90,103 results match your criteria physical genetic

Challenges in tackling energy expenditure as obesity therapy - from preclinical models to clinical application.

Mol Metab 2021 Apr 17:101237. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

CardioMetabolic Diseases Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Biberach, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: A chronic imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure results in excess fat storage. The obesity often caused by this overweight is detrimental to the health of millions of people. Understanding both sides of the energy balance equation and their counter-regulatory mechanisms is critical to the development of effective therapies to treat this epidemic. Read More

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Relationship between childhood physical abuse and clinical severity of treatment-resistant depression in a geriatric population.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(4):e0250148. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Fondation FondaMental, Creteil, France.

Introduction: We assessed the correlation between childhood maltreatment (CM) and severity of depression in an elderly unipolar Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD) sample.

Methods: Patients were enrolled from a longitudinal cohort (FACE-DR) of the French Network of Expert TRD Centres.

Results: Our sample included 96 patients (33% of the overall cohort) aged 60 years or above, with a mean age of 67. Read More

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Physician-guided, hybrid genetic testing exerts promising effects on health-related behavior without compromising quality of life.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8494. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of General Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Robert-Bosch-Hospital, Auerbachstraße 110, 70376, Stuttgart, Germany.

Genetic risk analysis is increasingly in demand by participants. Hybrid genetic testing has the advantage over direct to consumer testing by involving a physician who guides the process and offers counseling after receiving the results. The objective of this study was to determine whether a structured physician moderated primary preventive, hybrid genetic risk assessment enhanced counseling program leads to improvement in lifestyle and does not impair quality of life. Read More

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Secondary metabolites in plant defence mechanisms.

New Phytol 1994 Aug;127(4):617-633

Biochemistry & Physiology Department, AFRC Institute of Arable Crops Research, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK.

Many secondary metabolites found in plants have a role in defence against herbivores, pests and pathogens. In this review, a few examples are described and discussed, and some of the problems in determining the precise role(s) of such metabolites highlighted. The role of secondary metabolites in defence may involve deterrence/anti-feedant activity, toxicity or acting as precursors to physical defence systems. Read More

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Which steps are essential for the formation of functional legume nodules?

J I Sprent

New Phytol 1989 Feb;111(2):129-153

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN, Scotland.

Nodulation is reviewed in terms of the phenotypes proposed by Vincent (1980). Individual legumes may be infectible by one or more of the three bacterial genera (collectively known as rhizobia) Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, or Azorhizobium. The type of infection process by which rhizobia gain entry is largely governed by the host genotype. Read More

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February 1989

The rice blast pathosystem as a case study for the development of new tools and raw materials for genome analysis of fungal plant pathogens.

New Phytol 2003 Jul;159(1):53-61

North Carolina State University, Fungal Genomics Laboratory, Department of Plant Pathology, Box 7251, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

Fungi have an astounding and diverse impact on this planet. While they are agents of human diseases and the cause of allergic reactions, factories for the conversion of carbon in environmental and industrially adapted systems, and potential biological weapons, their importance as plant pathogens is unparalleled. In plants alone, fungi cause tens of thousands of different diseases and are responsible for massive losses of food, fiber and forestry at an estimated annual cost of hundreds of billions of dollars. Read More

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Genetic and physical mapping of Melampsora rust resistance genes in Populus and characterization of linkage disequilibrium and flanking genomic sequence.

New Phytol 2004 Oct;164(1):95-105

Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-6422, USA.

•  In an attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of Melampsora rust resistance in Populus trichocarpa, we have mapped two resistance loci, MXC3 and MER, and intensively characterized the flanking genomic sequence for the MXC3 locus and the level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in natural populations. •  We used an interspecific backcross pedigree and a genetic map that was highly saturated with AFLP and SSR markers, and assembled shotgun-sequence data in the region containing markers linked to MXC3. •  The two loci were mapped to different linkage groups. Read More

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October 2004

Beyond simple kinship and identification: aDNA analyses from a 17th-19th century crypt in Germany.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2021 Mar 17;53:102498. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Forensic Genetics, Zurich Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis is a powerful tool in multidisciplinary research on human remains, potentially leading to kinship scenarios and historical identifications. In this study, we present a genetic investigation of three noble families from the 17th to 19th centuries AD entombed in burial crypts at the cloister church of Riesa (Germany). Tests were aimed at identifying anticipated and incidental genetic relationships in our sample and the implications thereof for the assumed identity of the deceased. Read More

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The Prenatal Morphomechanic Impact of Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum on Human Brain Structure and Asymmetry.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Genetic, molecular, and physical forces together impact brain morphogenesis. The early impact of deficient midline crossing in agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (ACC) on prenatal human brain development and architecture is widely unknown. Here we analyze the changes of brain structure in 46 fetuses with ACC in vivo to identify their deviations from normal development. Read More

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Establishment of primary reference measurement procedures and reference materials for variant detection in non-small cell lung cancer.

Anal Methods 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Center for Advanced Measurement Science, National Institute of Metrology, Beijing 100029, People's Republic of China.

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA)-based mutation detection is promising to change the clinical practice of genotype-directed therapy for cancer. A growing number of non-invasive tests for cancer screening and monitoring that involve the detection of ctDNA have been commercialized. Primary reference measurement procedures (PRMPs) and reference materials (RMs) are urgently needed to assess the non-invasive tests. Read More

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Classical homocystinuria, is it safe to exercise?

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Jun 26;27:100746. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Center for Molecular Diseases, Division of Genetic Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background Cystationine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is a genetic disorder characterized by severe hyperhomocysteinemia and thrombotic complications. In healthy individuals, physical exercise may result in a transient increase in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) raising the possibility that exercise might be detrimental in CBS deficiency. Our main objective was to determine plasma tHcy kinetics in response to physical exercise in homocystinuria patients. Read More

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The Enigma of Interspecific Plasmodesmata: Insight From Parasitic Plants.

Front Plant Sci 2021 1;12:641924. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Parasitic plants live in intimate physical connection with other plants serving as their hosts. These host plants provide the inorganic and organic compounds that the parasites need for their propagation. The uptake of the macromolecular compounds happens through symplasmic connections in the form of plasmodesmata. Read More

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Management of Monogenic IL-1 Mediated Autoinflammatory Diseases in Childhood.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:516427. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Autoinflammation Reference Center Tuebingen (arcT) and Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Monogenic Interleukin 1 (IL-1) mediated autoinflammatory diseases (AID) are rare, often severe illnesses of the innate immune system associated with constitutively increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Clinical characteristics include recurrent fevers, inflammation of joints, skin, and serous membranes. CNS and eye inflammation can be seen. Read More

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[Inherited Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with four-octapeptide repeat insertional mutation in the prion gene].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neurology and Geriatrics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences.

We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with symptoms of memory loss, gait disorder, and sluggish movement. We considered both Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy as possible diagnoses and consequently hospitalized the patient owing to the worsening symptoms and the development of consciousness disorder. During the course of the disease, dementia, loss of consciousness, and movement disorders worsened rapidly within one year after admission, and the patient eventually developed mutism. Read More

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Parental stress and adjustment in the context of rare genetic syndromes: A scoping review.

J Intellect Disabil 2021 Apr 19:1744629521995378. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

8809Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; Children Health Ireland at Tallaght Hospital, Ireland; Cherry Orchard Hospital, Ireland.

Chromosomal abnormalities are now considered a common cause of intellectual disability. With increased genetic testing, phenotyping and technological advancements, many new syndromes have been identified. This review sought to explore parental stress and adjustment in the context of rare genetic syndromes to evaluate their clinical impact. Read More

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The Membrane-Bound Protein, MoAfo1, Is Involved in Sensing Diverse Signals from Different Surfaces in the Rice Blast Fungus.

Plant Pathol J 2021 Apr 1;37(2):87-98. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Life Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Korea.

To establish an infection, fungal pathogens must recognize diverse signals from host surfaces. The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the best models studying host-pathogen interactions. This fungus recognizes physical or chemical signals from the host surfaces and initiates the development of an infection structure called appressorium. Read More

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Pregnant women's psychological state and influence factors: anxiety, and depression during COVID-19 outbreak.

J Perinat Med 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, WuhanHubei, P. R. China.

Objectives: The outbreak of COVID-19 affects both physical and mental health of pregnant women. This study focuses on their psychological status, and analyzes the main factors affecting their emotions of pregnant women so as to provide guidance for psychological counseling and social intervention during epidemics.

Methods: Multiple researchers distributed a questionnaire online via the Internet. Read More

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The role of childhood trauma, HPA axis reactivity and FKBP5 genotype on cognition in healthy individuals.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Apr 9;128:105221. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain; Department of Mental Health, Consorci Sanitari del Maresme, Mataró, Spain; Institut de Investigació i Innovació Parc Taulí (I3PT), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Cognitive impairment has been associated with both childhood adversity and abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. An interaction exists between the functional polymorphism rs1360780 in the FKBP5 gene and childhood maltreatment, influencing a variety of clinical outcomes. Our goal was to study the relationship between different types of childhood trauma, HPA axis functionality, rs1360780 genotype and cognitive function in 198 healthy individuals who participated in the study. Read More

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Decoding and rejuvenating human ageing genomes: Lessons from mosaic chromosomal alterations.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 Apr 15:101342. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Life Sciences, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500, China; The Engineering Research Center of Sustainable Development and Utilization of Biomass Energy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500, China; Yunnan Environmental Mutagen Society, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500, China. Electronic address:

One of the most curious findings emerged from genome-wide studies over the last decade was that genetic mosaicism is a dominant feature of human ageing genomes. The clonal dominance of genetic mosaicism occurs preceding the physiological and physical ageing and associates with propensity for diseases including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. These findings are revolutionizing the ways biologists thinking about health and disease pathogenesis. Read More

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Emotional Behavioural and Autonomic Dysregulation (EBAD) in Rett Syndrome - EDA and HRV monitoring using wearable sensor technology.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 7;138:186-193. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Centre for Interventional Paediatric Psychopharmacology and Rare Diseases, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Centre for Personalised Medicine in Rett Syndrome, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe genetic neurodevelopmental disorder. Emotional, Behavioural and Autonomic Dysregulation (EBAD), is frequent in RTT and is associated with multiple impairments. There are major challenges in the clinical assessment of emotions, behaviours, and autonomic function in RTT patients that limit the management of symptoms. Read More

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Antibacterial and Antifungal Polyketides from the Fungus PSU-MF16.

J Nat Prod 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190, Thailand.

Seven new polyketides including a phenol (), two diphenyl ethers ( and ), two depsidones ( and ), and two phthalides ( and ) were isolated from the fungus PSU-MF16 along with 27 known compounds. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of and - were established using comparative analyses of calculated and experimental ECD spectra. Read More

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Interplay of physical activity and genetic variants of the endothelial lipase on cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Pediatr Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

PROFITH 'PROmoting FITness and Health through physical activity' research group, Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) polymorphisms with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents and their interaction with physical activity.

Methods: Six polymorphisms of LIPG were genotyped in 1057 European adolescents (12-18 years old) enrolled in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. CVD risk factors related to lipid profile, blood pressure, adiposity and glucose regulation were recorded. Read More

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Serotonin-induced vascular permeability is mediated by transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 in the airways and upper gastrointestinal tract of mice.

Lab Invest 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Medical Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia.

Endothelial and epithelial cells form physical barriers that modulate the exchange of fluid and molecules. The integrity of these barriers can be influenced by signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels. Serotonin (5-HT) is an important vasoactive mediator of tissue edema and inflammation. Read More

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Genetic algorithm optimized node deployment in IEEE 802.15.4 potato and wheat crop monitoring infrastructure.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8231. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Indian Institute of Technology, Indian School of Mines (IIT-ISM), Dhanbad, Jharkhand, 826004, India.

This proposal investigates the effect of vegetation height and density on received signal strength between two sensor nodes communicating under IEEE 802.15.4 wireless standard. Read More

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Risk of gout among Taiwanese adults with ALDH-2 rs671 polymorphism according to BMI and alcohol intake.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 Apr 15;23(1):115. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan.

Background: Gout stems from both modifiable and genetic sources. We evaluated the risk of gout among Taiwanese adults with aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) rs671 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) according to body mass index (BMI) and alcohol drinking.

Methods: We obtained information of 9253 individuals having no personal history of cancer from the Taiwan Biobank (2008-2016) and estimated the association between gout and independent variables (e. Read More

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Sex differences in brain aging among adults with family history of Alzheimer's disease and APOE4 genetic risk.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Mar 10;30:102620. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Brain Imaging Centre, Douglas Institute Research Centre, 6875 LaSalle Blvd Verdun, Montréal, QC H4H 1R3, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, 1033 Avenue des Pins, Montréal, QC H3A 1A1, Canada. Electronic address:

Emerging evidence suggests that Alzheimer's Disease (AD) risk factors may differentially contribute to disease trajectory in women than men. Determining the effect of AD risk factors on brain aging in women, compared to men, is critical for understanding whether there are sex differences in the pathways towards AD in cognitively intact but at-risk adults. Brain Age Gap (BAG) is a concept used increasingly as a measure of brain health; BAG is defined as the difference between predicted age (based on structural MRI) and chronological age, with negative values reflecting preserved brain health with age. Read More

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Multiple exposure of the Boreogadus saida from bessel fjord (NE Greenland) to legacy and emerging pollutants.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 9;279:130477. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Polar Sciences-National Research Council (ISP-CNR), Strada Provinciale 35d, Km 0,700, 00010, Montelibretti, Rome, Italy; Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, 53100, Siena, Italy.

This work investigates the occurrence of OCPs, such as hexachlorocyclohexane (α-, β-, γ- and δ-HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), endosulfan (α- and β-EDS) isomers, chlorpyrifos (CPF), dacthal (DAC) and phenolic compounds, such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and its precursors nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NP1EO and NP2EO) and bisphenol A (BPA), in polar cod sampled in and outside Bessel Fjord (NE Greenland). Linear regressions between target contaminants and morphological parameters (age, length, weight, gonad- and hepato-somatic indices and Fulton K) have been also evaluated. Polar cod collected at shelf had higher average concentrations of BPA, NP1EO, NP2EO and 4-NP (muscle: 6. Read More

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Variable kinship patterns in Neolithic Anatolia revealed by ancient genomes.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

The social organization of the first fully sedentary societies that emerged during the Neolithic period in Southwest Asia remains enigmatic, mainly because material culture studies provide limited insight into this issue. However, because Neolithic Anatolian communities often buried their dead beneath domestic buildings, household composition and social structure can be studied through these human remains. Here, we describe genetic relatedness among co-burials associated with domestic buildings in Neolithic Anatolia using 59 ancient genomes, including 22 new genomes from Aşıklı Höyük and Çatalhöyük. Read More

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Imaging Commensal Microbiota and Pathogenic Bacteria in the Gut.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127, China.

ConspectusAs a newly discovered organ, gut microbiota has been extensively studied in the last two decades, with their highly diverse and fundamental roles in the physiology of many organs and systems of the host being gradually revealed. However, most of the current research heavily relies on DNA sequencing-based methodologies. To truly understand the complex physiological and pathological functions demonstrated by commensal and pathogenic gut bacteria, we need more powerful methods and tools, among which imaging strategies suitable for approaching this ecosystem in different settings are one of the most desirable. Read More

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