32,668 results match your criteria pharmacological nutritional


Gestational diabetes triggers postpartum cardiac hypertrophy via activation of calcineurin/NFAT signaling.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 22;11(1):20926. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 900 S Limestone, CTW 465, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA.

Population-based studies identified an association between a prior pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction later in life. It is however unclear whether GDM initiates this phenotype and what are the underlying mechanisms. We addressed these questions by using female rats that express human amylin (HIP rats) as a GDM model and their wild-type (WT) littermates as the normal pregnancy model. Read More

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October 2021

Adaptive translational pausing is a hallmark of the cellular response to severe environmental stress.

Mol Cell 2021 Oct;81(20):4191-4208.e8

Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, CWRU, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address:

To survive, mammalian cells must adapt to environmental challenges. While the cellular response to mild stress has been widely studied, how cells respond to severe stress remains unclear. We show here that under severe hyperosmotic stress, cells enter a transient hibernation-like state in anticipation of recovery. Read More

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October 2021

The Distribution and Sustainable Utilization of Buckwheat Resources under Climate Change in China.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Sep 30;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

Buckwheat is a promising pseudo cereal and its cultivation history can be traced back to thousands of years ago in China. Nowadays, buckwheat is not only an ordinary crop but also a symbol of healthy life because of its rich nutritional and pharmacological properties. In this research, the current suitable areas of 19 wild buckwheat species were analyzed by the MaxEnt model, which proved that southwestern China was the diversity center of buckwheat. Read More

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September 2021

Research Progression of the Genus : A Comprehensive Review on the Nutritional Value, Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicity.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Sep 30;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management (UESM), Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.

The genus Dennst. ex Endl. (Convolvulaceae) is a rich source of structurally diverse phytochemicals with therapeutic relevance. Read More

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September 2021

Plasma Membrane and Organellar Targets of STIM1 for Intracellular Calcium Handling in Health and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Cells 2021 Sep 23;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Neuroscience, Division of Pharmacology, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Naples "Federico II", 80131 Napoli, Italy.

Located at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) undergoes a complex conformational rearrangement after depletion of ER luminal Ca. Then, STIM1 translocates into discrete ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it directly interacts with and activates plasma membrane Orai1 channels to refill ER with Ca. Furthermore, Ca entry due to Orai1/STIM1 interaction may induce canonical transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) translocation to the plasma membrane, where it is activated by STIM1. Read More

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September 2021

Nutraceuticals for Peripheral Vestibular Pathology: Properties, Usefulness, Future Perspectives and Medico-Legal Aspects.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 18;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Operative Unit of Pharmacology and Pharmacovigilance, "Mater Domini" Hospital, Department of Health Science, University Magna Graecia, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.

Vestibular disorders may generate complex signs and symptoms, which may alter patients' balance and the quality of life. Dizziness and vertigo can strongly affect daily activities and relations. Despite the presence of conventional drugs, maneuvers, and surgery, another interesting therapeutic opportunity is offered by nutraceuticals. Read More

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October 2021

A Role for Peripheral Anandamide and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol in Short-Term Food Intake and Orexigenic Hypothalamic Responses in a Species with Continuous Nutrient Delivery.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 13;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Research Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Institute of Nutritional Physiology 'Oskar Kellner', Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a pivotal role in the complex control and regulation of food intake. Pharmacological ECS activation could improve health in energy-deficient stages by increasing food intake, at least in intermittent feeders. However, knowledge of the mechanism regulating appetite in species with continued nutrient delivery is incomplete. Read More

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October 2021

The Complex Interplay between Immunonutrition, Mast Cells, and Histamine Signaling in COVID-19.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 29;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

First Department of Critical Care Medicine and Pulmonary Services, Evangelismos General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece.

There is an ongoing need for new therapeutic modalities against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mast cell histamine has been implicated in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 as a regulator of proinflammatory, fibrotic, and thrombogenic processes. Consequently, mast cell histamine and its receptors represent promising pharmacological targets. Read More

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September 2021

Chronic Constipation: Is a Nutritional Approach Reasonable?

Nutrients 2021 Sep 26;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Clinical and Experimental Medicine-Rheumatology Unit, University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy.

Chronic constipation (CC) is one of the most common gastroenterological diagnoses in clinical practice. Treatment includes several steps, depending on the severity of symptoms. Lifestyle modifications and increased intake of fiber and water are suggested by most health professionals. Read More

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September 2021

N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Lipid Mediators as A Potential Immune-Nutritional Intervention: A Molecular and Clinical View in Hepatic Disease and Other Non-Communicable Illnesses.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 26;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Biomedical Basic Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile.

In recent years, the beneficial effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) intake on human health has been widely accepted in the field of immunonutrition. Today, we find a diversity of supplements based on n-3 PUFAs and/or minerals, vitamins and other substances. The main objective of this review is to discuss the importance of n-3 PUFAs and their derivatives on immunity and inflammatory status related to liver disease and other non-communicable illnesses. Read More

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September 2021

The Renaissance of Plant Mucilage in Health Promotion and Industrial Applications: A Review.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 24;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Wólczańska 171/173, 90-530 Lodz, Poland.

Plant mucilage is a renewable and cost-effective source of plant-based compounds that are biologically active, biodegradable, biocompatible, nontoxic, and environmentally friendly. Until recently, plant mucilage has been of interest mostly for technological purposes. This review examined both its traditional uses and potential modern applications in a new generation of health-promoting foods, as well as in cosmetics and biomaterials. Read More

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September 2021

Coffee Increases Post-Exercise Muscle Glycogen Recovery in Endurance Athletes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 23;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, Universidade de Brasília, Brasilia 70910-900, Brazil.

Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide and caffeine is known to improve performance in physical exercise. Some substances in coffee have a positive effect on glucose metabolism and are promising for post-exercise muscle glycogen recovery. We investigated the effect of a coffee beverage after exhaustive exercise on muscle glycogen resynthesis, glycogen synthase activity and glycemic and insulinemic response in a double-blind, crossover, randomized clinical trial. Read More

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September 2021

Epigenetic Regulation and Post-Translational Modifications of SNAI1 in Cancer Metastasis.

Authors:
Bo Dong Yadi Wu

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 14;22(20). Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Pharmacology & Nutritional Sciences and Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky School of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40506, USA.

SNAI1, a zinc finger transcription factor, not only acts as the master regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but also functions as a driver of cancer progression, including cell invasion, survival, immune regulation, stem cell properties, and metabolic regulation. The regulation of SNAI1 occurs at the transcriptional, translational, and predominant post-translational levels including phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination. Here, we discuss the regulation and role of SNAI1 in cancer metastasis, with a particular emphasis on epigenetic regulation and post-translational modifications. Read More

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October 2021

Effects of Manganese on Genomic Integrity in the Multicellular Model Organism .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 9;22(20). Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Food Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Wuppertal, Gaußstraße 20, 42119 Wuppertal, Germany.

Although manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element, overexposure is associated with Mn-induced toxicity and neurological dysfunction. Even though Mn-induced oxidative stress is discussed extensively, neither the underlying mechanisms of the potential consequences of Mn-induced oxidative stress on DNA damage and DNA repair, nor the possibly resulting toxicity are characterized yet. In this study, we use the model organism to investigate the mode of action of Mn toxicity, focusing on genomic integrity by means of DNA damage and DNA damage response. Read More

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October 2021

Oxidative Stress in Optic Neuropathies.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Sep 28;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Eye Translational Research Unit, Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Increasing evidence indicates that changes in the redox system may contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple optic neuropathies. Optic neuropathies are characterized by the neurodegeneration of the inner-most retinal neurons, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and their axons, which form the optic nerve. Often, optic neuropathies are asymptomatic until advanced stages, when visual impairment or blindness is unavoidable despite existing treatments. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of Silibinin A on Bioenergetics in PC12APP Cells and Mitochondrial Membrane Properties in Murine Brain Mitochondria.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Sep 24;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Age-related multifactorial diseases, such as the neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease (AD), still remain a challenge to today's society. One mechanism associated with AD and aging in general is mitochondrial dysfunction (MD). Increasing MD is suggested to trigger other pathological processes commonly associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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September 2021

Methylphenidate modulates interactions of anxiety with cognition.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 10 21;11(1):544. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Section on Neurobiology of Fear and Anxiety, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

While a large body of literature documents the impairing effect of anxiety on cognition, performing a demanding task was shown to be effective in reducing anxiety. Here we explored the mechanisms of this anxiolytic effect by examining how a pharmacological challenge designed to improve attentional processes influences the interplay between the neural networks engaged during anxiety and cognition. Using a double-blind between-subject design, we pharmacologically manipulated working memory (WM) using a single oral dose of 20 mg methylphenidate (MPH, cognitive enhancer) or placebo. Read More

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October 2021

Methylmercury chronic exposure affects the expression of DNA single-strand break repair genes, induces oxidative stress, and chromosomal abnormalities in young dyslipidemic APOE knockout mice.

Toxicology 2021 Oct 17:152992. Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Cancer Cytogenomics Laboratory, Drug Research, and Development Center, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants, especially when methylated, forming methylmercury (MeHg). MeHg affects DNA repair, increases oxidative stress, and predisposes to cancer. MeHg neurotoxicity is well-known, but recently MeHg-associated cardiovascular effects were recognized. Read More

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October 2021

Effect of spironolactone on pharmacological treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Second Medical Clinic, School of Medicine, Ippokration Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was recently renamed to metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) to better characterize its pathogenic origin. NAFLD represents, at least in western societies, a potential epidemic with raising prevalence. Its multifactorial pathogenesis is partially unraveled and till now there is no approved pharmacotherapy for NAFLD. Read More

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October 2021

Litchi ( Sonn.): a comprehensive review of phytochemistry, medicinal properties, and product development.

Food Funct 2021 Oct 19;12(20):9527-9548. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Macao, China.

Since ancient times, litchi has been well recognized as a functional food for the management of various ailments. Many bioactives, including flavanoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, and lignans, have been identified from litchi with a myriad of biological properties both and . In spite of the extensive research progress, systemic reviews regarding the bioactives of litchi are rather scarce. Read More

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October 2021

Fasting drives the metabolic, molecular and geroprotective effects of a calorie-restricted diet in mice.

Nat Metab 2021 Oct 18;3(10):1327-1341. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Calorie restriction (CR) promotes healthy ageing in diverse species. Recently, it has been shown that fasting for a portion of each day has metabolic benefits and promotes lifespan. These findings complicate the interpretation of rodent CR studies, in which animals typically eat only once per day and rapidly consume their food, which collaterally imposes fasting. Read More

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October 2021

Pharmacological Modulation of Immune Responses by Nutritional Components.

Pharmacol Rev 2021 Oct;73(4):198-232

Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands (M.T.v.D., G.F., J.G., S.B.); and Danone Nutricia Research, 3584 CT, Utrecht, The Netherlands (J.G.)

The incidence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has increased over the last few decades, and one of the major contributors to this is lifestyle, especially diet. High intake of saturated fatty acids and low intake of dietary fiber is linked to an increase in NCDs. Conversely, a low intake of saturated fatty acids and a high intake of dietary fiber seem to have a protective effect on general health. Read More

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October 2021

Stratification by obesity class, rather than age, can identify a higher percent of children at risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic dysfunction.

Pediatr Obes 2021 Oct 18:e12862. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Background: An increasing number of clinical practice guidelines recommend screening children with obesity for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, there is limited evidence regarding what parameters should be used to initiate the screening.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity class rather than age group can identify a higher percent of children at risk of NAFLD as assessed by abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Read More

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October 2021

Do low molecular weight antioxidants contribute to the Protection against oxidative damage? The interrelation between oxidative stress and low molecular weight antioxidants based on data from the MARK-AGE study.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Oct 16;713:109061. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Dept of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801, Israel; Holon Institute of Technology, Holon, 5810201, Israel. Electronic address:

A redox steady state is important in maintaining vital cellular functions and is therefore homeostatically controlled by a number of antioxidative agents, the most important of which are enzymes. Oxidative Stress (OS) is associated with (or/and caused by) excessive production of damaging reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), which play a role in many pathologies. Because OS is a risk factor for many diseases, much effort (and money) is devoted to early diagnosis and treatment of OS. Read More

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October 2021

Price Dispersion of Vitamin D Supplements Over Time: An Initiative for Prescriber Education.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar-Apr;25(2):142-147. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Paediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated of L.N. Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency mandates prescribing an appropriate form of vitamin D that allows attainment of sufficiency in a cost-effective manner. We aimed to compare vitamin D products in Indian market in terms of composition and cost in 2020 with 2013 to understand price dispersion over 7 years.

Methods: Constituents, formulations, and prices of 'branded' and generic vitamin D products were sourced from various drug information compendia and online sources. Read More

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September 2021

Phytochemical and Therapeutic Potential of (L.) Osbeck: A Review.

J Evid Based Integr Med 2021 Jan-Dec;26:2515690X211043741

PAP Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong, Brunei Darussalam.

or , widely recognized as Pomelo is widely cultivated in many countries because of their large amounts of functional, nutraceutical and biological activities. In traditional medicine, various parts of this plant including leaf, pulp and peel are used for generations as they are scientifically proven to have therapeutic potentials and safe for human use. The main objective of this study was to review the different therapeutic applications of and the phytochemicals associated with its medicinal values. Read More

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October 2021

Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and current uses of underutilized Xanthoceras sorbifolium bunge: A review.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Oct 14;283:114747. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Food Science and Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China; Co-innovation Center for the Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The Plant Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge (X. sorbifolia) has a long history of medicinal use as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine to deal with sterilizing, killing sperm, stabilizing capillary, hemostasis, lowering cholesterol, rheumatism, and pediatric enuresis. Additionally, X. Read More

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October 2021

Holistic review of polysaccharides isolated from pumpkin: Preparation methods, structures and bioactivities.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China; National Engineering Research Center for Fruits and Vegetables Processing, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

Pumpkin polysaccharides have arrested researchers' attention in fields of food supplements for healthy product and traditional Chinese medicine due to their multiple bioactivities with non-toxic and highly biocompatible. This review emphatically summarized recent progresses in the primary and spatial structural features, various bioactivities, structure-to-function associations, different preparation techniques, and absorption characteristics across intestinal epithelial and in vivo bio-distribution of pumpkin polysaccharides. Additionally, current challenges and future trends in development of pumpkin polysaccharides were pointed out. Read More

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October 2021

The anti-diabetic effects of betanin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through modulating AMPK/SIRT1/NF-κB signaling pathway.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Oct 16;18(1):92. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Background: In the last few years, the effects of bioactive food components have received much attention because of their beneficial effects including decreasing inflammation, scavenging free radicals, and regulating cell signaling pathways. Betanin as a potent antioxidant has been previously reported to exhibit anti diabetic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of betanin on glycemic control, lipid profile, hepatic function tests, as well as the gene expression levels of 5' adenosine monophosphate‑activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF‑κB) in streptozocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Read More

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October 2021

Catheter-based ultrasound renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension: the randomized, controlled REQUIRE trial.

Hypertens Res 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital and University College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Renal denervation is a promising new non-pharmacological treatment for resistant hypertension. However, there is a lack of data from Asian patients. The REQUIRE trial investigated the blood pressure-lowering efficacy of renal denervation in treated patients with resistant hypertension from Japan and South Korea. Read More

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October 2021