetal-metal dual inorganic sacrificial templates. In situ evaporation templates can simplify the procedure of the experiments and avoid the active site loss compared with traditional hard templates. Read More

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A Polymer-Assisted Spinodal Decomposition Strategy toward Interconnected Porous Sodium Super Ionic Conductor-Structured Polyanion-Type Materials and Their Application as a High-Power Sodium-Ion Battery Cathode.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 20;8(11):e2004943. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831, USA.

A general polymer-assisted spinodal decomposition strategy is used to prepare hierarchically porous sodium super ionic conductor (NASICON)-structured polyanion-type materials (e.g., Na V (PO ) , Li V (PO ) , K V (PO ) , Na MnV(PO ) , and Na TiV(PO ) ) in a tetrahydrofuran/ethanol/H O synthesis system. Read More

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Breathing, speaking, coughing or sneezing: What drives transmission of SARS-CoV-2?

J Intern Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

From the, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is highly contagious, as demonstrated by numerous well-documented superspreading events. The infection commonly starts in the upper respiratory tract (URT) but can migrate to the lower respiratory tract (LRT) and other organs, often with severe consequences. Whereas LRT infection can lead to shedding of virus via breath and cough droplets, URT infection enables shedding via abundant speech droplets. Read More

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Large-scale synthesis of colloidal bowl-shaped particles.

Soft Matter 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Soft Matter Research, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. and Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Tandon School of Engineering, New York University, Brooklyn, New York 11201, USA.

We describe a general procedure for the large-scale fabrication of bowl-shaped colloidal particles using an emulsion templating technique. Following this method, single polymeric seed particles become located on individual oil droplet surfaces. The polymer phase is subsequently plasticized using an appropriate solvent. Read More

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Annual precipitation explains variability in dryland vegetation greenness globally but not locally.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes and Climate Change Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Dryland vegetation productivity is strongly modulated by water availability. As precipitation patterns and variability are altered by climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand vegetation responses to precipitation variability in these ecologically fragile regions. Here we present a global analysis of dryland sensitivity to annual precipitation variations using long-term records of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Read More

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Synthesis, spectroscopic investigation, crystal structure analysis, quantum chemical study, biological activity and molecular docking of three isatin derivatives.

Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem 2021 06 26;77(Pt 6):299-311. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Physics, S.D.N.B. Vaishnav College for Women, Chromepet, Chennai 600 044, India.

Three isatin derivatives, namely, 1-allyl-3-hydroxy-3-(6-oxocyclohex-1-en-1-yl)indolin-2-one, CHNO, 1-ethyl-3-hydroxy-3-(6-oxocyclohex-1-en-1-yl)indolin-2-one, CHNO, and 5-bromo-3-hydroxy-1-methyl-3-(6-oxocyclohex-1-en-1-yl)indolin-2-one, CHBrNO, were synthesized, crystallized by the slow-evaporation technique, characterized by H and C NMR spectroscopy, and analysed by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. Quantum chemical parameters, such as the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital, energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, energy gap, electronic energy, ionization potential, chemical potential, global hardness, global softness and electrophilicity index, were calculated. The druglikeness and bioactivity scores of the compounds were calculated. Read More

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Phase-field model for a weakly compressible soft layered material: morphological transitions on smectic-isotropic interfaces.

Soft Matter 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

A coupled phase-field and hydrodynamic model is introduced to describe a two-phase, weakly compressible smectic (layered phase) in contact with an isotropic fluid of different density. A non-conserved smectic order parameter is coupled to a conserved mass density in order to accommodate non-solenoidal flows near the smectic-isotropic boundary arising from density contrast between the two phases. The model aims to describe morphological transitions in smectic thin films under heat treatment, in which arrays of focal conic defects evolve into conical pyramids and concentric rings through curvature dependent evaporation of smectic layers. Read More

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3D sub-nanometer analysis of glucose in an aqueous solution by cryo-atom probe tomography.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 2;11(1):11607. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Chair of Materials Physics, Institute for Materials Science, University of Stuttgart, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569, Stuttgart, Germany.

Atom Probe Tomography (APT) is currently a well-established technique to analyse the composition of solid materials including metals, semiconductors and ceramics with up to near-atomic resolution. Using an aqueous glucose solution, we now extended the technique to frozen solutions. While the mass signals of the common glucose fragments CH and COH overlap with (HO)H from water, we achieved stoichiometrically correct values via signal deconvolution. Read More

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CdTe X/γ-ray Detectors with Different Contact Materials.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 18;21(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432 8011, Japan.

Different contact materials and optimization of techniques of their depositions expand the possibilities to obtain high performance room temperature CdTe-based X/γ-ray detectors. The heterostructures with ohmic (MoO) and Schottky (MoO, TiO, TiN, and In) contacts, created by DC reactive magnetron sputtering and vacuum thermal evaporation, as well as In/CdTe/Au diodes with a junction, formed by laser-induced doping, have been developed and investigated. Depending on the surface pre-treatment of semi-insulating -CdTe crystals, the deposition of a MoO film formed either ohmic or Schottky contacts. Read More

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HfSiO Nanocomposite Coatings Prepared by Ion-Assisted Co-Evaporation Process for Low-Loss and High-LIDT Optics.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 17;14(10). Epub 2021 May 17.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200092, China.

HfSiO nanocomposites with different SiO doping ratios were synthesized using an ion-assisted co-evaporation process to achieve dense amorphous HfSiO coatings with low loss and a high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT). The results showed that the HfSiO nanocomposites (x ≥ 0.20) exhibited excellent comprehensive performance with a wide band gap and a dense amorphous microstructure. Read More

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Polymorphism and Conformational Equilibrium of Nitro-Acetophenone in Solid State and under Matrix Conditions.

Molecules 2021 May 22;26(11). Epub 2021 May 22.

Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University, I14 F. Joliot-Curie st., 50-383 Wrocław, Poland.

Conformational and polymorphic states in the nitro-derivative of -hydroxy acetophenone have been studied by experimental and theoretical methods. The potential energy curves for the rotation of the nitro group and isomerization of the hydroxyl group have been calculated by density functional theory (DFT) to estimate the barriers of the conformational changes. Two polymorphic forms of the studied compound were obtained by the slow and fast evaporation of polar and non-polar solutions, respectively. Read More

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Characteristics and Electronic Band Alignment of a Transparent -CuI/-SiZnSnO Heterojunction Diode with a High Rectification Ratio.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 7;11(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Novel States of Complex Materials Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Transparent -CuI/-SiZnSnO (SZTO) heterojunction diodes are successfully fabricated by thermal evaporation of a (111) oriented -CuI polycrystalline film on top of an amorphous -SZTO film grown by the RF magnetron sputtering method. A nitrogen annealing process reduces ionized impurity scattering dominantly incurred by Cu vacancy and structural defects at the grain boundaries in the CuI film to result in improved diode performance; the current rectification ratio estimated at ±2 V is enhanced from ≈10 to ≈10. Various diode parameters, including ideality factor, reverse saturation current, offset current, series resistance, and parallel resistance, are estimated based on the Shockley diode equation. Read More

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Smart Coatings Prepared via MAPLE Deposition of Polymer Nanocapsules for Light-Induced Release.

Molecules 2021 May 6;26(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics "E. Pancini", University of Naples "Federico II", P. le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples, Italy.

Herein, smart coatings based on photo-responsive polymer nanocapsules (NC) and deposited by laser evaporation are presented. These systems combine remotely controllable release and high encapsulation efficiency of nanoparticles with the easy handling and safety of macroscopic substrates. In particular, azobenzene-based NC loaded with active molecules (thyme oil and coumarin 6) were deposited through Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) on flat inorganic (KBr) and organic (polyethylene, PE) and 3D (acrylate-based micro-needle array) substrates. Read More

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Thin Films of Metal-Organic Framework Interfaces Obtained by Laser Evaporation.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 21;11(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.

Properties such as large surface area, high pore volume, high chemical and thermal stability, and structural flexibility render zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) well-suited materials for gas separation, chemical sensors, and optical and electrical devices. For such applications, film processing is a prerequisite. Herein, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) was successfully used as a single-step deposition process to fabricate ZIF-8 films. Read More

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Observation of Coherent Spin Waves in a Three-Dimensional Artificial Spin Ice Structure.

Nano Lett 2021 Jun 28;21(11):4629-4635. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 106, India.

Harnessing high-frequency spin dynamics in three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures may lead to paradigm-shifting, next-generation devices including high density spintronics and neuromorphic systems. Despite remarkable progress in fabrication, the measurement and interpretation of spin dynamics in complex 3D structures remain exceptionally challenging. Here, we take a first step and measure coherent spin waves within a 3D artificial spin ice (ASI) structure using Brillouin light scattering. Read More

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Chiral Photonic Liquid Crystal Films Derived from Cellulose Nanocrystals.

Small 2021 May 28:e2007306. Epub 2021 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, Plant Fiber Research Center, School of Light Industry and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, CN510640, China.

As a nanoscale renewable resource derived from lignocellulosic materials, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have the features of high purity, high crystallinity, high aspect ratio, high Young's modulus, and large specific surface area. The most interesting trait is that they can form the entire films with bright structural colors through the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) process under certain conditions. Structural color originates from micro-nano structure of CNCs matrixes via the interaction of nanoparticles with light, rather than the absorption and reflection of light from the pigment. Read More

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Moisture-Wicking and Solar-Heated Coaxial Fibers with a Bark-like Appearance for Fabric Comfort Management.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 28;13(22):26590-26600. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Textiles and Fashion, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China.

Maintaining the human body's comfort is a predominant requirement of functional textiles, but there are still considerable drawbacks to design an intelligent textile with proper moisture absorption and evaporation properties. Herein, we develop moisture-wicking and solar-heated coaxial fibers with a bark-like appearance for fabric comfort management. The cortex layer of coaxial fibers can absorb moisture via the synergistic effect of the hierarchical roughness and the hydrophilic polymeric matrix. Read More

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Hydropower generation by transpiration from microporous alumina.

Sci Rep 2021 May 26;11(1):10954. Epub 2021 May 26.

International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0044, Japan.

Traditional hydropower generation is one of the most sustainable energy sources; however, the local environmental impact of hydroelectric dams and reservoirs is serious, and hydroelectric power requires high-cost turbines and generators. Because these installations utilize gravitational potential energy of massive volumes of falling water, this sort of hydropower generation is unsuitable for ubiquitous, small-scale energy production. Here, we report that wetting and evaporation of pure water from a tiny block of porous alumina generates electrical current in the direction of water transpiration. Read More

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Close-spaced thermally evaporated 3D SbSe film for high-rate and high-capacity lithium-ion storage.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun;13(21):9834-9842

College of Physics and Information Engineering, Institute of Micro-Nano Devices and Solar Cells, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 350108, China.

As a key factor for fast-charging lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), high-rate anode materials that can recharge in a few minutes have aroused increasing attention. However, high-rate performance is always accompanied by low theoretical capacities, such as the widely known high-rate electrode of Li4Ti5O12 (175 mA h g-1), which severely limits its large-scale implementation in the development of high power density LIBs. Here, we report a modified close-spaced thermal evaporation process to deposit 3D-structured Sb2Se3 films (3D-SSF) with tunable morphology as an additive-free anode for LIBs. Read More

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Struvite-type AMgPO·6HO (A = NH, K): Two Natural Deep-Ultraviolet Transparent Nonlinear Optical Crystals.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jun 24;60(11):8103-8110. Epub 2021 May 24.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Deep-ultraviolet (DUV) nonlinear optical (NLO) materials play vital roles in diverse fields. Unfortunately, only the KBeBOF crystal has found commercial applications so far. Therefore, the discovery of new DUV NLO crystals is still urgent. Read More

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Direct Detection of Hawking Radiation from Asteroid-Mass Primordial Black Holes.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(17):171101

Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA.

Light, asteroid-mass primordial black holes, with lifetimes in the range between hundreds to several millions times the age of the Universe, are well-motivated candidates for the cosmological dark matter. Using archival COMPTEL data, we improve over current constraints on the allowed parameter space of primordial black holes as dark matter by studying their evaporation to soft gamma rays in nearby astrophysical structures. We point out that a new generation of proposed MeV gamma-ray telescopes will offer the unique opportunity to directly detect Hawking evaporation from observations of nearby dark matter dense regions and to constrain, or discover, the primordial black hole dark matter. Read More

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Crystallization of nanoparticles induced by precipitation of trace polymeric additives.

Nat Commun 2021 05 13;12(1):2767. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Orthogonal to guided growth of nanoparticle (NP) crystals using DNA or supramolecules, a trace amount of polymeric impurities (<0.1 wt.%) leads to reproducible, rapid growth of 3D NP crystals in solution and on patterned substrates with high yield. Read More

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Significant contribution of spring northwest transport to volatile organic compounds in Beijing.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jun 18;104:169-181. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

High values of ozone (O) occur frequently in the dry spring season; thus, understanding the evolution characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in spring is of great significance for preventing O pollution. In this study, a total of 101 VOCs from April 16 to May 21, 2019, were quantified using an online gas chromatography mass spectrometer/flame ionization detector (GCMS/FID). The results indicated that the observed concentration of total VOCs (TVOCs) was 30. Read More

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Hybrid evaporative cooling of Cs atoms to Bose-Einstein condensation.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(9):13960-13967

The Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of Cs atoms offers an appealing platform for studying the many-body physics of interacting Bose quantum gases, owing to the rich Feshbach resonances that can be readily achieved in the low magnetic field region. However, it is notoriously difficult to cool Cs atoms to their quantum degeneracy. Here we report a hybrid evaporative cooling of Cs atoms to BEC. Read More

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Effect of Structural Deficiencies on Bi-Ferroic Behaviors of Lead-Free Bi NaKTiO₃ Films.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Nov;21(11):5653-5658

School of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No. 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.

Lead-free BiNaKTiO₃ (BNKT) ferroelectric films on Pt/TI/SIO₂/Si substrates were prepared via a sol-gel spin coating routine. The microstructures and multiferroic behaviors of the films were examined intimately as a function of the annealing time. A rise of annealing time enhanced the crystallization of the films via the perovskite structure. Read More

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November 2021