14,884 results match your criteria phenotypes obesity

Clinical, immunological and virological SARS-CoV-2 phenotypes in obese and non-obese military health system beneficiaries.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: The mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and COVID-19 severity remain unclear. After verifying that obesity was a correlate of severe COVID-19 in U.S. Read More

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Adult-born proopiomelanocortin neurons derived from Rax-expressing precursors mitigate the metabolic effects of congenital hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin deficiency.

Mol Metab 2021 Jul 27:101312. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington St, Boston, MA, 02111, USA.

Objective: Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus are essential regulators of energy balance. Selective loss of POMC production in these cells results in extreme obesity and metabolic comorbidities. While neurogenesis occurs in the adult hypothalamus, it remains uncertain whether functional POMC neurons emerge during adulthood in physiologically significant numbers. Read More

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Intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor 2α regulates lactate levels to shape the gut microbiome and alter thermogenesis.

Cell Metab 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, and the Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science (Peking University), Ministry of Education, Beijing, China; Center of Basic Medical Research, Institute of Medical Innovation and Research, Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China; Center for Obesity and Metabolic Disease Research, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota regulates obesity through metabolite-host interactions. However, the mechanisms underlying such interactions have been unclear. Here, we found that intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) positively regulates gut lactate by controlling the expression of intestinal Ldha. Read More

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Metabolic Syndrome and Osteoarthritis Distribution in the Hand Joints: A Propensity-Score Matched Analysis from Osteoarthritis Initiative.

J Rheumatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Musculoskeletal Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Rheumatology, Sorbonne Université, INSERM CRSA, AP-HP Hospital Saint Antoine, Paris, France; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.; Department of Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Conflict of interests: None of the authors have any conflicting personal or financial relationships that could have influenced the results of this study. Funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Address: The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 N Caroline St, JHOC 5165, Baltimore, MD 21287; Email:

Objective: To investigate the metabolic syndrome (MetS) association with radiographic and symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: Using 1:2 propensity-score-matching for relevant confounders, we included 2509 (MetS+896: MetS-1613) participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative dataset. MetS and its components, according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria, were extracted from baseline data, including hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Read More

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Central Precocious Puberty in a Boy with Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1A due to a Novel Variant, Who Had Congenital Hypothyroidism as the First Manifestation.

J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A) is a disorder of multiple hormone resistance, mainly parathyroid hormone. It is associated with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy phenotypes. Patients with PHP1A may initially present with hypothyroidism during infancy and later develop typical PHP1A characteristics during their childhood. Read More

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Exploring new treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome: Review of a novel antidiabetic agent SGLT2 inhibitor.

World J Diabetes 2021 Jul;12(7):932-938

School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age associated with long-term metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. A plethora of symptoms and their severity differentiate on an individual level, giving the syndrome numerous phenotypes. Due to menstrual cycle abnormalities, women suffer from irregular menstrual bleeding, difficulty in conception, and infertility. Read More

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Skeletal Muscle O-GlcNAc Transferase Action on Global Metabolism Is Partially Mediated Through Interleukin-15.

Front Physiol 2021 13;12:682052. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, United States.

Besides its roles in locomotion and thermogenesis, skeletal muscle plays a significant role in global glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity through complex nutrient sensing networks. Our previous work showed that the muscle-specific ablation of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) led to a lean phenotype through enhanced interleukin-15 (IL-15) expression. We also showed OGT epigenetically modified and repressed the promoter. Read More

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Soluble mannose receptor induces proinflammatory macrophage activation and metaflammation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Cellular Immunology, Life and Medical Sciences Institute, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany;

Proinflammatory activation of macrophages in metabolic tissues is critically important in the induction of obesity-induced metaflammation. Here, we demonstrate that the soluble mannose receptor (sMR) plays a direct functional role in both macrophage activation and metaflammation. We show that sMR binds CD45 on macrophages and inhibits its phosphatase activity, leading to an Src/Akt/NF-κB-mediated cellular reprogramming toward an inflammatory phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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recombinase driver mice reveal lineage-dependent and -independent expression of in the mouse brain.

eNeuro 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Obesity Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

Bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS3) is an orphan receptor that regulates energy homeostasis. We compared driver mice with constitutive or inducible Cre recombinase activity. The constitutive BRS3-Cre mice show reporter signal (Cre-dependent tdTomato) in the adult brain due to lineage tracing in the dentate gyrus, striatal patches, and indusium griseum, in addition to sites previously identified in the inducible BRS3-Cre mice (including hypothalamic and amygdala subregions, and parabrachial nucleus). Read More

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Fractalkine Elicits Chemotactic, Phenotypic, and Functional Effects on CX3CR1CD27 NK Cells in Obesity-Associated Cancer.

J Immunol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy Group, Department of Surgery, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute and the Trinity St. James's Cancer Institute, St. James's Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland;

Esophagogastric adenocarcinomas (EAC) are obesity-associated malignancies underpinned by severe immune dysregulation and inflammation. Our previous work indicates that NK cells migrate to EAC omentum, where they undergo phenotypic and functional alterations and apoptosis. In this study, we investigate whether such erroneous chemotaxis to omentum is paralleled by compromised NK cell infiltration of EAC patient tumor and examine the role of the inflammatory chemokine fractalkine in shaping the NK cell-mediated response. Read More

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Functional and epigenetic phenotypes of humans and mice with DNMT3A Overgrowth Syndrome.

Nat Commun 2021 07 27;12(1):4549. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Oncology, Section of Stem Cell Biology, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Germline pathogenic variants in DNMT3A were recently described in patients with overgrowth, obesity, behavioral, and learning difficulties (DNMT3A Overgrowth Syndrome/DOS). Somatic mutations in the DNMT3A gene are also the most common cause of clonal hematopoiesis, and can initiate acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using whole genome bisulfite sequencing, we studied DNA methylation in peripheral blood cells of 11 DOS patients and found a focal, canonical hypomethylation phenotype, which is most severe with the dominant negative DNMT3A mutation. Read More

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Data-driven identification of complex disease phenotypes.

J R Soc Interface 2021 Jul 28;18(180):20201040. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Complexity Science Hub Vienna, Josefstädter Straße 39, 1080 Wien, Austria.

Disease interaction in multimorbid patients is relevant to treatment and prognosis, yet poorly understood. In the present work, we combine approaches from network science, machine learning and computational phenotyping to assess interactions between two or more diseases in a transparent way across the full diagnostic spectrum. We demonstrate that health states of hospitalized patients can be better characterized by including higher-order features capturing interactions between than two diseases. Read More

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Transplantation of an obesity-associated human gut microbiota to mice induces vascular dysfunction and glucose intolerance.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1940791

Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Recent preclinical data suggest that alterations in the gut microbiota may be an important factor linking obesity to vascular dysfunction, an early sign of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to begin translation of these preclinical data by examining whether vascular phenotypes in humans are transmissible through the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that germ-free mice colonized with gut microbiota from obese individuals would display diminished vascular function compared to germ-free mice receiving microbiota from lean individuals. Read More

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[Respiratory impairment in a patient with acrodysostosis: A rare association of an uncommon pathology].

Arch Argent Pediatr 2021 Aug;119(4):e340-e344

Neumología Infantil, Servicio de Pediatría, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra. IdisNa, Instituto de investigación sanitaria de Navarra, España.

Acrodysostosis is a rare skeletal displasia, of autosomal dominant inheritance, characterized by the presence of facial and peripheral dysostosis, short stature and obesity. Type 1 acrodysostosis is secondary to a mutation in the PRKAR1A (17q24.2) gene, which results in multi hormonal resistance and skeletal anomalities. Read More

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The association between sarcopenia susceptibility and polymorphisms of FTO, ACVR2B, and IRS1 in Tibetans.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Jul 24:e1747. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institute of Biological Anthropology, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, China.

Background: Hypoxia within the plateau has a negative effect on skeletal muscle and may play a role in the development of sarcopenia in humans. Tibetans having lived in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau for thousands of years, are a high-risk group for sarcopenia; however, they have a distinctive suite of genetic traits that enable them to tolerate environmental hypoxia and are genetically significantly different from Han Chinese and other lowland populations. Sarcopenia has been consistently found to be associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms, but few studies have investigated the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a range of muscle phenotypes and sarcopenia in Tibetan peoples. Read More

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Metabolic Pathways Involved in Formation of Spontaneous and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) Differ in Obesity and Systemic Inflammation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 19;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Krakow, Poland.

Obesity manifests itself with low-grade chronic inflammation that shapes immune responses during infection. Albeit obese individuals are at risk of higher mortality due to comorbidities, they are better protected from systemic inflammation. Recently, we showed that in the vasculature of obese mice kept on high-fat diet (HFD), neutrophils produce less neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) than in lean controls (normal diet, ND). Read More

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Personalized approach to childhood obesity: Lessons from gut microbiota and omics studies. Narrative review and insights from the 29th European childhood obesity congress.

Pediatr Obes 2021 Jul 23:e12835. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

The traditional approach to childhood obesity prevention and treatment should fit most patients, but misdiagnosis and treatment failure could be observed in some cases that lie away from average as part of individual variation or misclassification. Here, we reflect on the contributions that high-throughput technologies such as next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and microbiome analysis make towards a personalized medicine approach to childhood obesity. We hypothesize that diagnosing a child as someone with obesity captures only part of the phenotype; and that metabolomics, genomics, transcriptomics and analyses of the gut microbiome, could add precision to the term "obese," providing novel corresponding biomarkers. Read More

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Are young Iranian women with metabolically healthy obesity at increased risk of CVD incidence?

J Vasc Bras 2020 14;19:e20190106. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: The association between the Metabolically Healthy Obese (MHO) phenotype in the absence of metabolic syndrome and subsequent cardiovascular disease remains unclear.

Objectives: We examined the association between MHO and CVD risk in young Iranian women.

Methods: We studied 183 women aged 20-35 years from a population of 308 candidates. Read More

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September 2020

Linking the obesity rs1421085 variant circuitry to cellular, metabolic, and organismal phenotypes in vivo.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 21;7(30). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Mammalian Genetics Unit, MRC Harwell Institute, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD, UK.

Variants in FTO have the strongest association with obesity; however, it is still unclear how those noncoding variants mechanistically affect whole-body physiology. We engineered a deletion of the rs1421085 conserved cis-regulatory module (CRM) in mice and confirmed in vivo that the CRM modulates and gene expression and mitochondrial function in adipocytes. The CRM affects molecular and cellular phenotypes in an adipose depot-dependent manner and affects organismal phenotypes that are relevant for obesity, including decreased high-fat diet-induced weight gain, decreased whole-body fat mass, and decreased skin fat thickness. Read More

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Construct validity of the OCTOPuS stratification algorithm for allocating patients with knee osteoarthritis into subgroups.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jul 21;22(1):633. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, Location VUmc, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: We recently developed a model of stratified exercise therapy, consisting of (i) a stratification algorithm allocating patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) into one of the three subgroups ('high muscle strength subgroup' representing a post-traumatic phenotype, 'low muscle strength subgroup' representing an age-induced phenotype, and 'obesity subgroup' representing a metabolic phenotype) and (ii) subgroup-specific exercise therapy. In the present study, we aimed to test the construct validity of this algorithm.

Methods: Data from five studies (four exercise therapy trial cohorts and one cross-sectional cohort) were used to test the construct validity of our algorithm by 63 a priori formulated hypotheses regarding three research questions: (i) are the proportions of patients in each subgroup similar across cohorts? (15 hypotheses); (ii) are the characteristics of each of the subgroups in line with their proposed underlying phenotypes? (30 hypotheses); (iii) are the effects of usual exercise therapy in the 3 subgroups in line with the proposed effect sizes? (18 hypotheses). Read More

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Metabolically Unhealthy Phenotype: A Key Factor in Determining "Pediatric" Frailty.

Pediatr Rep 2021 Jul 1;13(3):340-346. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Clinical Epidemiology & Biometry, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Frailty (FI) and metabolic syndrome (MS) are each associated with adverse health outcomes. A relationship between FI and MS has previously been described in adults. We considered the prevalence of a metabolically unhealthy phenotype (MUP) in malnourished children with neurological impairment and in subjects with obesity in comparison to a group of elderly individuals at risk of FI, and we did so in order to define the potential similarities that may underline the risk of FI in specific children. Read More

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Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Vascular Phenotype Associations in Mothers with Obesity and Their Six-Year-Old Children.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 13;14:3187-3197. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Heredity and family-shared lifestyle contribute to cardiovascular risk, but the magnitude of their influence on arterial structure and function in early childhood is unknown. We aimed to assess associations between child and maternal ideal cardiovascular health, maternal subclinical atherosclerosis, and child arterial phenotype.

Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 201 mother-child pairs originating from the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study (RADIEL) longitudinal cohort was done at child age 6. Read More

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Oral health condition and development of frailty over a 12-month period in community-dwelling older adults.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Jul 20;21(1):355. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud, Área Envejecimiento, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI , Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Avenida Cuauhtémoc No. 330, Edificio CORCE, Tercer Piso. Col. Doctores. Alcaldía Cuauhtémoc, 06720, Ciudad de México, México.

Background: To determine the association between oral health condition and development of frailty over a 12-month period in community-dwelling older adults.

Methods: Population-based, case-cohort study derived from the Cohort of Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Frailty of Older Mexican Adults (COSFOMA) study, including data from years 2015 and 2016. Using latent class analysis, we determined the oral health condition of older adults with teeth (t), i. Read More

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Gene expression atlas of energy balance brain regions.

JCI Insight 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center, Columbia University, New York, United States of America.

Energy balance is controlled by interconnected brain regions in the hypothalamus, brain stem, cortex and limbic system. Gene expression signatures of these regions can help elucidate the pathophysiology underlying obesity. RNA sequencing was conducted on P56 C57BL/6NTac male mice and E14. Read More

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Obesity and diabetes are major risk factors for epicardial adipose tissue inflammation.

JCI Insight 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) directly overlies the myocardium with changes in its morphology and volume associated with myriad cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, EAT's immune structure and cellular characterization remain incompletely described. This study aimed to define the immune phenotype of EAT in humans, and compare such profiles across lean, obese and diabetic patients. Read More

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Impact of lifestyle Intervention on branched-chain amino acid catabolism and insulin sensitivity in adolescents with obesity.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021 Jul 1;4(3):e00250. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes and the Duke Molecular Physiology Institute Duke University Medical Center Durham NC USA.

Insulin resistance in adolescents with obesity associates with a sex-dependent metabolic 'signature' comprising branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), glutamate and C3/C5 acylcarnitines (C3/C5), implicating altered flux through BCAA catabolic pathways. Here, we investigated the effects of lifestyle intervention on BCAA catabolism and insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized (1) weight reduction and improved insulin sensitivity associate with enhanced BCAA catabolism; (2) baseline BCAAs and their metabolic by-products predict changes in weight and insulin sensitivity during lifestyle intervention. Read More

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Adult food choices depend on sex and exposure to early-life stress: Underlying brain circuitry, adipose tissue adaptations and metabolic responses.

Neurobiol Stress 2021 Nov 28;15:100360. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Center for Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Exposure to early-life stress (ES) increases the risk to develop obesity later in life, and these effects may be sex-specific, but it is currently unknown what underlies the ES-induced metabolic vulnerability. We have previously shown that ES leads to a leaner phenotype under standard chow diet conditions, but to increased fat accumulation when exposed to an unhealthy obesogenic diet. However these diets were fed without a choice. Read More

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November 2021

The PERSonalized Glucose Optimization Through Nutritional Intervention (PERSON) Study: Rationale, Design and Preliminary Screening Results.

Front Nutr 2021 30;8:694568. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, Netherlands.

It is well-established that the etiology of type 2 diabetes differs between individuals. Insulin resistance (IR) may develop in different tissues, but the severity of IR may differ in key metabolic organs such as the liver and skeletal muscle. Recent evidence suggests that these distinct tissue-specific IR phenotypes may also respond differentially to dietary macronutrient composition with respect to improvements in glucose metabolism. Read More

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Interrelationship Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Severe Asthma: From Endo-Phenotype to Clinical Aspects.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 30;8:640636. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Respiratory Unit, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Vercelli, Italy.

Sleep-related breathing disorders (SBDs) are characterized by abnormal respiration during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common SBD increasingly recognized by physicians, is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete closure of the upper airway resulting in disturbed breathing during sleep. OSA syndrome (OSAS) is associated with decreased patients' quality of life (QoL) and the presence of significant comorbidities, such as daytime sleepiness. Read More

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Tissue distribution of γδ T cell subsets in oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Clin Immunol 2021 Aug 15;229:108797. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy Group, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Department of Surgery, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland. Electronic address:

The global obesity epidemic is contributing to increased prevalence of diseases fuelled by chronic inflammation, including cancer. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) is an obesity-associated malignancy with increasing prevalence, dismal prognosis, and severely dysregulated immune processes. We previously reported that αβ T cells migrate to omentum and liver in OAC and contribute to inflammation in these tissues. Read More

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