35,331 results match your criteria pharmacological interventions


The ethnogeographic variability of genetic factors underlying G6PD deficiency.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Sep 19:105904. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Dr Margarete Fischer-Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany. Electronic address:

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency caused by genetic variants in the G6PD gene, constitutes the most common enzymopathy worldwide affecting approximately 5% of the global population. While carriers are mostly asymptomatic, they are at substantial risk of acute hemolytic anemia upon certain infections or exposure to various medications. As such, information about G6PD activity status in a given patient can constitute an important parameter to guide clinical decision-making. Read More

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September 2021

Mobile health solutions for atrial fibrillation detection and management: a systematic review.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center and Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Aim: We aimed to systematically review the available literature on mobile Health (mHealth) solutions, including handheld and wearable devices, implantable loop recorders (ILRs), as well as mobile platforms and support systems in atrial fibrillation (AF) detection and management.

Methods: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The electronic databases PubMed (NCBI), Embase (Ovid), and Cochrane were searched for articles published until 10 February 2021, inclusive. Read More

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September 2021

NAFLD in the Elderly.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 13;16:1633-1649. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Metabolic Liver Research Program, I. Department of Medicine, University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly prevalent disease globally. Current estimates are that 24% of the adult population, thus, one billion individuals worldwide, are affected. Interestingly, the prevalence of fatty liver seems to peak between 40─50 years of age in males and 60─69 years in females, often slightly decreasing in older (>70 years) cohorts. Read More

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September 2021

High-dimensional profiling reveals phenotypic heterogeneity and disease-specific alterations of granulocytes in COVID-19.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Oct;118(40)

Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Since the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, increasing evidence suggests that the innate immune responses play an important role in the disease development. A dysregulated inflammatory state has been proposed as a key driver of clinical complications in COVID-19, with a potential detrimental role of granulocytes. However, a comprehensive phenotypic description of circulating granulocytes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients is lacking. Read More

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October 2021

Treatment of bipolar disorders in older adults: a review.

Ann Gen Psychiatry 2021 Sep 21;20(1):45. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Bereich Forschung & Wissenschaft, LWL-Klinik, Marsbruchstr. 179, 44287, Dortmund, Germany.

Background: Old age bipolar disorder has been an orphan of psychiatric research for a long time despite the fact that bipolar disorder (BD)-I and II together may affect 0.5-1.0% of the elderly. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of sofosbuvir-based DAAs on changes in lower-density lipoprotein in HCV patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 21;21(1):984. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 201, Section 2, Shi-Pai Road, Taipei, 112, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Previous studies reported worsened lipid profiles in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based DAAs on changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in HCV patients.

Methods: A systematic review of articles published before 31 May 2021 was conducted by searching MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and CINAHL Plus. Read More

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September 2021

Circadian Rhythms, Disease and Chronotherapy.

J Biol Rhythms 2021 Sep 22:7487304211044301. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chronobiology and Sleep Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Circadian clocks are biological timing mechanisms that generate 24-h rhythms of physiology and behavior, exemplified by cycles of sleep/wake, hormone release, and metabolism. The adaptive value of clocks is evident when internal body clocks and daily environmental cycles are mismatched, such as in the case of shift work and jet lag or even mistimed eating, all of which are associated with physiological disruption and disease. Studies with animal and human models have also unraveled an important role of functional circadian clocks in modulating cellular and organismal responses to physiological cues (ex. Read More

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September 2021

Potential Use of Senolytics for Pharmacological Targeting of Precancerous Lesions.

Mol Pharmacol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commowealth University, United States.

Senescence is a cell state that contributes to several homeostatic and pathological processes. In addition to being induced in somatic cells in response to replicative exhaustion (replicative senescence, RS) as part of organismal aging, senescence can also be triggered prematurely by oncogene hyperactivation or tumor suppressor dysfunction (oncogene-induced senescence, OIS). Consequently, senescent cells comprise a major component of precancerous lesions of skin, oral mucosa, nasopharynx, prostate, gut, and lung. Read More

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September 2021

Pathogenesis, Etiology and Treatment of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome.

Neurochirurgie 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is associated with persistent lower back pain after and despite one or more surgical interventions. A number of factors underlie and maintain FBSS and successful management of pain chiefly depends on identifying them. Pharmacological, surgical, and non-surgical therapeutic measures are taken to treat the pain. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical management of withdrawal from benzodiazepine anxiolytic and hypnotic medications.

Authors:
David S Baldwin

Addiction 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Benzodiazepines continue to be prescribed widely in the management of patients with insomnia or anxiety disorders, despite the availability and acceptability of alternative pharmacological and psychological treatments. Many patients will experience adverse effects during treatment and considerable distress when the dosage is reduced and stopped. Management of benzodiazepine withdrawal includes measures to prevent the development of dependence, careful attention to underlying medical conditions, medication consolidation and gradual dosage reduction, accompanying psychological interventions, occasional prescription of concomitant medication, and relapse prevention with on-going support to address psychosocial stressors. Read More

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September 2021

Antimicrobial resistance at the livestock-human interface: implications for Veterinary Services.

Rev Sci Tech 2021 Aug;40(2):511-521

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global public health issue, but it also jeopardises the effectiveness of antimicrobials as a means of curing infections in animals that threaten their health, welfare and productivity. Several reports show that infections in humans caused by antimicrobial-resistant pathogens may be linked to antimicrobial use (AMU) and AMR in food-producing animals; however, to what extent this happens is unknown. Use of antimicrobials drives the emergence of AMR, therefore, their extensive over-use and misuse in livestock is of concern. Read More

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Brain changes underlying progression of speech motor programming impairment.

Brain Commun 2021 2;3(3):fcab205. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Brain & Mind Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Aquired apraxia of speech is a disorder that impairs speech production, despite intact peripheral neuromotor function. Its pathomechanism remains to be established. Neurodegenerative lesion models provide an unequalled opportunity to explore the neural correlates of apraxia of speech, which is present in a subset of patients diagnosed with non-semantic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Read More

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September 2021

Cerebrovascular alterations in NAFLD: Is it increasing our risk of Alzheimer's disease?

Authors:
Anna Hadjihambi

Anal Biochem 2021 Sep 16:114387. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Institute of Hepatology London, Foundation for Liver Research, 111 Coldharbour Lane, London, SE5 9NT, UK. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multisystem disease, which has been classified as an emerging epidemic not only confined to liver-related morbidity and mortality. It is also becoming apparent that NAFLD is associated with moderate cerebral dysfunction and cognitive decline. A possible link between NAFLD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has only recently been proposed due to the multiple shared genes and pathological mechanisms contributing to the development of these conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Recovery of horses from general anaesthesia: a systematic review (2000-2020) of risk factors and influence of interventions during the recovery period.

Equine Vet J 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

School of Veterinary Science, Leahurst Campus, University of Liverpool, Neston, Wirral, CH64 7TE, UK.

Background: In equine anaesthesia, the recovery period is a time of considerable risk and has been the focus of prolific research. Risk factors, including age, type and duration of procedure or temperament may influence recovery quality. Unfortunately, the anaesthetist is unable to control for these factors, therefore various pharmacological interventions and recovery methods have been developed with the objective of improving recovery quality. Read More

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September 2021

Non-pharmacological Treatment for Children With Functional Constipation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Pediatr 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of non-pharmacological interventions for the treatment of childhood functional constipation functional constipation.

Study Design: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating non-pharmacological treatments in children with functional constipation which reported at least one outcome of the core outcome set for children with functional constipation.

Results: 52 RCTs were included with 4668 children, aged between 2 weeks and 18 years, of whom 47% were females. Read More

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September 2021

Gut dysbiosis, defective autophagy and altered immune responses in neurodegenerative diseases: Tales of a vicious cycle.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 15:107988. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK; Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK. Electronic address:

The human microbiota comprises trillions of symbiotic microorganisms and is involved in regulating gastrointestinal (GI), immune, nervous system and metabolic homeostasis. Recent observations suggest a bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain via immune, circulatory and neural pathways, termed the Gut-Brain Axis (GBA). Alterations in gut microbiota composition, such as seen with an increased number of pathobionts and a decreased number of symbionts, termed gut dysbiosis or microbial intestinal dysbiosis, plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS)-related disorders. Read More

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September 2021

Which factors increase informal care hours and societal costs among caregivers of people with dementia? A systematic review of Resource Utilization in Dementia (RUD).

Health Econ Rev 2021 Sep 18;11(1):37. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Centre for Elderly and Nursing Home Medicine, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Nearly 19 million people across OECD countries are living with dementia, and millions of family caregivers are affected by the disease. The costs of informal care are estimated to represent 40-75% of the total dementia cost exceeding formal care time and medical costs.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the methodological quality and factors associated with high informal care hours per month that increase societal costs, and to identify what type of interventions may alleviate the entire burden of informal and formal caregiving. Read More

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September 2021

Brief Report: Improving Fellow Performance of the Pharmacology Section of the American Society of Clinical Oncology In-Training Exam.

J Cancer Educ 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 170 Manning Drive, CB #7305, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Though the electronic medical record has streamlined the process for ordering chemotherapy and reduced medical error, it has come at the cost of potentially hindering medical oncology fellows' acquisition of basic principles of chemotherapy administration. Recognizing the need for improving fellow knowledge and comfort level in chemotherapy prescription, we created an anticancer therapeutics curriculum for fellows at the University of North Carolina (UNC). The curriculum, which was comprised of a self-assessment, review session, and chemotherapy writing workshop, was offered voluntarily to all UNC fellows planning to take the medical oncology boards. Read More

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September 2021

Yoga for Substance Use: A Systematic Review.

J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Sep-Oct;34(5):964-973

From the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (NW, JM, SG, RZ); West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV (AT).

Introduction: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are complex interactions between various genetic, environmental, developmental, and social factors. Yoga is recommended as a nonmainstream treatment for many health conditions, including SUDs.

Methods: Five databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated yoga as an intervention in adults with any type of substance use disorder. Read More

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Cancer and diabetes: the interlinking metabolic pathways and repurposing actions of antidiabetic drugs.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Sep 17;21(1):499. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cancers are regarded as one of the main causes of death and result in high health burden worldwide. The management of cancer include chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy. The chemotherapy, which involves the use of chemical agents with cytotoxic actions is utilised as a single treatment or combined treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane and S-ketamine on the human metabolome: A randomised trial using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Eur J Anaesthesiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

From the Department of Peri-operative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital (AJN, LTL, TTL, REK, JMS, KJV, HS), Department of Internal Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku (AJN), Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital (LTL, HS), Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku (REK, KJV, AR), Department of Intensive Care, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (JWL), Department of Clinical Medicine, Biostatistics, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku (TJV), Nightingale Health Ltd, Helsinki, Finland (HTK, VA), Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden (KJV, AR), Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital (MN), Individualized Drug Therapy Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki (MN), Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (MP), Research Program for Clinical and Molecular Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (MP), and Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland (HS).

Background: Pharmacometabolomics uses large-scale data capturing methods to uncover drug-induced shifts in the metabolic profile. The specific effects of anaesthetics on the human metabolome are largely unknown.

Objective: We aimed to discover whether exposure to routinely used anaesthetics have an acute effect on the human metabolic profile. Read More

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September 2021

Why use nutraceutical strategies for the Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Dept Systems Medicine, Policlinico Tor Vergata (PTV) Foundation, Rome, Italy.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional bowel disorder, often stress-related, identified by many abdominal symptoms, the most important of which is the chronic visceral abdominal pain. Therefore, IBS commonly impairs the quality of life of patients, moreover it is frequently linked to depressive and anxiety symptoms. The treatment of IBS primarily focuses on symptoms relief. Read More

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September 2021

Current neurologic treatment and emerging therapies in CDKL5 deficiency disorder.

J Neurodev Disord 2021 Sep 16;13(1):40. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Mailstop 3063, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD) is associated with refractory infantile onset epilepsy, global developmental delay, and variable features that include sleep, behavioral disturbances, and movement disorders. Current treatment is primarily symptom-based and informed by experience in caring for this population.

Methods: We describe medication and non-medication approaches to treatment of epilepsy and additional key neurologic symptoms (sleep disturbances, behavioral issues, movement disorders, and swallowing dysfunction) in a cohort of 177 individuals meeting criteria for CDD, 154 evaluated at 4 CDKL5 Centers of Excellence in the USA and 40 identified through the NIH Natural History Study of Rett and Related Disorders. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of Medication Reconciliation at Hospital Admission on 30-Day Returns to Hospital: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2124672. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland.

Importance: According to international recommendations, hospitals should use medication reconciliation to prevent medication errors and improve patient safety.

Objective: To assess the impact of medication reconciliation at hospital admission on patient-centered health care outcomes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This parallel group, open-label randomized controlled trial used centralized randomization to the intervention group (ie, individuals with medication reconciliation) or control group (ie, individuals with only standard, physician-acquired medication history). Read More

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September 2021

Carfilzomib, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone Followed by Lenalidomide Maintenance for Prevention of Symptomatic Multiple Myeloma in Patients With High-risk Smoldering Myeloma: A Phase 2 Nonrandomized Controlled Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Importance: High-risk smoldering myeloma has a 5-year risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma of approximately 75%. Treatment with lenalidomide decreases the risk of progression; however, novel triplet regimens are superior, and earlier disease may be more treatment sensitive.

Objective: To evaluate the use of carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) with lenalidomide maintenance therapy as early intervention in high-risk smoldering myeloma and to determine the rates of minimal residual disease (MRD)-negative complete response (CR). Read More

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September 2021

Diagnostic Accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET for Pelvic Nodal Metastasis Detection Prior to Radical Prostatectomy and Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection: A Multicenter Prospective Phase 3 Imaging Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Ahmanson Translational Theranostics Division, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: The presence of pelvic nodal metastases at radical prostatectomy is associated with biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy.

Objective: To assess the accuracy of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) 68Ga-PSMA-11 positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging for the detection of pelvic nodal metastases compared with histopathology at time of radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This investigator-initiated prospective multicenter single-arm open-label phase 3 imaging trial of diagnostic efficacy enrolled 764 patients with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer considered for prostatectomy at University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Los Angeles from December 2015 to December 2019. Read More

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September 2021

Modeling glioblastoma heterogeneity as a dynamic network of cell states.

Mol Syst Biol 2021 Sep;17(9):e10105

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Tumor cell heterogeneity is a crucial characteristic of malignant brain tumors and underpins phenomena such as therapy resistance and tumor recurrence. Advances in single-cell analysis have enabled the delineation of distinct cellular states of brain tumor cells, but the time-dependent changes in such states remain poorly understood. Here, we construct quantitative models of the time-dependent transcriptional variation of patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Read More

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September 2021

Perception, magnitude, and implications of cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer survivors: Study from a developing country.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Jul-Sep;17(4):998-1002

Department of Surgical Oncology, Max Institute of Cancer Care, Max Super Specialty Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Background: We have analyzed perceptions, magnitude, interventions adopted, and overall implications of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) in breast cancer survivors (BCSs).

Methodology: BCSs who attended follow-up clinic at our institute between January and June 2018 were asked to fill a questionnaire focused on assessing an individual's perception, severity, potential causes, implications on quality of life, and measures taken to deal with CRF.

Results: Sixty-five patients were included. Read More

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September 2021