16,059 results match your criteria phasic


The Overnight Retention of Novel Metaphors Associates With Slow Oscillation-Spindle Coupling but Not With Respiratory Phase at Encoding.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 31;15:712774. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Sleepwell Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Accumulating evidence emphasizes the relevance of oscillatory synchrony in memory consolidation during sleep. Sleep spindles promote memory retention, especially when occurring in the depolarized upstate of slow oscillation (SO). A less studied topic is the inter-spindle synchrony, i. Read More

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Oscillatory Pattern of Sympathetic Nerve Bursts Is Associated With Baroreflex Function in Heart Failure Patients With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

Front Neurosci 2021 31;15:669535. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Sympathetic hyperactivation and baroreflex dysfunction are hallmarks of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, it is unknown whether the progressive loss of phasic activity of sympathetic nerve bursts is associated with baroreflex dysfunction in HFrEF patients. Therefore, we investigated the association between the oscillatory pattern of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (LF/HF) and the gain and coupling of the sympathetic baroreflex function in HFrEF patients. Read More

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Slow manifolds within network dynamics encode working memory efficiently and robustly.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Sep 15;17(9):e1009366. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Working memory is a cognitive function involving the storage and manipulation of latent information over brief intervals of time, thus making it crucial for context-dependent computation. Here, we use a top-down modeling approach to examine network-level mechanisms of working memory, an enigmatic issue and central topic of study in neuroscience. We optimize thousands of recurrent rate-based neural networks on a working memory task and then perform dynamical systems analysis on the ensuing optimized networks, wherein we find that four distinct dynamical mechanisms can emerge. Read More

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September 2021

Variation in the gene Tas1r3 reveals complex temporal properties of mouse brainstem taste responses to sweeteners.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Center for Medical Education, grid.252754.3Ball State University, Muncie, IN, United States.

The gene Tas1r3 codes for the protein T1R3, which dimerizes with T1R2 to form a sweetener-binding receptor in taste cells. Tas1r3 influences sweetener preferences in mice, as shown by work with a 129.B6-Tas1r3 segregating congenic strain on a 129P3/J (129) genetic background; members of this strain vary in whether they do or do not have one copy of a donor fragment with the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) allele for Tas1r3 (B6/129 and 129/129 mice, respectively). Read More

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September 2021

Acute exercise effects on inhibitory control and the pupillary response in young adults.

Int J Psychophysiol 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Psychology, Northeastern University, United States of America; Department of Physical Therapy, Movement, & Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, United States of America. Electronic address:

Previous research has established an impact of acute exercise on cognitive performance, which has inspired investigations into neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the observed benefits. Pupillary responses have been posited to reflect activation of such underlying neurobiological mechanisms. The current study recruited healthy young adults to investigate the effects of a single bout of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise on subsequent performance and pupillary responses during an inhibitory control task. Read More

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September 2021

Developmental changes in external and internal performance monitoring across middle childhood: An ERP study.

Int J Psychophysiol 2021 Sep 10;169:20-33. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Edna Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center, Pennsylvania State University, 314 Biobehavioral Health Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA; Human Development and Family Studies, Pennsylvania State University, 115 Health & Human Development Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address:

Performance monitoring is critical for learning and behavioral adaption and is supported by both externally and internally sourced information. Cross-sectional studies indicate an increase in internal error processing across childhood, suggesting a potential developmental transition from reliance on external information to reliance on internally developed models. However, little research has examined the association between these constructs longitudinally. Read More

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September 2021

EXPRESS: Visually Guided Movement with Increasing Time-on-Task: Differential Effects on Movement Preparation and Movement Execution.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Sep 10:17470218211048001. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Behavioural Sciences, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

Top-down cognitive control seems to be sensitive to the detrimental effects of fatigue induced by time-on-task (ToT). The planning and preparation of the motor responses may be especially vulnerable to ToT. Yet, effects of ToT specific to the different phases of movements have received little attention. Read More

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September 2021

Neural Encoding of the Reliability of Directional Information During the Preparation of Targeted Movements.

Front Neurosci 2021 24;15:679408. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Visual information about the location of an upcoming target can be used to prepare an appropriate motor response and reduce its reaction time. Here, we investigated the brain mechanisms associated with the reliability of directional information used for motor preparation. We recorded brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a delayed reaching task in which a visual cue provided valid information about the location of the upcoming target with 50, 75, or 100% reliability. Read More

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Dissociable contributions of phasic dopamine activity to reward and prediction.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(10):109684

Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA. Electronic address:

Sensory cues that precede reward acquire predictive (expected value) and incentive (drive reward-seeking action) properties. Mesolimbic dopamine neurons' responses to sensory cues correlate with both expected value and reward-seeking action. This has led to the proposal that phasic dopamine responses may be sufficient to inform value-based decisions, elicit actions, and/or induce motivational states; however, causal tests are incomplete. Read More

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September 2021

Electrocardiographic alterations by pneumothorax: a case-control study with review of the literature.

Swiss Med Wkly 2021 08 3;151:w30041. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Cardiology Department, Cantonal Hospital of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerlan.

Background: Numerous ECG alterations due to pneumothorax have been reported. The objective of the study was to establish the presence of ECG changes associated with pneumothorax in the literature, and in a cohort of patients with proven pneumothorax compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls.

Methods: A systematic review for ECG alterations associated with pneumothorax was performed. Read More

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Decoding Neural Activity in Sulcal and White Matter Areas of the Brain to Accurately Predict Individual Finger Movement and Tactile Stimuli of the Human Hand.

Front Neurosci 2021 17;15:699631. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research at Northwell Health, New York, NY, United States.

Millions of people worldwide suffer motor or sensory impairment due to stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, diabetes, and motor neuron diseases such as ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). A brain-computer interface (BCI), which links the brain directly to a computer, offers a new way to study the brain and potentially restore impairments in patients living with these debilitating conditions. One of the challenges currently facing BCI technology, however, is to minimize surgical risk while maintaining efficacy. Read More

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Two forms of short-interval intracortical inhibition in human motor cortex.

Brain Stimul 2021 Sep 1;14(5):1340-1352. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Clinical and Movement Neurosciences, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a predominantly anterior-posterior (AP) or posterior-anterior (PA) current direction over the primary motor cortex appear to activate distinct excitatory inputs to corticospinal neurons. In contrast, very few reports have examined whether the inhibitory neurons responsible for short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) are sensitive to TMS current direction.

Objectives: To investigate whether SICI evaluated with AP and PA conditioning stimuli (CS and CS) activate different inhibitory pathways. Read More

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September 2021

Draft genome analysis, poly-phasic study and lipid biosynthesis pathway of Scenedesmus sp. SVMIICT1.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Aug 19;341:125809. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences (BEES) Lab, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad 500007, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, India. Electronic address:

A comprehensive polyphasic evaluation of a microalgal isolate Scenedesmus sp. SVMIICT1 through morphological, biochemical, photosynthetic characterization, next-generation sequencing and lipid pathway analysis was reported. The strain was cultivated photo-autotrophically, where the maximum photosynthetic yield (F/F) of 0. Read More

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A multiscale sliding filament model of lymphatic muscle pumping.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.

The lymphatics maintain fluid balance by returning interstitial fluid to veins via contraction/compression of vessel segments with check valves. Disruption of lymphatic pumping can result in a condition called lymphedema with interstitial fluid accumulation. Lymphedema treatments are often ineffective, which is partially attributable to insufficient understanding of specialized lymphatic muscle lining the vessels. Read More

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September 2021

Psychological stress induced bladder overactivity in female mice is associated with enhanced afferent nerve activity.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 1;11(1):17508. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Centre for Urology Research, Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, 4229, Australia.

Psychological stress has been linked to the development and exacerbation of overactive bladder symptoms, as well as afferent sensitisation in other organ systems. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of water avoidance stress on bladder afferent nerve activity in response to bladder filling and pharmaceutical stimulation with carbachol and ATP in mice. Adult female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either water avoidance stress (WAS) for 1 h/day for 10 days or normal housing conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Artificial Intelligence Analysis of Mandibular Movements Enables Accurate Detection of Phasic Sleep Bruxism in OSA Patients: A Pilot Study.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 23;13:1449-1459. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

HP2 Laboratory, Inserm U1042, University Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, 38000, France.

Purpose: Sleep bruxism (SBx) activity is classically identified by capturing masseter and/or temporalis masticatory muscles electromyographic activity (EMG-MMA) during in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG). We aimed to identify stereotypical mandibular jaw movements (MJM) in patients with SBx and to develop rhythmic masticatory muscles activities (RMMA) automatic detection using an artificial intelligence (AI) based approach.

Patients And Methods: This was a prospective, observational study of 67 suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients in whom PSG with masseter EMG was performed with simultaneous MJM recordings. Read More

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[Statics and dynamics of psychopathies in the concept of Ε. Κraepelin].

Authors:
N Yu Pyatnitskiy

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(7):104-113

Mental Health Research Center, Moscow, Russia.

The concept of psychopathic personalities presented in the 8-th last lifetime edition of E. Kraepelin's textbook is analyzed. The special interest was guided by the fact that many types of psychopathic personalities were described by E. Read More

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September 2021

Membrane composition and lipid to protein ratio modulate amyloid kinetics of yeast prion protein.

RSC Chem Biol 2021 Apr 5;2(2):592-605. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Structural Biology & Bio-Informatics Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology 4, Raja S. C. Mullick Road Kolkata 700032 India

Understanding of prion aggregation in a membrane environment may help to ameliorate neurodegenerative complications caused by the amyloid forms of prions. Here, we investigated the membrane binding-induced aggregation of yeast prion protein Sup35. Using the combination of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) at single molecule resolution and other biophysical studies, we establish that lipid composition and lipid/protein ratio are key modulators of the aggregation kinetics of Sup35. Read More

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Effects of anterior thalamic nuclei stimulation on hippocampal activity: Chronic recording in a patient with drug-resistant focal epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2021 30;16:100467. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Neurology and Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, United States.

Implanted neurostimulation devices are gaining traction as palliative treatment options for certain forms of drug-resistant epilepsy, but clinical utility of these devices is hindered by incomplete mechanistic understanding of their therapeutic effects. Approved devices for anterior thalamic nuclei deep brain stimulation (ANT DBS) are thought to work at a network level, but limited sensing capability precludes characterization of neurophysiological effects outside the thalamus. Here, we describe a patient with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy who was implanted with a responsive neurostimulation device (RNS System), involving hippocampal and ipsilateral temporal neocortical leads, and subsequently received ANT DBS. Read More

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Scenting Entertainment: Virtual Reality Storytelling, Theme Park Rides, Gambling, and Video-Gaming.

Authors:
Charles Spence

Iperception 2021 Jul-Aug;12(4):20416695211034538. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Crossmodal Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

There has long been interest in both the tonic and phasic release of scent across a wide range of entertainment settings. While the presentation of semantically congruent scent has often been used in order to enhance people's immersion in a particular context, other generally less successful attempts have involved the pulsed presentation of a range of scents tied to specific events/scenes. Scents have even been released in the context of the casino to encourage the guests to linger for longer (and spend more), at least according to the results of one controversial study. Read More

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Left Atrial Strain and Compliance Correlate with Diastolic Dysfunction Grades and Complications during Pre-eclampsia: A Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography Study.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Geriatrics, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, China; Systems Biology and Medicine Center for Complex Diseases, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to investigate left atrium (LA) strain components in the assessment of cardiac function and its clinical correlates in pre-eclampsia (PE). With the use of speckle tracking echocardiography, phasic LA strain and (LASr)/(E/e'), the surrogate of LA compliance, were compared between healthy pregnant women (n = 70) and those with PE (n = 146) and among different diastolic dysfunction (DD) grades in PE. Receiver operating characteristic curves and logistic regression analysis were used to identify the role of strain components in distinguishing DD grades and predicting cardiac complications. Read More

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Surface electromyography for evaluating patients with oromandibular dystonia.

Cranio 2021 Aug 29:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Oral Medicine, Dental Science Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

To investigate myoelectric signals of dystonic activities in oromandibular dystonia (OMD) subjects using surface electromyography (EMG). Twelve OMD subjects were included in this study. Resting myoelectric activities of the superficial masseter, anterior temporalis, and anterior belly of the digastric muscle on both sides were monitored, and dystonic muscle contractions were recorded using surface EMG. Read More

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Pupillometry Reveals the Role of Arousal in a Postexercise Benefit to Executive Function.

Brain Sci 2021 Aug 7;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Department of Kinesiology, School of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6G 3K7, Canada.

A single bout of aerobic exercise improves executive function; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this improvement remains unclear. Here, we employed a 20-min bout of aerobic exercise, and at pre- and immediate post-exercise sessions examined executive function via pro- (i.e. Read More

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Age-related differences of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic transmission in human colonic smooth muscle.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Aug 25:e14248. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze,ed 16, Palermo, 90128, Italy.

Background: Enteric neurons undergo to functional changes during aging. We investigated the possible age-associated differences in enteric γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic transmission evaluating function and distribution of GABAergic receptors in human colon.

Methods: Mechanical responses to GABA and GABA receptor agonists on slow phasic contractions were examined in vitro as changes in isometric tension in colonic muscle strips from young (<65 years old) and aged patients (>65 years old). Read More

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Upper airway muscles: influence on obstructive sleep apnoea pathophysiology and pharmacological and technical treatment options.

Curr Opin Pulm Med 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCS, Sleep Disorders Center & Department of Cardiovascular, Neural and Metabolic Sciences, San Luca Hospital Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is highly prevalent with numerous deleterious effects on neurocognitive and cardiovascular health. It is characterized by collapse of the upper airway during sleep, due to the decrease in both basal and compensatory UA muscle activities. However, the leading treatment, continuous positive airway pressure, is often poorly tolerated. Read More

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Correction: Dissociable mappings of tonic and phasic pupillary features onto cognitive processes involved in mental arithmetic.

Authors:

PLoS One 2021 24;16(8):e0256798. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone. Read More

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Clinical Importance of Left Atrial Infiltration in Cardiac Transthyretin Amyloidosis.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

National Amyloidosis Centre, University College London, Royal Free Campus, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize left atrial (LA) pathology in explanted hearts with transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM); LA mechanics using echocardiographic speckle-tracking in a large cohort of patients with ATTR-CM; and to study the association with mortality.

Background: The clinical significance of LA involvement in ATTR-CM is of great clinical interest.

Methods: Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the presence, type, and extent of amyloid and associated changes in 5 explanted ATTR-CM atria. Read More

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Novel intrinsic neurogenic and myogenic mechanisms underlying the formation of faecal pellets along the large intestine of guinea-pigs.

J Physiol 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Discipline of Human Physiology, College of Medicine and Public Health Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Soft faecal material is transformed into discrete, pellet-shaped faeces at the colonic flexure. Here, analysis of water content in natural faecal material revealed a decline from cecum to rectum without significant changes at the flexure. Thus, pellet formation is not explained by changes in viscosity alone. Read More

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Norepinephrine as a spatial memory reset signal.

Behav Pharmacol 2021 Oct;32(7):531-548

Department of Psychology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Contextual information is represented in the hippocampus (HPC) partially through the recruitment of distinct neuronal ensembles. It is believed that reactivation of these ensembles underlies memory retrieval processes. Recently, we showed that norepinephrine input from phasic locus coeruleus activation induces hippocampal plasticity resulting in the recruitment of new neurons and disengagement from previously established representations. Read More

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October 2021

Normal Values of Left Atrial Size and Function and the Impact of Age: Results of the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography Study.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background: Left atrial (LA) evaluation includes volumetric and functional parameters with an abundance of diagnostic and prognostic implications. Solid normal reference ranges are compulsory for accurate interpretation in individual patients, but previous studies have yielded mixed conclusions regarding the effects of age, sex, and/or race. The present report from the World Alliance Societies of Echocardiography study focuses on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) measures of LA structure and function, with subgroup analysis by age, sex, and race. Read More

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